Organizational Behavior exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
phanatasia
"making-visible"
perception
biographical features, personality, values & attitudes, ability
Neutralizers
Situational characteristics that reduce the importance of the leader and do not improve employee performance in any way.
forming
understand boundaries of team
values
Stable, long-lasting beliefs about what is important in a variety of situations
leadership traits
1)drive (achievement, ambition, energy, tenacity)
2)leadership motivation (personalized vs socailized)
3) honesty & integrity
4)self-confidence
5)cognitive ability
6)knowledge of the business
Organic Organizations
Flexible, adaptive, outward-focused organizations that thrive in dynamic environments.
Decision Making Steps
1)Recognize/define the problem/opportunity2) Identify/analyze alternative, and estimate their effects on problem/opp3) Choose preferred action4) Implement action5) Evaluate results and follow up
collaboration
- high assertiveness, high cooperation- both parties work together- most effective- win win
trust
A psychological state comprising the intention to accept vulnerability based upon positive expectations of the intent or behavior of another person. (4) (10)
learning
A relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of a person’s interaction with the environment.
Emotions
IntenseLast for only a few minutesClearly directed at (and caused by) someone or some circumstanceEmotions are always about something!!!!
feeling
(vs thinking)
 
-worry how everybody is coping
-monitor emotions, help solve conflicts, encourage others
-may not want to give negative feeback
-focus decision on underlying values
Transformational Change
Radically shifts the fundamental character of an organization
Teamwork Processes
The interpersonal activities that promote the accomplishment of team tasks but do not involve task accomplishment itself.
Top Management
Senior executives help establish behavioral norms that are adopted by the organization
sabbitical
gives employees the opportunity to take time off from work to engage in an alternative activity
Instrumentality
the belief that successful performance will results in some outcomes
Expressing rudeness when using email or other forms of electronic communication
Flaming
physical abilities
1) strength2) stamina3) flexibility and coordination4) psychomotor abilities 5) sensory abilities
group mechanisms
1) characteristics and diversity2) team processes and communication
Imposter phenomenon
Belief that one's personal capabilities are not as great as other people believe them to be.
Rob Parson Themes
Individual Contributor v Manager/Leader
1. Different Demands/Skills
2. Technical skills important in getting your first job
3. Interpersonal skills essential to being successful and advancing
Interplay between skills and context: interpersonal relationships consequential for outcomes at the individual, group & organizational level.
equity theory
people don't like getting screwed overinputs = effort, skills, experience & knowledgeoutputs = rewards, promotions
categorical thinking
The mostly unconscious process of organizing people and objects into preconceived categories that are stored in our long-term memory
Job Enlargement
Putting more variety into a job
Types of Motivation
Extrinsic motivation Motivation that is controlled by some contingency that depends on task performanceIntrinsic motivation Motivation that is felt when task performance serves as its own reward
Change Agent
Anyone who possesses enough knowledge and power to guide and facilitate the organizational change effort
Behavioral Modeling
Employees observe the behavior of others
Employees learn from what they observe
Employees repeat what they observe
Rational Persuasion
Uses facts, special knowledge, and rational argument to create change
Team States
Specific types of feelings and thoughts that coalesce in the minds of team members as a consequence of their experience working together.
creativity
the ability to produce novel and useful ideas
What is Job Enrichment?
vertical improvement, increased ownership and autonomy for the job
moral intent
reflects an authority's degree of commitment to the moral course of action
ways to reduce strains
1) relaxation techniques2) cognitive-behavioral techniques3) health and wellness programs
Impact
the sense that a person's actions "make a difference"- that progress is being made toward fulfilling some important purpose.
Representativeness heuristic
bases a decision on similarities between the situation at hand and stereotypes of similar occurrences
Describe External Perspectives?
examining surrounding external events and environmental forcesexternal events, behavioral consequences and environmental fctors
harmonizer
steps in to resolve differences among teammates
learning orientation
building competence is deemed more important than demonstrating competence
Social system
Complex set of human relationships interacting in many ways
Status anxiety
Employee's feelings of being upset because of differences between their actual and desired status level.
Affective Conflict
Attack the person not the idea
adam smith
if everyone specializes in one small part then you can get good at it and mass produce it
Rokeach Value Framework
Terminal - desirable end states (comfort, excitement, peace, beauty)
Instrumental - desireable means for achieving terminal values (ambitious, capable, clean)
divergent thinking
Involves reframing a problem in a unique way and generating different approaches to the issue.
Job Involvement
Extent to which an individual is immersed in his or her present job.
Body Language: sitting at a round table
everybody's equal
Managerial Wisdom
The ability to perceive variations in the environment and an understanding of the social actors and their relationships
Consideration
A pattern of behavior where the leader creates job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for employee ideas, and consideration of employee feelings.
Meta-analysis
A method that combines the results of multiple scientific studies by essentially calculating a weighted average correlation across studies (with larger studies receiving more weight).
halo effect
drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic
What is variable interval reinforcement?
Evaluation time is random
competence
captures a persons belief in his or her capability to perform work tasks successfully - pride and masterry
Availability heuristic
bases a decision on recent events relating to the situation at hand
What is intuition study?
-gut feelings- individual observation- commonsense
reward power
occurs when someone has control over the resources or rewards another person wants
gross body coordination
ability to synchronize the movements of the body, arms, etc to do something while the whole body is in motion
Situational leadership model
Theory of leadership that suggests that a leader's style should be determined by matching it with the taks-related development (maturity) level of each subordinate.
Howell (1977): socialized vs. personalized charismatic leadership
--Socialized: egalitarian behaviors, emphasis on collective interests, develop and empower others
--Personalized: personal dominance, authoritarian behaviors, emphasis on leaders’ self-interests, exploitation of others
Group Decision Making: Advantages
More knowledge to draw on
Creativity
Greater Understanding
Greater Acceptance of Final Solution
Initially setting pay levels requires balancinga. the company’s budgetb. supply and demand of laborc. internal and external equityd. job worth and demande. job worth and internal equity
c. internal and external equity
Job design
Changing the content or process of a specific job to increase job satisfaction and performance
Body Language: sitting next to someone
I'm on your side
Double Loop Learning
Was this the right goal for me?
Person-organization Fit
The degree to which a person's values and personality match the culture of the organization.
Power effect
If your roommate has M&M's and you like them, he has power over you.
specific difficult goals
result in higher levels of performance than assigning no goals
Compromise the ability of decision makers to achieve complete certainty and otherwise operate according to the classical model
Information deficiencies and overload
The US Cultural Differences are...
1. Individualism2. Low Power Distance3. Low Uncertainty Avoidance4. Masculinity5.Short Term Orientation
problem sensitivity
ability to sense that theres a problem right now or likely to be one in the near future
At-risk pay
Amount of employee pay that will not be received if employee does not achieve certain individual performance targets.
sociotechnical systems (STS) theory
A theory stating that effective work sites have joint optimization of their social and technological systems, and that teams should have sufficient autonomy to control key variances in the work process.
What are the five communication skills of effective supervisors and managers?
Expressiveness, informative, empathy, sensativity, and persusasion
Time-driven model of leadership
A model that suggests that seven factors, including the importance of the decision, the expertise of the leader, and the competence of the followers, combine to make some decision-making styles more effective than others in a given situation.
family time demands
refer to the time that a person commits to participate in an array of family activities and responsibilities
problem focused cognitive coping strategies
1) strategizing 2) self motivation3) changing priorities
b. How can dependence and thereby power difference be reduced? (three strategies)
--Psychological adjustment: change the motivation for something
--Find alternative way to obtain something
--Cooptation strategy
(1) Dyadic strategy
--Figure out what A wants and see if A depends on B for that
--Intentionally create A’s dependence on B
(2) Triadic strategy

(3) Group strategy: coalition formation
The "Four-D" Model of Appreciative Inquiry
Discover (Identifying the best of "what is.")-> Dreaming (Envision "what might be.")-> Designing (Engage in dialogue about "what should be.")-> Delivering (Develop objectives about "what will be.")
High Power Distancevs.Low Uncertainty Avoidance
examine degree to which people accept inequality vs. mngrs and employees viewing themselves as the same
Which of the following statements is generally accepted by experts?a. moods cause emotionsb. emotions cause moodsc. moods and emotions are both caused by introspectiond. moods and emotions are the same phenomenae. moods and emotions can mutually
e. moods and emotions can mutually influence one another
40% of executive experience how much time a week doing unnecessary tasks
half day to a full day
Long term orientation vs. Short term orientation
people are more concerned with the future vs people more concerned with the past and present
Give an example of people skills?(peep skill= extremely important)
Ex. a director in a movie needs to know the technical aspects first and then need those people skills to succeed in life
Managers
Are Accountable
Execute
Manage Resources
Plan, organize, direct, and control.
Functional conflict
serves organization's interests
alternative labels for meaning
self-actualization
I
Introversion: Quiet for concentration
2. Careful w/details
3. Trouble w/names & faces
4. OK w/long time uninterrupted
5. Ideas Oriented
6. Dislike interruptions
role ambiguity
other's expectations are unknown
Organizational politics
Intentional enhancement of self-interest.
work-family conflict
type of role conflict
Ex. of Extraversion
gregarious, assertive, sociable
Positive reinforcement
Favorable consequence that accompanies behavior and encourages repetition of the behavior
personality attributes
locus of control, machavellianism, self esteem, self monitoring, risk taking
post-decisional justification
Justifying choices by unconsciously inflating the quality of the selected option and deflating the quality of the discarded options.
Tacit Knowledge
Information gained through experience that is difficult to express and formalize
Expert Power
Obtaining compliance through one's knowledge or information.
Common Creative Traits:
independent, persistent, motivated, iconoclastic, intellectual freedom in childhood, more gregarious than not
Mechanistic Organizations
Efficient, rigid, predictable, and standardized organizations that thrive in stable environments.
3 types of trust:
Disposition basedCognition basedAffection based
components of trustworthiness
1) ability2) benevolence3) integrity
Capabilities independent of problems or opportunities
potential capabilities
Process of systematically collecting data on an org, feeding it back for action planning, and evaluating results by collecting and relecting on more data
Action research
enterprising personality
enjoys persuading, leading, or outperforming others. energetic, ambitious, sociable and risk taking
arbitration
third party determines a binding settlement to a dispute
Leadership
Process of encouraging and helping others to work enthusiastically toward achieved objectives
team building
Any formal activity intended to improve the development and functioning of a team.
Researchers report that which of the following was considered by employees to be the most powerful workplace motivator? a. recognition b. money c. opportunity for advancement d. autonomy e. vacation time
a. recognition
self-leadership
The process of influencing oneself to establish the self direction and self-motivation needed to perform a task.
Sample Survey
Questionnaire responses from a sample of people
Minimizing dysfunctional conflict
Emphasize superordinate goals, reduce differentiation, improve communication/understanding, reduce task interdependence, increase resources, clarify rules and procedures
interpreting your dream
Robert Johnson; remember the dream 
make associations
tie associations to life-issue
act on the interpretation
Leadership Prototype
Mental representation of the traits and behaviors possessed by leaders
Bargaining Zone
Zone between one party's minimum reservation point and the other party's maximum reservation point in a negotiating situation
Neglect
A passive, destructive response to a negative work event in which one's interest and effort in work decline.
Client Structure
An organizational form in which employees are organized around serving customers.
higher-order needs
needs that are satisfied internally; social, esteem, and self-actualization needs
psychological harassment
repeated hostile or unwanted conduct, verbal comments, actions, or gestures that affect an employees dignity or psychological or physical integrity and that result in a harmful work environment for the employee
projection bias
people project their own thoughts, attitudes and motives onto other people
stressors
the demands that cause people to experience stress
Crisis Situation
a change-whether sudden or evolving- that result in an urgent problem that must be addresses immediately
Indirect conflict management techniques
Interdependence reductionAppeal to common goalsHierarchical referralAltering scripts and myths
Types of Study variables?
Independent (X) Dependent (Y)
coalitions
occur when the target of influence agrees with and becomes committed to the influence request
affective events theory
workplace events can generate affective reactions--reactions that then can go on to influence work attitudes and behaviors
Motivational factors
Conditions that tend to motivate workers when they exist, but their absence rarely is strongly dissatisfying.
a. What is politics?
--Informal activities intended to influence the distribution of benefits within an organization.
--Key elements
(1) Underground/informal: not part of job prescription
(2) Advance parochial interests
(3) Through influencing power distribution
motivation
how much effort is put forth to achieve organizational goals
Potential benefits of telecommuting include which of the following?a. a larger labor pool from which to selectb. reduced office-space costsc. less turnoverd. improved moralee. all of the above
e. all of the above
Procedural Justice
The perceived fairness of the process and procedures used to make allocation decisions
Implicit Cognition
any thought or belief that is automatically activated without conscious awareness
Espoused Values
Stated values and norms that are preferred by an organization.
*Organizational cynicism and low morale may occur when an organization's acts counter its espoused values.
Eclectic Field
Studies from different fields. OB includes: Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology, Poly Sci, Social Pshycology and management
Tardiness
A form of physical withdrawal in which employees arrive late to work or leave work early.
nonwork hindrance stressors
1) work-family conflict 2) negative life events3) financial uncertainty
Emotional Cues
feelings that create levels of beliefs in oneself
Keeps higher levels informed, what the problems of lower employees are, what suggestions they have for improvements, and how they feel about the organization and their jobs
Upward communication
problem focused coping
refers to behaviors and cognitions intended to manage the stressful situation itself
consultation
occurs when the target is allowed to participate in deciding how to carry out or implement a request
strategic management
focuses on the product choices and industry characteristics that affect an organization's profitability
Work Ethic
Employee attitude of viewing work as a central life interest and desirable goal
(5) How can you influence others by applying different types of power?

(Influencing tactics)
Legitimacy
Rational persuasion
Inspirational appeals
Consultation
Exchange
Personal appeals
Ingratiation
Pressure
Coalition
attributes of older workers
less turnover, absent less for avoidable absences, more satisfied with professional work, have the same effectiveness
recency effect
A perceptual error in which the most recent information dominates one’s perception of others.
Met expectations
the extent to which one receives what he or she expects from a job
Anticipatory Socialization Phase
Occurs before ann individual joins an organization, and involves the information people learn about different careers, occupations, professions, and organizations.
Leader Emergence
The process of becoming a leader in the first place.
Social learning theory
observation is the best way people learn tactic knowledge in the workplace
external comparisons
meaning that they refer to someone in a different company
Meaningfulness
captures the value of a work goal or purpose, relative to a person's own ideals and passions.
Object, act, or event that serves to transmit cultural meaning
Cultural symbol
focus of commitment
refer to the various people, places, and things that can inspire a desire to remain a member of an organization
Vroom & Yetton's normative decision-making model
Vroom & Yetton: Normative decision-making model
--The major part of leadership is decision making.
--Which decision-making style of leaders depends on situational factors.
--Autocratic (AI): without subordinates’ inputs at all
--Autocratic (AII): gathering necessary information from subordinates
--Consultative (CI): share problems with individual subordinates only
--Consultative (CII): share problems with groups
--Joint decision (GII): completely participative decision making
Negotiators who do poorlya. experience positive emotions.b. develop positive perceptions of their counterparts.c. are less willing to share information.d. are more willing to be cooperative in future negotiations.e. None of the above.
c. are less willing to share information.
Carl R. Rogers and F.J. Roethlisberger
Barriers and Gateways to Communication
evolutionary psychology
an area of inquiry that argues that we must experience the emotions that we do because they serve a purpose
North American view on decision making
Emphasizes decisiveness, speed, and individual selection of alternatives. Speaks more to choice and less to implementation
Affiliation motivation
Drive to relate to people on a social basis
Motivation is best defined as a process that _____. a. results in a level of effort b. intensifies an individual’s efforts c. accounts for an individual’s efforts toward attaining a goal d. meets an individual’s needs e. stabilizes over time
c. accounts for an individual’s efforts toward attaining a goal
What is continuous reinforcement?
Every time you do a sought after behavior, it is rewarded
(2) What is the typical communication process composed of?
Refer to Robbin’s Book: p.330
Mini class
Process
(1) Information sender (encode and send)
(2) Communication media
(3) Information receiver (receive and decode)
(4) Feedback (check communication accuracy)
Compare House’s path-goal theory of leadership with the Situational Leadership model.
Path-goal theory states that the basic role of the leader is to clear the follower's path to the goal. THe leader used the most appropriate of four leader behavior styles to help followers clarify the paths that lead them to work and personal goals. Situational Leadership suggests that the leader's behavior should be adjusted to the maturity level of the followers.
Step 1: Diagnosing Team performance
A. Establish the nature of the task; it determines what composition, processes, etc. will be needed
a. Complexity (do we need a team?)
b. Interdependence: Pooled, Sequential, Reciprocal
c. Objectives (what skills, abilities are required)
Clare is an upper level manager at a large American company. When her personal assistant is not prompt in performing his duties, she shows her impatience in open displays of anger. Why is such a display unusual in the workplace? a. reprimanding an under
b. displays of negative emotions are usually unacceptable in most American organizations
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