Organizational Behavior 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Systems of rites
Scenario Technique
Speculative forecasting method
3 dimensions of trustworthiness
Levels of OB Analysis
rejection by other group members
Socialized power
Directed at helping others
material symbols
How employees learn culture
Theory X
workers have little ambition
Leader's employee orientation, which reflects concern about employees' human needs.
reasons for groups/teams
complex, interdependent, flexible labor force, faster response
implicit favorite
The decision maker’s preferred alternative against which all other choices are judged.
Knowledge Management
Impelmenting systems and practices that increase the sharing of knowledge and information throughout an organization.
Job Satisfaction (Cont'd)
What satisfies employees?
What are values?
Work itself
Values are those things that people consciously or subconciously want to seek or attain
Article: Hot Groups
lively, high-achieving, dedicated group usually small with members turned on by a challanging task. Lotsa energy because payoff will hopefully be big, temporary, short lived, eat, sleep, live for task. Intellectual, Intensity, Integrity, Exchange
A collective pool of experience, wisdom, and knowledge created by people that benefits the organization.
Emotional Labor:
Having to suppress emotions/feelings to successfully do job tasks (flight attendant)
defined as the characteristics or attributes of a trustee that inspire trust
Adds elements of personality and spontaneity to decision making
Application of behavioral science knowledge in a long range effort to improve an organization's ability to cope with change in its external environment and increase its problem-solving capabilities
Org Development
conventional personality
enjoys organizing, counting or regulating people or things. tends to be careful, conservative, self controlled and structured
represents the belief that successful performance will result in some outcome(s)
Actively working to unleash the abilities of subordinates and encouraging them to become capable of self-leadership
evaluation apprehension
When individuals are reluctant to mention ideas that seem silly because they believe (often correctly) that other team members are silently evaluating them.
In equity theory, individuals assess the _____. a. cost-benefit ratio b. efficiency-effectiveness trade-off c. quantity-quality trade-off d. outcome-input ratio e. pareto efficient outcome
d. outcome-input ratio
job enlargement
Increasing the number of tasks employees perform within their job.
Janis's term for a cohesive in-group's unwillingness to realistically view alternatives
win-lose orientation
The belief that conflicting parties are drawing from a fixed pie, so the more one party receives, the less the other party will receive
type of negotiation: integrative
outcome: win-win
motivation: joint gain
interests: congruent
Initiating Structure
Organizing and defining what group members should be doing.
Look at an issue from different perspectives (survey- broad, interview- deep, observation- direct)
Multi-Divisional Structure
An organizational form in which employees are grouped by product, geography, or client.
An influence tactic in which the influencer enlists other people to help influence the target.
The jargon, slang, and slogans used within an organization.
A form of psychological withdrawal in which one verbally chats with coworkers about non-work topics.
affective commitment
an emotional attachment to the organizations and a belief in its values
secual harassment
unwelcome conduct of sexual nature that detrimentally affects the work environment or leads to adverse job related consequences for its victims
abusive supervision
sustained display of hostile verbal and nonverbal behaviors, excluding physical contact
Performance-avoid orientation
focus on demonstating their competence so that others will not think poorly of them
Antecedent Conditions
set the conditions from which conflicts are likely to develop
What are the 3 interpersonal roles?
1. F
a set of energetic forces that originates both within and outside an employee, initiates work related effort, and determines its direction, intensity and persistence
Strength of a person' preference for receiving a reward.
production blocking
A time constraint in team decision making due to the procedural requirement that only one person may speak at a time.
Merit-based pay plans are based ona. union negotiationsb. performance appraisal ratingsc. company profitsd. company productivity improvements e. company stock performance
b. performance appraisal ratings
projection bias
A perceptual error in which an individual believes that other people have the same beliefs and behaviors that we do.
Goal commitment
Amount of commitment to achieving a goal
Constructive Conflict
occurs when team members debate their different perceptions about an issue in a way that keeps the conflict focused on the task rather than people
Observable Artifacts
Espoused Values
Basic Assumption
The Three layers of organizational culture
The ability to develop new ideas and to discover new ways of looking at problems and opportunities that differ from typical views
Team Task Roles
Behaviors that directly facilitate the accomplishment of team tasks.
normative commitment
an obligation to remain with the organization for moral or ethical reasons
deep acting
trying to modify one's true inner feelings based on display rules
programmed decision making
decisions that have become somewhat automatic because their knowledge allows them to identify and react
the belief that the authority wants to do good for the tustor, apart from any selfish or profit centered motives
the belief that exerting a high level of effort will result in the successful performance of some task.
Person or group trying to communiate with someone else
Info source
effects of hindrance stressors on job performance
weak negative
Lower-order needs
Needs levels 1 and 2 (physiological and safety/security) on the Maslow hierarchy of needs
Managerial grid
Concerns for people vs. concerns for production
fundamental attribution error
when you tend to overestimate internal causes and underestimate external causes
social learning theory
A theory stating that much learning occurs by observing others and then modeling the behaviors that lead to favorable outcomes and avoiding the behaviors that lead to punishing consequences.
Value attainment
the extent to which a job allows fulfillment of one's work value.
Hierarchy Culture
a culture that has an internal focus and values control over flexibility.
thrust compete
means customer focus, productivity, enhancing competiveness
ends market share, profitability, goal achievement.
Leader-staff Teams
A type of team that consists of members who make recommendations to the leader who is ultimately responsible for team decisions.
Project Team
A team formed to take on one-time tasks, most of which tend to be complex and require input from members from different functional areas.
Equation for the value-precept theory
Dissatisfaction=(VWant – V¬Have) X (VImportance)
role ambiguity
refers to a lack of information about what needs to be done in a role, as well as unpredictability regarding the consequences of performance in that role- often experienced by new employees
Internal Comparison
they refer to someone in the same company
Helps determine how an org may be improved and start action toward improvement
Confrontation meeting
personality and cultural values
reflect the various traits and tendencies that describe how people act, with commonly studied traits including extraversion
 Major characteristics of charismatic leadership
Ability to identify deficiency in status quo
Ability to formulate an idealized vision
Extensive use of articulation and impression management skills
Ability to instill value into followers and influence followers’ value and self-conception (Is Kobe a charismatic leader? How about coach K?)
Use of unconventional and innovative methods to achieve their vision
Sensitivity to environments constraints
Sensitivity to follower needs
Willingness to take risks and assume responsibility
Willingness to sacrifice
People who are in good moodsa. are more creative.b. produce more ideas.c. produce ideas others think are original.d. identify more creative options.e. all of the above
e. all of the above
Goldman's basic argument that primal leadership operates best through:
emotional intelligent leaders who create resonance (Having a lasting presence or effect; enduring)
job satisfaction
a persons evaluation of his or her job and work context
Organized anarchy
Firm or division of a firm in a transition characterized by rapid change and lack of a legitimate hierarchy
goal setting theory
views goals as the primary drivers of the intensity and persistence of effort
What sort of goals does Management By Objectives (MBO) emphasize?a. tangible, verifiable and measurableb. achievable, controllable and profitablec. inspirational, teachable and creatived. challenging, emotional and constructivee. hierarchical, a
a. tangible, verifiable and measurable
What is variable ratio reinforcement
(Best method) random reward of good behavior
What is the Simple structure design? its main characteristics? its main advantages and disadvantages?
low degree of departmentalization, wide span of control, authority centralized in a single person, little formalization. “flat” org, only 2/3 vertical levels. Advantage: simple structure, fast, flexible, inexpensive. Disadvantage: difficult to maintain in anything other than small organizations. Low formalization is inadequate as comp grows.
Theory X and Theory Y
Theory X: employees hate work and will avoid it so employees must be corrected with punishment
Theory Y: employees can view work as naturally as rest and play and they will be good if they are committed to objectives
What is Formal structural power? and what are some major factors of it?
--Determined by formal positions in organizational hierarchies
--Coercive Power: A power base dependent on fear
--Reward Power: Compliance achieved based on the ability to distribute rewards that others view as valuable
--Legitimate Power: The power a person receives as a result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy of an organization; formal authority to control & use organizational resources; mutual agreement of authority
--Information Power: Power that comes from access to and control over information
(4) What are the major arguments of the contingency approach to leadership
Basic arguments
--There is no one leadership style that succeeds in all situations. Certain leadership behaviors will be effective in some situations but not in others.
--The task is to identify the fit between leadership behaviors and situations.
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