AP Gov 14 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
2000-2008 (Russia)
rule by the people
As opposed to traditional broadcasting, the appeal to a narrow, particular audience by channels such as ESPN or MTV, which focus on a narrow particular interest
the commercial activity of transporting and selling goods from a producer to a consumer.
civil liberties
personal freedoms (ex: speech, assembly, religion)
Three-Fifths Compromise
Compromise agreement between northern and southern states at the Constitutional Convention that three-fifths of the slave population would be counted for determining direct taxation and representation in the House of Representatives.
representatives of interest groups who contact lawmakers or other government officials directly to influence their policy making
divided government
Governance divided between the parties, as when one holds the presidency and the other controls one of both houses of Congress.
Federal Register
This official document, published every weekday, lists new and proposed regulations of executive department and regulatory agencies.
inevitable discovery
Exception to the exclusionary rule that allows the use of illegal obtained evidence at trial if the court determines that the evidence would eventually have been found by legal means.
religious tradition
the moral teachings of religious institutions on religious, social and economic issues
a document stating the aims and principles of a political party
Civil law
A law that governs relationships between individuals and defines their legal rights.
block grants
grants devoted to some general purpose, with fewer restrictions than categorical grants
Red tape
complex rules and procedures required by bureaucratic agencies.
hard money
Political contributions given to a party, candidate, or interest group that are limited in amount and fully disclosed.
iron triangle
a close relationship between an agency, a congressional committee, and an interest group
affirmative action
programs designed to increase minority participation in some institution (business, schools, labor unions, or governmental agencies) by taking positive steps to appoint more minority-group members.
university of Ca couldnt use numerical quota in admitting minority students but can consider race
criminal court
Court in which criminal trials are heard. In contrast, lawsuits are heard in civil court.
ideological interest group
an organization that attracts members by appealing to their interest in a coherent set of (usually) controversial principles
separation of powers
branches of govt remain indepedent from one another; power is shared
judicial implementation
how and whether court decisions are translated into actual policy, thereby affecting the behavior of others; the courts rely on other units of government to enforce their decisions
party platform
a party's statement of its positions on the issues of the day
crossover voting
partimipation in the primary of a party with which the voter is not affiliated
Act as commader and chief of the military
Joint Economic Committee
Joint committee that reports the current economic condition of the United States and makes suggestions for improvement to the economy.
candidate-centered politics
Politics that develop based on a candidate's attitude.
the minimum number of members who must be present for business to be conducted in Congress
Conference Committees
A joint committee appointed to resolve differences in the Senate and House versions of the same bill.
Civil Disobedience
purposely breaking a law that is thought to be unjust.
executive privilege
The right of the president to withhold information when doing so would compromise national security (e.g., in the case of diplomatic files and military secrets). Executive privilege is not mentioned in the Constitution. It is, rather, part of the unwritten Constitution, the tradition of executive privilege that was initiated by George Washington.
independent leaners
tend to vote for candidates of one particular party
Congressional Budget Office
staff agency that advises Congress on the likely economic effects of different spending programs and provides information on the costs of the proposed policies.
pork-barrel legislation
a bill introduced by a member of congress that gives tangible benefits, like a highway or bridge, to constituents in the hopes of winning votes in return
Europe politics
a person must be nominated by party leaders, campaigns are run by the party,
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution. They prevent the national government from tampering with fundamental rights and civil liberties, and emphasize the limited character of national power.
congressional budget and impoundment control act of 1974
act to reform budgertary process
categorical grants
federal grants that can be used only for specific purposes of state and local spending; come with strings attached
reserve (police) powers
powers reserved to the states by the 10th Amendement that lie at the foundation of a state's right to legislate for the public health and welfare of its citizens
judicial review
power of the Supreme Court to rule on the constitutionality of laws
Amicus Curiae
An individual or group who is not a party to a lawsuit but seeks to assist the court in reaching a decision by presenting an additional brief (friend of the court).
inalienable / unalienable
a human right based on nature of God
selective incorporation
view that the bill of rights is to be applied to the states in a more gradual manner on a case by case basis, also via the due process clause of the 14th amendment
rule of four
the Supreme Court will hear a case if four Justices agree to do so
why do we have primaries and caucuses?
to select one candidate for a party
Malicious/false publication. (Libel-library-written)
unscrupulously accusing people of disloyalty
"Bad tendency" test
permits restriction of freedom of speech by government if it is believed that a form of speech has a sole tendency to incite or cause illegal activity
School vouchers
is a certificate issued by the government which parents can apply toward tuition at a private school, rather than at the public school to which their child is assigned.
Prior restraints
legal term related to censorship in the United States referring to government actions that prevent communications from reaching the public. Its main use is to keep materials from being published.
Oliver Wendell Holmes
United States writer of humorous essays (1809-1894)
Lemon test
Lemon v. Kurtzman to determine when a law has the effect of establishing religion First, the statute must have a secular legislative purpose; second, its principal or primary effect must be one that neither advances nor inhibits religion; finally, the statute must not foster "an excessive government entanglement with religion."
Free exercise clause
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof... Combined with Establishment clause.
Speech codes
is any rule or regulation that limits, restricts, or bans speech beyond the strict legal limitations upon freedom of speech or press found in the legal definitions of harassment, slander, libel, and fighting words.
Political Party
a group that seeks to elect candidates to public office by supplying them with a label.
"Clear and Present Danger"
standard for judging when freedom of speech can be abridged; "no one has a right to shout `fire' in a crowded theater when there is no fire because such an action would pose a clear and present danger to public safety"
Freedom of Expression
used to indicate not only freedom of verbal speech but any act of seeking, receiving and imparting information or ideas, regardless of the medium used.
Party does 3 things:
-A label in the minds of voters
-A set of leaders in government
-Organization recruiting and campaigning
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