Organizational Behavior 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
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Similarity/attraction theory
Alderfer's ERG Theory
Frustration Regression
exit
dissatisfaction expressed through behavior directed toward leaving the organization
Punishment
Unfavorable consequence that accompanies behavior and discourages repetition of the behavior.
Content Theories
Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory
Alderfer's ERG Theory
McClelland's Need Theory
Herzber's Motivator-Hygiene Theory
Body Language: leaning forward
I'm interested
Sabotage
Purposeful destruction of equipment, organizational processes, or company products.
Common negotiation pitfalls
fixed pieescalating commitmentOverconfidence in own positionsCommunication problems: telling and hearing
Communication
Interpersonal exchange of information and understanding
1940's
group dynamics, bureaucracy: max weber " rules should be clear and written down", management is learned
job enrichment
Employees are given more responsibility for scheduling, coordinating, and planning their own work.
negotiation
two or more conflicting parties attempt to resolve their divergent goals by redefining the terms of their interdependence


-       The employee comes up with a rational explanation to justify the situation, while denying his feelings: "I know that she takes a special interest in my success as an employee: that’s why she gives me a lot of feedback, sometimes a bit h
rationalization
Nonverbal Communication
Occurs through facial expressions, body motions, eye contact, and other physical gestures
Telling
When the leader provides specific instructions and closely supervises performance.
problem-focused coping
behavioral: working harder, seeking assistance, acquiring additional resourcescognitive: strategizing, self-motivation, changing priorities
strains
the negative consequences that occur when demands tax or exceed a person's capacity or resources
Manager shares the problem with subordinates as a total group and engages the group in consensus seeking to arrive at a final decision
G
Involve misunderstandings over such things as customer jurisdiction or scope of authority
Domain ambiguities
best team size
4 to 5 people
accommodating
- low assertiveness, high cooperation- occurs when one party gives in to the other and acts in a completely unselfish way
Discrimination
Biased treatment of other individuals and groups
Outgroup homogeneity
Tendency to perceive greater uniformity in members of outgroups relative to one's own group
The Japanese are increasingly considering job sharinga. to increase flexibilityb. to avoid layoffsc. to add more part-time positionsd. to accommodate working motherse. none of the above
b. to avoid layoffs
empathy
A person’s ability to understand and be sensitive to the feelings, thoughts, and situations of others.
Job rotation
Moving employees from one specialized job to another
Substitutability
The extent to which people dependent on a resource have alternatives
Devil's Advocacy
assigning someone the role of critic
Participative management
involving employees in various forms of decision making.
Ethnocentrism
The tendency to believe one's culture and its values are superior to those of others
Cyberloafing
A form of psychological withdrawal in which employees surf the Internet, e-mail, and instant message to avoid doing work-related activities.
Functional Structure
An organizational form in which employees are grouped by the functions they perform for the organization.
Theory Y
the assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction
distributive justice
percieved fairness in the individuals ratio of outcomes to contributions compared with a comparison others ratio of outcomes to contributions
continuous reinforcement
1) specific consequence follows each and every occurrence of a desired behavior 2) high potential level of performance
Stage in creative thinking in which people respond to flashes of insight and recognize when all pieces to the puzzle fit
illumination
-represents interpretation of right and wrong- influence our perception of th world around us- provide understanding of the attitudes and behavior- imply that some behaviors or outcomes are preferred over others
Importance of values
how is conscientiousness linked with org commitment
moderate positive
distinctiveness
does this person tend to act differently in other circumstances
Appraisal Interview
Session in which supervisors provide feedback to their employees on past performance, discuss problems, and invite a response.
MBTI: T v F
How we make decisions
Your workforce is diverse in terms of their needs for benefits. Jim is married with two children and his wife is at home full time. Janet is single and supports her widowed mother. Bob is married and his wife has a high-paying job. You decide that you wan
d. modular
communities of practice
Informal groups bound together by shared expertise and passion for a particular activity or interest.
Interaction Justice
Extent to which people feel fairly treated when procedures are implemented
Power
The capacity of a person, team, or organization to influence others
Operant Conditioning
Learning by observing the link between voluntary behavior and consequences that follow it
 
(antecedent) Condition that precedes behavior (manager sets specific and difficult goal)
(behavior) Action performed by employee (employee meets assigned goal)
(consequence) Result that occurs after behavior (employee receives a bonus)
Efficient Communication
Low cost in its use of resources
Taskwork Processes
The activities of team members that relate directly to the accomplishment of team tasks.
Active Management-by-exception
When the leader arranges to monitor mistakes and errors actively and takes corrective action when required.
profiling
a form of stereotyping in which a group of individuals is singled out- typically on the basis of race or ethnicity
general adaptation syndrome
model of stress experience, consisting of three stages: alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion
goals
objective or aim of an action and typically refer to attaining a specific standard of proficiency
Encourages people to say what they really mean
Active listening
How to achieve consistency?
alter attitudeschase behaviordevelop a rationalization
deep level diversity
- less easy to observe initially
Intrinsic motivators
Internal rewards that a person feels when performing a job, so that there is a direct and immediate connection between work and reward.
b. Is politics good or bad? Ethical?
Book pp. 400-411
what is an ethical issue
moral confusion, moral disagreement, conflicting "goods"
Goal Setting Theory
Specific goals produce a higher level of output than does the generalized goal
Informal group
formed by friends or those with common interest
Performance - Prove Orientation
Focus on demonstrating competence so that others think favorably of them
Integrative Negotiation
Focuses on the merits of the issues, and the parties involved try to enlarge the available pie rather than stake claims to certain portions of it
Team Process Training
The use of team experiences that facilitates the team's ability to function and perform more effectively as an intact unit.
organizational justice
an overall perception of what is fair in the workplace, comprised of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice
self set goals
the internalized goals that people use to monitor their own task progress
anchoring
rely too heavily on one trait or peice of information
Integrative approach question:
How can the resource best be used?
Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO)
Provision of equal opportunities to secure jobs and earn rewards in them, regardless of conditions unrelated to job performance
hersey & blanchard situational model
assumed that leaders can change styles, styles must fit the situation which is highly based on the maturity of those you are leading. Includes: telling, selling, participating, and delegating
Ohio State Studies
Can teach someone two traits and they can learn to become a leader. these two traite are....
High/Low consideration behavior
High/Low initiating structure behavior
Goal commitment
the degree to which a person accepts a goal and is determined to try to reach it
goal attainment
the degree to which a person accepts a goal and is determined to try and reach it
In group favoritism
Tendency to favor members of one's own group over members of other groups
Life Cycle Theory of Leadership
A theory stating that the optimal combination of initiating structure and consideration depends on the readiness of the employees in the work unit.
Informal communication channels
Do not follow the chain of command or organizational structure.
You graduated from college two years ago and began working at Hampstead Electronics. You have received good performance evaluations and a raise. You just found out that a recent college graduate with no experience has been hired at a higher salary than yo
d. you will not work so hard
What are the stages of the Conflict Process
1) Potential opposition or incompatibility
- antecedents

2) Cognition and personalization
- perception of conflict

3) Intentions
4) Behaviors (Behavioral manifestation)
5) Outcome

(CHECK BOOK FOR ALL)
(2) What are the major arguments of the trait-based approach to leadership?
Basic arguments
(1) Good leaders all have some stable characteristics.
(2) Therefore, good leaders are born and can not be made.
(3) The research focus is to identifying and measuring these traits and use these traits to select future leaders.
Three categories of traits
(1) Physical features
(2) Ability characteristics
(3) Personality traits
Limitations
(1) No single trait consistent predicts effectiveness of leadership.
(2) No empirical evidences for the existence of leadership profile
(3) We simply can not wait for the birth of the great man (Sarcastic??)
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