AP Gov Flashcards

Terms Definitions
best government governs least
favored strong state government, opposed constitution
24th amendment
Prohibits poll tax when voting
political culture
commonly shared attitudes, beliefs, and core values
procedural practice in the Senate whereby a senator delays and prevents a vote on the floor
22nd Amendment
Limits the president to two terms.
national gov derives its powers from league of independent states
10th Amendment
powers not delegated to national government are reserved to states
favors free market economy and no governmental interference
unitary system
local and regional governments derive all authority from a strong national government
Two-party System
Electoral system with two dominant parties that compete in national elections. In the U.S. they are the Republicans and Democrats.
National Chairman
Elected by the national committee, he/she is a day-to-day party manager.
Political apathy
Caring about something else more than politics
Presidential Succession Order
-president -vice president -speaker of the house -president pro tempore -cabinet members
Inherent Powers
Powers that belong to the national government simply because it's a sovereign state.
1st Continental Congress
In Philidalphea, everyone except lame georgia adopted resolution in opposition to the Coercive Acts
concurrent powers
authority possessed by both state and national governments
Election that is held in order to choose candidates for office.
Minority Leader
minority leader is same of majority, just different groups are handled.
26th amendment
Lowers the voting age from 21 to 18
the study of who gets what, when, and how
The Federalist Papers
85 papers in favor of constitution, James Madison, John Jay, and Alexander Hamilton
Congressional Campaign Committee
A party committee in Congress that provides money to members as well as potential members.
The power to convene Congress
Symbolic significance. Makes sure that Congress convenes semi-regularly, which is not necessary to mandate anymore.
2nd Continental Congress
decided an army should be raised under Commander in Chief George Washington
A typical Senator and Representative is?
Senators and representatives come primarily from middle- and upper-middle-class backgrounds. They are the sterotype of a middle aged, white, male lawyer.
Public Interest Law Firm
a branch of law that often utilizes class-action suits to protect the interest of a large group or of the public at large, as in matters relating to racial discrimination, air pollution, etc. An example is the ACLU.
When members of congress vote, they are influenced by:
their philosophy and values, their perceptions of constituents, interests, and the views of trusted colleagues, staff, party leaders, lobbyists, and the president.
The power to make treaties
Has to pass by a 2/3 majority in the Senate. Senate generally passes 70% of treaties submitted by the president. Treaty of Versailles = treaty that was not ratified.
Article 7
Article 2
Executive Branch
Senate Minority Whip
John Kyl
Article 5
Methods of Amendments
Those already holding office.
Anthony Kennedy
Associate Justice, 1988 Raegan
Samuel Alito
Associate Justice 2006, Bush 43
Clarence Thomas
Associate Justice 1991, Bush 41
Select Committees
Congressional committees appointed for a specific purpose, such as the Watergate investigation
Bicameral Legislature
A legislature divided into two houses
A proposed law, drafted in precise, legal language.
political participation
The activities citizens participate in to influence the choice of leaders or the policies. Done by voting, protesting etc.
majority rule
A fundamental principle of traditional democratic theory. in a democracy, choosing among alternatives requires that the majority's desire be respected.
Individuals should be left on their own by the government. To make a life without government interference.
Seniority System
A rule for picking committee chairs: The member who had served on the committee the longest and is in the majority party usually gets to be chair
Theory that there is too many strong groups that government is weakened. Too many groups fighting creating a gridlock.
Caucus (Congressional)
A group of members of Congress sharing some interest or characteristic. Most have members of both houses and parties
political issue
An issue when people disagree on a problem and how to fix it. Such as gay marriage.
Article 6
General provisions
Senate Minority Leader
Mitch McConnell
House Minority Whip
Steny Hoyer
House Majority Leader
Eric Cantor
Senate President pro tempore
Dan Inoune
Stephen Breyer
Associate Justice 1994, Clinton
Conference Committee
Congressional committees formed when the Senate and the House pass a particular bill in different forms.
Sonia Sotomayor
Associate Justice 2009, Obama, 1st female minority
policy agenda
The issues that attract public officials and others.
pluralist theory
Emphasizes that government is a competition between groups for its preferred policies.
Committee Chairs
The most important influencers of the congressional agenda. They play dominant roles in scheduling hearings, hiring staff, appointing subcommittees, and managing committee bills when they are brought before the full house.
Describes the few leaders and the many followers.
policy making institutions
Branches of government that create policies. The pres, congress, courts and, Bureaucracy/
House Rules Committee
An institution unique to the House that reviews all bills coming from a House committee before they go to the full House of Congress
policy making system
Process of how a policy is made. Peoples issues create political issues for government. Turns into policy, and create more issues and interests.
members of a community
Redistribution of the congressional seats among the states after the census determines changes in population distribution
the process, mandated by the constitution, by which the population of the US is officially counted every 10 years. Used the help distribute federal money and to reapportion congressional districts.
The political eqquivalent of an indictment in criminal law, prescribed by the Constitution. The House of Representatives may impeach the president by a majority vote for "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors."
A term describing the senatorial screening process for all presidential appointees.
written untruths that damage a reputation
cooperative federalism
the relationship between the national and state governments that began with the New Deal
mass media
forms of communication, such as newspapers and radio, that reach millions of people
a document stating the facts and points of law of a client's case
Constitutional Democracy
A government that enforces recognized limits on those who govern and allows the voice of the people to be heard through free, fair, and relatively frequent elections.
unconventional political participation
political participation that attempts to influence the political process through unusual or extreme measures, such as protests, boycotts, and picketing
Coin and determine the value of money
Admissions Clause
Clause stating that Congress admits new states, unless a part of an existing state is involved.
pocket veto
DIES-sits on desk-10 days go past-Congress adjourns within the 10 days.
the process of reallocating seats in the House of Representatives every 10 years on the basis of the results of the census.
unfunded mandates
National standards or programs imposed on state and local governments by the federal government w/out accompanying funding or reimbursement.
melting pot
The mixing of cultures, ideas, and peoples that has changed the American nation. The United States, with its history of immigration, has often been called a melting pot.
Closed Rule
an order from the House Rules Committee that sets a time limit on debate; forbids a bill from being amended on the floor.
congressional budget office
Congressional agency of budget experts who assess the feasibility of the president's plan and who help create Congress's version of the federal budget.
court order that forbids a party from performing a certain action
solidary incentive
an inducement that attracts people out of gregarious or game-loving instincts. it is one reason why people become involved in a state or local party organization
natural law
God's or nature's law that defines right from wrong and is higher than human law
open primaries
elections to select party nominees in which voters can decide on Election Day whether they want to participate in the Democratic or Republican contests.
Direct Mail
A high-tech method of raising money for a political cause or candidate that involves sending information or requests to everyone on a list of people who have supported similar views or candidate in the past
accused persons must be told by police that they need not testify against themselves
Image making
Creating a positive impression about a candidate through the use of public relations methods and mass media.
Federalist #10
argued that separation of powers and federalism check the growth of tyranny. it also argues tha Constituional principles guard against the dangers of a direct democracy. Madison argues that a long-lived democracy must manage its interest grouples, even if they cannot be elmininated
policy gridlock
when a policy coalition finds its way blocked by another
Bill of Rights
the first 10 amendments to the Constitution, ratified in 1791
marble cake federalism
term coined by Morton Grodzins, all levels of government are involved in a variety of issues and programs, rather than dual federalism with fixed divisions between levels of government
Straight-ticket voting
Voting for candidates all of the same party on the same ballot-creates the coattail effect
Sequential Referral
A bill goes through a sequence of different committees
appropriations bill
Act of Cong that funds programs within authorized limits. Usually these bills are annual.
Political action committee
Extention of an interest group that contributes money to political campaigns-financial arm of the interest group
Sponsored Party
A local or state political party that is largly supported by another organization in the community.
writs of habeas corpus
a court order which prevents unjust arrests and imprisonment
eminent domain
the right of the state to take private property for public use
Speaker of the House
Leading officer in the House of Representatives, chosen by the majority party
Facts (of a court case)
The relevant circumstances of a legal dispute of offense as determined by a trial court. The fact of a case are crucial because they help determine which law or laws are applicable in the case.
Ex Post Facto Law
a law that makes an act criminal although the act was legal when it was committed
Writ of Habeaus Corpus
Means that one can't be put in jail without a body of evidence.
the right to vote
interactions among national, state, and local governments
The formal &informal institutions, people, &processes used to create &conduct pulbic policy
consisting of 2 legislative houses.The US has this.
An unelected employee of the government
Tenth Amendment
The Constitutional amendment stating that "The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people."
Great Compromise
Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house (Senate) of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house (House of Representatives)
Sixteenth Amendment
authorized Congress to enact a ntational income tax
linkage institutions
the channels through which people's concerns become political issues on the government's policy agenda. In the United States, this include elections, political parties, interest groups, and the media.
Class consciousness
a feeling of identification and solidarity with those belonging to the same social or economic class as oneself.
retrospective judgement
a voter's evaluation of the performance of the party in power
Supreme Court Justices
There are no formal qualifications
critical election
Election periods marked by national crisis where new issues emerge and the majority party is displaced by the minority.
A system whereby the people rule either directly/by elected representation
senatorial courtesy
Presidential custom of submitting the names of prospective appointees for approval to senators from the states in which the appointees are to work.
enumerated powers
Powers specifically granted to the national government by the Constitution. The first seventeen clauses of Article 1, Section 8, specify most of Congress' enumerated powers.
civil disobedience
A form of political participation that reflects a conscious decision to break a law believed to be immoral and to suffer the consequences.
Marbury v. Madison
This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review
continuing resolution
A temporary funding law that Congress passes when an appropriations bill has not been decided by the beginning of the new fiscal year on October 1.
unfunded mandate
a federal order mandating that states operate and pay for a program created at the national level
franking priviledge
allows members of congress to send mail postage free
lame duck
a politician whose power has been diminished because he or she is about to leave office as a result of electoral defeat or statutory limitation
public policy
A choice that government makes in response to a political issue. It is a course of action taken with regard to some problem
Selective Perception
The phenomenon that people often pay the most attention to things they already agree with and interpret them according to their predispositions
majority minority
groups that are normally recognized as minority, is actually a majority within a district.
is the measure of how important or relevant an issue is to an individual.
Freedom Vs Equality
Economic equality results in fewer freedoms social equality infringes on freedoms ex. affirmative action; phycial disabilty act
elit/class theory
the rich will have more influence on government because of wealth and power
Habeas Corpus
an order to produce an arrested person before a judge
interstate compact
an agreement among two or more states. The Constitution requires that most such agreements be approved by Congress
Interest group
A group of private citizens whose goal is to influence &shape public policy
Open Primary
A primary where you may choose which party to vote for
Taft-Hartley Act
a 1947 law giving the president power to halt major strikes by seeking a court injunction and permitting states to forbid requirements in labor contracts that force workers to join a union.
Trustee/Delegate-roles Congressman play
trustee--do what is best regardless of voter opinion; delegate--do what the voters want
Office-bloc Ballot
A ballot listing all candidates of a given office under the name of that office; also called a "Massachusetts" ballot.
Cruel and Unusual Punishment
doctrine found in the Eighth Amendment to the Constitution that prohibits the federal government from imposing excessive penalties for crimes committed
Tinker v. Des Moines
the First Amendment applied to public schools, and administrators would have to demonstrate constitutionally valid reasons for any specific regulation of speech in the classroom. They "must be able to show that [their] action was caused by something more than a mere desire to avoid the discomfort and unpleasantness that always accompany an unpopular viewpoint,"
Bill of Attainder
Singles an individual out & denies him the right to trial
Rule of four
Requirement that a case can only be heard by the Supreme Court if four justices vote to hear the case
priviliges and immunities clause
part of Article IV of the constitution guaranteeing that the citzens of each state are afforded the smae rights as citizens of all other states
Federal Election Campaign Act
A law passed in 1974 for reforming campaign finances. It provided public financing for presidential primaries and general elections, limited campaign spending, required disclosure and tried to limit contributions.
McCulloch vs. Maryland (1819)
A case in which the Court upheld the power of the national government to establish a bank and denied the state of Maryland the power to tax a branch of that bank.
Elections every 6 years
Representative democracy
Citizens choose officials (representatives) who make decisions about public policy
Civil liberties
legal constitutional protections against government; established through the Bill of Rights but defined by courts, police, and legislatures
E pluribus, unum
Out of many, one
Judicial Activism
Philosophy proposing that judges should interpret the Constitution to reflect current conditions and values.
religious tradition
religious differences make for political differences
Monetary policy
controlling the money supply-Federal Reserve (independent agency)
John Locke
“Treatise of Civil Government”, “Natural Rights”
A legal process whereby an alleged criminal offender is surrendered by the officials of one state to officials of the state in which the crime is alleged to have been committed.
Categorical Grant
money granted by the federal government to the states for a narrow purpose (school lunch program) rather than for a broad purpose (transportation)
Gibbons v. Ogden
Supreme Court ruling (1824) establishing national authority over interstate business
Political party
Voluntary association of people who seek to control the government through common principles, based on peaceful and legal actions such as the winning of elections
Elastic clause
states that Congress can exercise those powers that are "necessary and proper" for carrying out the enumerated powers, e.g., establishment of the first Bank of the United States.
Federalist Papers
Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, James Madison to defend new constitution
Attitudinal Theory
Theory where the Congress member's ideology affects how they vote. They vote with their ideology.
social equality
determined by wealth, education and status
Pluralist View
the belief that competition among all affected individuals shapes public policy
Dickerson v. US
upheld the requirement that the Miranda warning be read to criminal suspects
those who wish to prevent imports from entering the country and therefore oppose free trade
Super Tuesday
Day when several states hold their presidential primaries (usually the second Tuesday in March)
democratic centralism
a system of political organizations in which
-party leaders are elected from lower to higher bodies
-discussion is allowed until final decision is made - must obey and agree with this decision whether you believe in it or not
budget resolution
The bottom line for all federal spending.
Connecticut Compromise
the compromise agreement by states at the Constitutional Convention for a bicameral legislature with a lower house in which representation would be based on population and an upper house in which each state would have two senators
Plurality System
An electoral system in which the winner is the person who gets the most votes, even if he or she does not receive a majority; used in almost all American elections.
categorical grant-in-aid
Federal funding for states or local governments that is for very specific programs or projects.
Free Enterprise
a doctrine that states that an economy can regulate itself in a freely competitive market without government interference
appellate jurisdiction
the authority of a court to review decisions made by lower courts
Limited government
the idea of clear restrictions on what rulers can do
political socialization
The process by which we develop our political attitudes, values, and beliefs.
political editorializing rule
If a broadcaster endorses a candidate, the opposing candidate has the right to reply.
what did the modern deffinition of gov start with?
Treaty of Westphalia
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
an organization including nations of Western Europe, the US, and Canada, created in 1949 to defend against Soviet expansion
What is a 527 group?
a type of American tax-exempt organization named after a section of U.S. tax code; made to influence nomination
Adarand Constructors v. Pena
A 1995 Supreme Court decision holding that federal programs that classify people by race, even for an ostensibly benign purpose such as expanding opportunities for minorities, should be presumed to be unconstitutional.
Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Department of Health
Court found it acceptable to require "clear and convincing evidence" for removal of life support.
Privileges and immunities clause
A clause in Article IV, Section 2 according citizens of each state most of the privileges of citizens of other states
Boy Scouts of America v. Dale (2000)
A private organization may ban gays from its membership.
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