Organizational behavior Flashcards

Terms Definitions
active listening
Shareholders, customers, suppliers, governments, and any other groups with a vested interest in the organization.
Situational characteristics that reduce the importance of the leader while simultaneously providing a direct benefit to employee performance.
The study of words
scientific management
Involves systematically partitioning work into its smallest elements and standardizing tasks to achieve maximum efficiency.
(vs percieving)
-plan ahead
-handle deadlines well
-well organized
-enjoy making decisions
-like to have life under control
-may seem demanding
Production Deviance
Intentionally reducing organizational efficiency of work output.
conflict occuring between organizations
Interorganizational conflict
negotiation stages
1) preparation2) exchanging information3) bargaining4) closing and commitment
cult of efficiency fredrick taylor, classical management
Occurs when a consequence decreases the frequency or future probability of a behavior.
Using logical arguments, facts, and emotional appeals to encourage people to accept a request or message

-       The employee tries to reverse or undo his feeling by doing something that indicates the opposite feeling: "I think I'll show her how good of a boss she is at our next meeting by bringing her donuts."
Shared Leadership
A dynamic, interactive influence process among individuals in groups for which the objective is to lead one another to the achievement of group or organizational goals or both.
The process of changing an organization's structure.
work complexity
work requirements (knowledge, skills, abilities) tax/exceed your capabilities
relationship between trust and organizational commitment
strong positive
Programmed decisions
decisions that become somewhat automatic because people's knowledge allows them to recognize and identify a situation and the course of action that needs to be taken.
Superficial and often temporary form of conflict resolution
spatial ability
capabilities associated with visual and mental representation and manipulation of objects in space1) spatial orientation2) visualization
different decisions on how the question is framed
Social responsibility
Recognition that organizations have significant influence on the social system, which must be considered and balanced in all organizational actions.
MBTI Can't
1. Descriptive not Prescriptive
2. Doesn't measure intelligence
3. Beware of stereotyping
4. No right/wrong answers
5. Skepticism
Differences in which of the following may result in different people giving different responses to identical emotion-provoking stimuli? a. intensity b. consensus c. consistency d. pervasiveness e. personality
e. personality
action learning
A variety of experiential learning activities in which employees are involved in a “real, complex, and stressful problem,” usually in teams, with immediate relevance to the company.
the value of a reward or outcome
Psychological Contract
An individual's perception about the terms and conditions of a reciprocal exchange with another party.
Conflict triangle
conflicting parties involve a third person rather than dealing directly with each other.
Social Learning Theory
People learn by observing others
Cognitive Complexity
The underlying assumption that those high in cognitive complexity process information differently and perform certain tasks better than less cognitively complex people
When targets of influence are willing to do what the leader asks but do it with a degree of ambivalence.
Positional Rotation
Training that gives members actual experiences carrying out the responsibilities of their teammates.
Matrix Structure
A complex form of organizational structure that combines a functional and multi-divisional grouping.
equity theory
a theory that individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate inequalities
emotional labor
the effort, planning, and control needed to express organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions.
moral awareness
occurs when an authority recognizes that a moral issue exists in a situation or that an ethical code or principle is relevant to the circumstance
Cognitive Distortion
allows you to restore balance mentally, without altering your behavior in any way
Managers are more like to (synthesize or analyze) data as they search for the big picture in order to redefine problems and link problems with a variety of solutions
the world is free from national boundaries
psychological contracts
reflect employees beliefs about what they owe the organization and what the organization owes them
members remain committed to ideas they bring to table
Leadership role in which a leader prepares, guides, facilitates, cheers, and directs the team but does not play the game
cost-reward comparison
Process in which employees identify and compare personal costs and rewards to determine the point at which they are approximately equal.
Not expressing a minority opinion in order to maintain the appearance of group cohesiveness
what managers do
plan, organize, staff, direct, and control
communities of practice
Informal groups bound together by shared expertise and passion for a particular activity or interest.
Content Theories of Motivation
identify internal factors influencing motivation
The capacity to a person, team, or organization to keep a more powerful person or group in the exchange relationship
emotional intelligence
ability for an individual to know one's emotions, mange them, motivate one's self, recognize emotions in others, and manage relationships with others
Incremental Change
Builds on the existing ways of operating to enhance or extend them in new directions
Delegative Style
A leadership style where the leader gives the employee the responsibility for making decisions within some set of specific boundary conditions.
A passive response to a negative work event in which one publicly supports the situation but privately hopes for improvement.
fundamental attribution error
the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behaviors of others
emotional dissonance
the conflict between required and true emotions
extrinsic motivation
motivation that is controlled by some contingency that depends on task performance e
how is learning linked with org commitment
weak positive
Many problems go unsolved in this view
Garbage can
What is systematic study?
-looks at relationships- scientific evidence- predicts behaviors
the use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers toward goal achievement
Self-serving bias
Tendency to claim undue credit for one's own s uccess and minimize personal responsiblity for problems
why do organizations look similar?
coercive forces/legal requirements, normative forces (expectations of what org should be), and imitation/diffusion. Conforming to expectations does not necessarily bring efficiency (deal w/ this by having org appearance be a disguise and or conducts their activities according to efficiency.
unity of command
unbroken line of authority from the top to the bottom or "scalar"
Two Factor Theory
Factors that lead to job satisfaction are distinct from those that lead to job dissastisfaction (motivation-hygeine)
(ERG Theory)
Desire to grow and use one's abilities to their fullest potential
The inferiority complex
Alfred Adler; an acute feeling of inferiority, often resulting shyness or (through compensation) exaggerate aggressiveness
Adjourning Stage
when you leave and the project is complete, members take that good feeling with them to next project.
Work Specialization
The degree to which tasks in an organization are divided into separate jobs.
Hammer effect
If there is a conflict with management and a union, and the union has a strike plan, they will use it. If you have a hammer, you will find a way to use it.
The many ways info moves through and is exchanged in organizations
Organizational communication
instrumental support
refers to the help people receive that can be used to address the stressful demand directly
Dysfunctional Effect
Unfavorable impact of an action or a change on a system
horizontal dimention of job enrichment
skill variety, task identity, task significance
Describe Fiedler’s Contingency Theory, and be sure to describe the relevant components of a situation. Also, what is the role of the LPC in this theory?
Fiedler noted that there are two styles of leadership: task and relationship oriented. He said that depending on the situation, one or the other is better. The situation is defined by leader-member relations. He said it’s easier to change the situation than the leader’s style. The LPC is the Least Preferred Coworker, which is used to classify leaders by a LPC scale. It's a projective technique through which a leader is asked to think about a person with whom he or she can work least well. Those who classify LPC in positive terms is relationship oriented and those who classify in negative are task oriented
Behaviorally anchored Rating ScalesBARS)
Use of examples of critical incidents to evaluate an employee's job performance behaviors directly.
emotion focused coping
refers to the various ways in which people manage their own emotional reactions to stressful demands
value in diversity problem-solving approach
diversity in teams is beneficial because it provides for a larger pool of knowledge and perspectives from which a team can draw as it carries out its work
Four types of managerial activity (of Luthans’ Study)
Traditional management, Communication, Human resource management, Networking
Diversity of developmental relationships
the variety of people in a network used for developmental assistance.
steps of job analysis
1) list the activities involved in a job it generates 2) each activity on the list is rated by subject matter experts according to things like the importance and frequency of the activity3) the activities that are rated highly in terms of their importance and frequency are retained and used to define task performance
Erin works on a software help desk. After being yelled at by a customer about the state of her company’s software, she becomes angry, and has to take a short break to calm down. What makes her anger an emotion, rather than a mood?a. it is a simple, unam
c. it has a contextual stimulus
is one of the biggest challenges is
appealing to people that are different
does learning impact decision making, and what is decision making
1) yes2) refers to the process of generating and choosing from a set of alternatives to solve a problem
growth responsibilityachievement
JObs offering achievement, recognition, stimulating work, responsibility, and advancement.
dissatisfaction expressed through allowing conditions to worsen
The organizations informal communication network.
Stable, long-lasting beliefs about what is important in a variety of situations.

-       The employee is vaguely aware of the thought or feeling, but tries to hide it: "We just had a conversation about work, as usual."
Written predictions that specify relationships between variables.
Foundations for gaining integrative agreements
expressions of personality that influence behavior through preferences for certain environments and activities
behavioral skills
facilitate team decision making, communicate effectively, exercise power wisely, negotiate effectively, manage organization change
A psychological concept in which people experience more self-determination, meaning, competence, and impact regarding their role in the organization.
Sources of Conflict
Incompatible goals, Different values/beliefs, communication problems, task interdependence, scarce resources, and ambiguous rules
Body Language: standing up
Im in charge
Collaborative web sites to which individuals contribute material and edit previous postings by others
Employee assault or endangerment from which physical and psychological injuries may occur.
psychological strains
depression, anxiety, anger, hostility, reduced self-confid, irritability, memory loss
results when decision makers select the first acceptable alternative considered
Conflict occurs between hierarchical levels
Vertical conflict
sensory abilities
capabilities associated with vision and hearing
Organizational socialization
Continuous process of transmitting key elements of an organization's culture to it's employees
What energizes you
Beyond redesigning the nature of the work itself, and involving employees in decisions, another approach to making the work environment more motivating is to alter work arrangements. Which of the following is designed to give an employee greater control o
a. flextime
mental models
The broad worldviews or “theories in-use” that people rely on to guide their perceptions and behaviors.
ERG Theory
three basic needs - existence, relatedness, and growth - influence behavior
Legitimate Power
The capacity to influence others through formal authority
One party perceives its interests are being opposed or set back by another party
Reward Power
Obtaining compliance with promised or actual rewards
Communication Channels
The pathways through which messages are communicated
360-degree Feedback
A performace evaluation system that uses ratings provided by supervisors, coworkers, subordinates, customers and then employees themselves.
The degree to which rules and procedures are used to standardize behaviors and decisions in an organization.
When a subcultures' values do not match those of the organization.
self-serving bias
the tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors
procedural justice
percieved fairness of the procedures used to decide the distribution of resources
whistle blowing
occurs when former or current employees expose illegal or immoral actions by their organization
Fixed Interval
most common; workers are rewarded after a certain amount of time, and the length of time between reinforcement periods stay the same
Three types of Judgmental Heuristics
Availability, Representativeness, Anchoring/Adjustment
the process of arousing and sustaining goa- directed behavior
how is conscientiousness linked with job performance
moderate positive
the target refuses to perform the influence request and puts forth an effort to avoid having to do it
Extrinsic Motivators
External rewards that occur appart from work
Everest Takeaways
1. Many levels of problems (individual, group, organizational)
2. Leader behavior shapes effectiveness of groups
3. Leadership skills distinct from technical skills
turn of the centry
industrialism, mass production, size and inefficiency
scientific method
A set of principles and procedures that help researchers to systematically understand previously unexplained events and conditions.
Organizational justice
reflects the extent to which people perceive that they are treated fairly at work.
Impression Management
the practice of actively shaping one's public image
Intrinsic Motivation
Motivation that is felt when task performance serves as its own reward
Ex. Enjoyment, Accomplishment, Knowledge Gain
Involves getting out of the office to communicate directly with others
Task Interdependence
The degree to which team members interact with and rely on other team members for information, materials, and resources needed to accomplish work for the team.
Occupational Information Network
An online database containing job tasks, behaviors, required knowledge, skills and abilities.
self-fulfilling prophecy
a situation in which one person inaccurately perceives a second person and the resulting expectations cause the second person to behave in ways consistent with the original perception
forces within a person that affect the direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behavior
role overload
occurs when the number of demanding roles a person holders is so high that the person simply cannot perform some or all of the roles effectively
Routine problems arise on a regular basis and can be addressed through these standard responses
Programmed decisions
Masculinity vs. Femininity
reflects reference for achievement vs. values close relationships
team building roles
behaviors that influence the quality of the teams social climate - harmonizer, encourager, compromiser
Belief that a reward will be received once a task is accomplished.
c. What are some consequences of politics in organizations?
Book pp. 400-411
do they expect to perform well if they have better effort
Normative Social Influence
So motivated to belong that it overrides consideration of other factors
No Dissatisfaction
(Hygiene Factors)
Jobs with good company policies and administration, technical supervision, salary, interpersonal realtionships with supervisors, and working conditions.
Emotional Contagion
One person can "catch" or "be infected by" the emotions of another person
Conflict Resolution
Occurs when the reasons for a conflict are eliminated
Nominal Group Technique
A team process used to generate creative ideas, whereby team members individually write down their ideas and then take turns sharing them with the group.
self-perception theory
attitudes are used after the fact to make sense out of an action that has already occured
secondary appraisal
centers on the issue of how people cope with the various stressors they face
Indicates the capacity of a channel to convey info
Channel richness
availability bias
is the tendency for people to base their judgments on information that is easier to recall
Conceptual skill
Ability to think in terms of models, frameworks, and broad relationships
basic leadership model
knowledge of ob X behavioral skills = leadership effectiveness
Cognitive Component
the beliefs or ideas one has about an object or situation
rational decision making model
a decision making model that describes how individuals should behave in order to maximize some outcome
Goal Setting Theory
views goals as the primary drivers of the intensity and persistence of effort.
emotion focused cognitive coping strategies
1) avoiding, distancing and ignoring2) looking for the positive in the negative3) reappraising
Criteria for Team Effectiveness
1. Team's output meets need of users
2. Team becomes more effective at working together over time
3. Team members find work satisfying
ARTICLE: The Impact of Leadership Modes. . . (Markulis)
Based on studies, team leadership didn't significantly impact team. Designated leader was more effective for equal work, rotating leader wad better for team communication and cooperation, emerging leader was lowest scoring.Team leader's Role: Facilitate Team Discussions, Encourage max contribution to debates, motivate team by actively listening and reminding the team of the mission
what should mission statements be evaluated on (5)
1) clarity2) relevance 3) significance 4) believability5) urgency
Which one of the following is not one of the guidelines for enriching jobs? a. form job redesign units b. establish client relationships c. open feedback channels d. combine tasks e. expand jobs vertically
a. form job redesign units
Describe the interpersonal role of a LEADER?
responsible for the motivation and direction of employees
speed and flexibility of closure
being able to pick out a pattern of information quickly in the presence of distracting information
Big Five Model
Conscientiousnes: propensity to structure and organize life
Emotionality(calm vs. neurotic, worried, anxious)
maintenance roles
relationship-building group bahavior
primary appraisal
is this stressful?
Systematic and progressive application of positive reinforcement as behavior comes closer to the desired behavior
Job characteristics associated with job satisfaction
Job Satisfaction (cont'd)
What Matters Most? (Rank of items that satisfies employees)
Work itself
evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events
Ex. honesty, politeness, courage
instrumental values
Performance monitoring
Observing behavior, inspecting output, or studying documents of performace indicators
enron culture
hired aggressive execs, pressured execs, weak control, yes man, bonuses, little teamwork, profits at all costs
The relatively stable pattern of behaviors and consistent internal states that explain a person’s behavioral tendencies.
Mild in intensity
Lasts for an extended period of time
Not explicitly directed at or caused by anything
Anything that interferes with the effectiveness of communication
Assisting coworkers who have heavy workloads, aiding them with personal matters, and showing new employees the ropes when they are first on the job.
phsyiological strains
immune system, cardiovascular sys, musculoskeletal sys, gastrointestinal sys
consists of updates on employee progress toward goal attaining
Manager obtains the necessary info from subordinates or other group members and then decides on the problem's solution. The manager may or may not tell subordinates what the problem is before obtaining the info from them. Subordinates provide the necessar
Felt conflict
Tension creates motivation to act
deductive reasoning
general rules to solve problems(law)
best alternative to a negotiated agreement
Goal Setting
Establishment of targets and objectives for successful performance, both long-run and short-run.
A freewheeling, face to- face meeting where team members generate as many ideas as possible, piggyback on the ideas of others, and avoid evaluating anyone’s ideas during the idea-generation stage.
_____ emotions are learned; they are not innate.a. Feltb. Displayedc. Conditionald. Exposede. Suppressed
b. Displayed
Johari Window
The model of personal and interpersonal understanding that encourages disclosure and feedback to increase the open area and reduce the blind, hidden, and unknown areas of oneself.
negative inequity
comparison in which another person recieves greater outcomes for similar inputs
Inoculation effect
A persuasive communication strategy of warning listeners that others will try to influence them in the future and that they should be wary of the opponent's arguments
Glass ceiling
Invisible barrier blocking women and minorities from top management positions.
Article: Solving Problems Creatively
*define problem*generate alternative solutions*evaluate and pick best solution*implement and follow up on solution. (These are rational steps)
A form of psychological withdrawal in which one's work is interrupted by random thoughts or concerns.
Refers to where decisions are formally made in organizations.
expert power
influence based on special skills knowledge
job enrichment
giving employees more say in scheduling, coordinating, and planning their work
positive reinforcement
positive outcome follows a desired behavior
vicarious experiences
taking into account their observations and discussions with others who have performed such tasks
Tactic Knowledge
what employees can typically learn only through experience
Process of translating an idea or thought into a message consisting of verbal, wrriten, or nonverbal symbols
discovered the existence of the informal organization
Hawthorn Studies
independent forms model
various withdrawal behaviors are uncorrelated with one another and occur for different reasons
profit sharing
System that distributes to employees some portion of the profit of business
Hierarchy of Needs
Philosophy, developed by Abraham Maslow, that different groups of needs have a specific order of priority among most people, so that one group of needs precedes another in importance.
Realistic Conflict Theory
Explains hostilities between real groups that have competing interests or a history of conflict
Which of the following desires would most likely be common to a worker in China, Australia, Kenya, Canada and Kuwait?a. interesting workb. higher payc. more flexibilityd. telecommuting optionse. advancement
a. interesting work
negative reinforcement
Occurs when the removal or avoidance of a consequence increases or maintains the frequency or future probability of a behavior.
The Need for Achievement
(McClelland's Need Theory)
Desire to Achieve desired outcomes
Interpersonal conflict management styles
Problem solving, avoiding, forcing, yielding, compromising
Out-group Exchange
A partnership characterized by a lack of mutual trust, respect, and liking.
Job Analysis
A process by which an organization determines requirements of specific jobs.
Political Skill
The ability to understand others and the use of that knowledge to influence them to further personal or organizational objectives.
Distributive Bargaining
A negotiation strategy in which one person gains and the other person loses.
B's relationship to A when A possesses something B requires
a state in which employees feel a total immersion in the task at hand
Occurs when people are reluctant to communicate bad news
Mum effect
the use of an actual behavior that causes behavioral or attitudinal changes in others
pattern of behavior that a person is expected to display in a given context
Social rank of a person in a group
If conflict is good, how to create productive conflicts?
leaders as shapers of meaning
charismic, visionary, high confidence - frame issues for followers,
contingency approach
The idea that a particular action may have different consequences in different situations.
What is continuing to support a failing course of action?
Escalation of commitment.
Self Efficacy
The belief that a person has the capabilities needed to succeed.
People arrive at these beliefs by:
Past accomplishments - I did it before
Vicarious experiences - I saw Susie do it
Verbal persuasion - My teacher told me I could
Emotional cues - I believe I can do it
Team Building
Designed to gather and analyze data on the functioning of a group and implement changes to increase its operating effectiveness
Organizational Chart
A drawing that represents every job in the organization and the formal reporting of relationships between those jobs.
High consideration
Low Initiating Structure
Emphasizes reaching the goal while welcoming suggestions and encouraging consensus.
External Comparison
they refer to someone in a different company.
Neutral third party works with persons involved in a negotiation to help them resolve impasses and settle disputes
Alternative dispute resolution
what big 5 trait is most accounted for by genetics
(1) What is negotiation?
--A process through which two or multiple sides attempt to reach agreement on terms of exchanging so that actual exchanges can take place.
In what part of the brain do all emotions originate? a. neocortex b. cortex c. stem d. hypothalamus e. limbic system
e. limbic system
Counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs)
Types of behavior that harm employees and the organization as a whole
Barrier to change
barrier to diversity
barrier to acquisitions and mergers
What is a downside to culture?
Occur when people are discouraged from considering alternatives viewed as inappopriate by cultural standards or inconsistent with prevailing norms
Cultural and environmental blocks
Myers- Briggs Type Indicator
evaluates individuals on the basis of four types of preferences1) extraversion2) sensing3) thinking4) judging
The recallability trap
We base predictions of future on past events. Dramatic events are more frequently recalled and disproportionally influence our perceptions.
expectancy theory
the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual
What is resource-based view (RBV)?
-org derive above normal profits from owning resources that are valuable, rare, insubstitutable, unimitable
Which of the following concepts is inconsistent with the expectancy theory of motivation? a. Self-interest is pursued. b. Performance and rewards are related. c. Attractive rewards will motivate. d. One’s inputs and outputs are compared to another
d. One’s inputs and outputs are compared to another’s.
What is the Boundaryless organizational design? its main characteristics? its main advantages and disadvantages?
or that seeks to eliminate the chain of command, have limitless spans of control, and replace departments with empowered teams and information technology. Eliminate horizontal, vertical, and interorganizational boundaries. By removing boundaries: management flattens the hierarchy, status & rank are minimized. Advantage-breaks down barriers to external constituencies and barriers created by geography. Networked computers allow ppl to comm. across intra- & interorg boundaries.
(2) What are the major arguments of the trait-based approach to leadership?
Basic arguments
(1) Good leaders all have some stable characteristics.
(2) Therefore, good leaders are born and can not be made.
(3) The research focus is to identifying and measuring these traits and use these traits to select future leaders.
Three categories of traits
(1) Physical features
(2) Ability characteristics
(3) Personality traits
(1) No single trait consistent predicts effectiveness of leadership.
(2) No empirical evidences for the existence of leadership profile
(3) We simply can not wait for the birth of the great man (Sarcastic??)
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