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Carboxylic acid
Terms Definitions
formula for alkane
N, triplebond, C-R
primary alcohols to aldehydes
secondary elimination (strong bulky base)
different compounds with same molecular formula
Functional Groups are staggered but not overlapping
Activating Benzines?
Touline, Phenoxide, Aniline, Phenol, Phenyl Ether, Anilide
having a dihedral angle of 0
a thin, volatile hydrocarbon with a boiling range between that of diesel fuel and that of gasoline.
HBr (end carbon product)
alcohols to alkyl halides
carboxylic acid to Diazomethane?
carboxylic acid, add CH2N2
ground state
when electrons are placed in accordance with the qundictum chemistry principles that dictate the lowest enrgy form
an atom that gives rise to stereoisomers when its groups are interchanged. asymmetric carbon atoms and double-bonded carbons in cis-trans alkenes are the most common of these
Steric Strain
Energy increase caused when atoms are forced to close together
spirocyclic compound
bicyclic compounds in which the two rings share only one carbon atom.
Br2 (dibromide product)
alkenes to alkyl halides (other method)
C=C=C is an example of what functional group?
acidity (acid strength)
the thermodynamic reactivity of an acid, expressed quantitatively by the acid-dissociation constant, Ka.
radical inhibitor
a compound added to prevent the propagation of free-radical chain reactions. Usually the inhibitor reacts to form a radical that is too stable to propagate the chain.
a reaction in which one atom replaces another, usually as a substituent on a carbon atom.
Plane-polorized Light
Light that has an electric vector that ascillates in a single plane. Plane polorized light, also called a polorized light, arised from passing ordinary light though a polarizer
bridged bicyclic compound
a compound containing two rings joined at nonadjacent carbons.
common classes of carbonyl compounds
carbonyl group, ketone, aldehide, carboxylic acid (-C(OH)=O), acid chlorides (-C(Cl)=O, Esters, (-C(R)=O) and amides (-C(NH2)=O, acetone (CH3-C(CH3)=O), formaldehyde (H-C(H)=O)
less dense
alkynes that are liquids at room temp are ____ than water
aprotic solvent
a solvent that has no acidic protons; a solvent with no O-H or N-H groups
Hund's Rule
With orbitals of equal energy (px, py, pz), electrons fill the orbitals singly before filling in pairs
Adding 1 mole of Br2 to an _____ gives a dibromoalkene
Inductive Effect on Acids
the pull of electron density through σ bonds caused by electronegativity differences of atoms. The acidity of HA increases with the presence of electron withdrawing groups in A. Stabilization by the inductive effect falls off rapidly with increasing distance of the electronegative atom from the site of negative charge in the conjugate base.
if you mix an acid and a base, you get a
N bonded to H, a C double bonded to O, and a benzine, Activating
Triple bond to ketone, anti Mark.?
Sai2BH, followed by H2O2, followed by Base, turns alkyne into aldehyde.
Keq and ∆G° Relationship
When Keq > 1, log Keq is positive, making ∆G° negative, and energy is released. Equilibrium favors the products.
When Keq < 1, log Keq is negative, making ∆G° positive, and energy is absorbed. Equilibrium favors the reactants.
how to make alkyne that can bond with other carbons (REALLY USEFUL)
just add NaNH2, and hydrogen is gone, then add halogen bonded carbons and bond is formed.
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