AP Gov 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Apportionment committees
...
standing committees
permanent; get bills
reapportionment
the process of reassigning representation based on population, after every census
malapportionment
The creation of congressional districts in a state which are of unequal size. The Supreme Court in 1964 eliminated the practice by requiring that all districts in a state contain about the same number of people.
minority leaders
spokesperson for opposition; selected by minority party
caucus
an association of Congress members created to advance a political ideology or a regional, ethnic, or economic interest
patronage
(politics) granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support
cloture
A procedure for terminating debate, especially filibusters, in the Senate, can stop a filibuster with 60 votes.
Earmark
Funds in appropriations bill that provide dollars for particular purposes within a state or congressional district.
descriptive representation
reps mirror constituents (not the case)
committee
a special group delegated to consider some matter
majority leader
The legislative leader elected by party members holding the majority of seats in the House of Representatives or the Senate.
impeachment
the power of the House of Representatives from the Constitution to charge the president or any other civil officers with high crimes or misdemeanors, first step to constitutionally remove government officials
whips
key member who keeps close contact with all members of his or her party and takes nose counts on key votes, prepares summaries of bills, and in gernal acts as communication link within a party
filibuster
A tactic for delaying or obstructing legislation by making long speeches
minority party
party with fewer members in Congress
Roll call vote
A congressional voting procedure that consists of members answering yea or nay to their names
Tom Delay
Texas rep; redistricted 2nd time in Texas 2002 and republicans then won 23/32 districts in 2004
majority minority district
A congressional district created to include a majority of minority voters; ruled constitutional so long as race is not the main factor in redistricting.
Minority leader
the legislative leader selected by the minority party as spokesperson for the opposition
restrictive rule
Consent from the Rules Committee of the House of Representatives which permits certain amendments to a piece of legislation but not others.
Bicameral
A lawmaking body made up of two chambers or parts. The U.S. Congress is this type of legislature, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives.
discharge petition
Petition that, if signed by majority of the House of Representatives' members, will pry a bill from committee and bring it to the floor for consideration.
pork barrel
laws that direct funds to local projects in an area which a member of Congress represents
Joint Committee
Committees on which both senators and representatives serve.
rider
an amendment on a matter unrelated to a bill that is added to the bill so that it will go along with the bill in its passage through the Congress
Rules Committee
In the House of Representatives, the committee that decides which bills come up for a vote, in what order, and under what restrictions on length of debate and on the right to offer amendments. The Senate Rules and Administration Committee, by contrast, possesses few powers.
oversight (questioning), senate ratifying treaties, confirm appointments, override veto, impeach & cut off funds
Congress' main checks on executive branch (6)
fall review
The annual process in which the Office of Management and Budget, after receiving formal federal agency requests for funding for the next fiscal year, reviews the requests, makes changes, and submits its recommendations to the president.
General Accounting Office
Created in 1921 to perform routine audits of the money spent by executive departments. It also investigates agencies and makes recommendations on every aspect of government.
bicameral legislature
a legislature made up of two parts, called chambers; the US Congress, composed of the House of Representatives and the Senate, is an example
War Powers Act (1973)
limited President's power to use troops overseas in hostilities, put a time limit on use and gave Congress final power to withdraw troops
substantive representation
A term coined by Hannah Pitkin to refer to the correspondence between representatives' opinions and those of their constituents.
written report
summary that comes with a bill to the floor
incumbency factor
the fact that being in office helps a person stay in office because of a variety of benefits that go with the position
What are the leaders of house and senate?
house-speaker:John boehner, maj lead-eric cantor, min lead-pelosi, maj whip-mccarthy, min whip-hoyer, policy committee-price
senate-vp-biden, pro tem-inuoye, maj lead-reid, min lead-mcconnel, ass maj- durbin, ass min-kyl
Cloture Rule
A rule used by the Senate to end or limit debate
What is the basic difference b/w parliament and congress?
party members vote together on almost all of the issues
1917-1924 (Russia)
Lenin
authority
the right to power
state legislature
redistricting is done by...
Libertarian
an extreme laissez-faire political philosophy advocating only minimal state intervention in the lives of citizens.
lobby
(v) to attempt to influence governmental decisions, especially legislation; (n) a group organized for influencing governmental legislation
Beats
Specific locations from which news frequently emanates such as Congress or the White House
Linkage Intstitutions
elections, political parties, interest groups, media
executive orders
clarifications of congressional policy issued by the president and having the full force of law
lobbying
Activities aimed at influencing public officials, especially legislators, and the policies they enact.
Nineteenth Amendment (1920)
Granted voting rights to women.
federalism
division of power among levels of government
implied powers
powers inferred from the express powers that allow Congress to carry out its functions
Senatorial Courtesy
Presidential custom of submitting the names of prospective appointees for approval to senators from the states in which the appointees are to work.
categorical grants
federal grants for specific purposes, such as building an airport; usually requires a bit of fund "matching"
Open rule
House Rules Committee procedure that allows amendments to a bill.
shield law
Law guaranteeing news reporters the right to protect the annonymity of their sources. States have passed this--not the federal government.
presidential succession
eventually defined in the 25th amendment; list of people includes VP, Speaker of the House, President Pro Temp, Secretary of State, etc.
Gender Gap
Difference in political views between men and women
Black Predicament
whites threatened by AA integration and political action
threat in AA majority areas
budget resolution
Set of budget guidelines that must pass both houses of Congress in identical form by April 15. The budget resolution guides government spending for the following fiscal year.
national convention
a meeting of party delegate selected in state primaries, caucuses, or conventions that's held every four years; primary purpose is to nominate Presidential and Vice Presidential candidates and to ratify a campaign platform
veto
a formal decision to reject a bill passed by Congress
incentive system
According to Charles Schultze, a more effective and efficient policy than command and control; in this, market-like strategies are used to manage public policy.
direct primary
a primary where voters directly select the candidates who will run for office
Electorate College
representatives of ech state who cast the final ballots that actually elect a president
grassroots
of or involving the common people as constituting a fundamental politico-economic group
judicial implementation
how and whether court decisions are translated into actual policy, thereby affecting the behavior of others; the courts rely on other units of government to enforce their decisions
realigning election
An election during periods of expanded suffrage and change in the economy and society that proves to be a turning point, redefining the agenda of politics and the alignment of voters within parties.
private bill
A legislative bill that deals only with specific, private, personal, or local matters rather than with general legislative affairs. The main kinds include immigration and naturalization bills and personal claim.
public bill
A legislative bill that deals with matters of general concern.
Fiscal Federalism
The pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system.
Twenty-fourth Amendment (1964)
Outlawed poll taxes, which had been used to prevent the poor from voting.
total incorporation
view that the states must obey all provisions of the bill of rights because of the due process clause of the 14th amendment
talking head
a shot of a person's face talking directly to the camera; rarely done for politicians
purposive incentive
a benefit that comes from serving a cause or principle
The People
They decide on govt. policies BUT NOT civil liberties
Senate Qualifications
30 years old, citizen for 9 years, must live in the state you represent
Civil Rights
The rights of people to be treated without unreasonable or unconstitutional differences.
Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka
reversed seperate but equal
full faith and credit clause
ensures judicial decrees and contracts made in one state will be binding and enforceable in any other state(article 4)
Court of Appeals
Court that hears the appeals for the trial-court decisions.
civic duty
a belief that one has an obligation to participate in civic and political affairs
direct tax
a tax that must be paid by the person on whom it is levied
office of personal management
the office in charge of hiring for most agencies of the federal government, using elaborate rules in the process.
Office of Management and Budget
An office that grew out of the Bureau of the Budget, created in 1921, consisting of a handful of political appointees and hundreds of skilled professionals. It performs both managerial and budgetary functions.
Conference Committee
...
Direct Orders
GET FROM BOOK
demagogues
charismatic leaders who manipulate popular belifs
Deregulation
elimination of federal regulations on private companies
foreign policy
a policy governing international relations
Federalists
Supporters of ratification of the Constitution and of a strong central government
Commercial Speech
Advertisements and commercials for products and services; they receive less 1st Amendment protection, primarily to discourage false and misleading ads.
liberal
One considered to favor extensive governmental involvement in the economy and the provision of social services amd to take an activist role in protecting the rights of women, the elderly, minorities, and the environment.
Policymaking Institutions
The branches of government charged with taking action on political issues. The US Constitution established three of these: the Congress, the presidency, and the courts. Today, the power of the bureaucracy is so great that most political scientists consider it a fourth.
quorum
minimum number of members needed for the House or Senate to meet
progressive
a belief that personal freedom and solving social social problems are more important than religion
New Deal Coalition
Alliance of southern conservatives, religious, and ethnic minorities who supported the Democratic Party for 40 years
how long does all justices serve?
life time
split ticket
Voting for candidates of different parties for various offices in the same election.
veto message
The president's formal explanation of a veto when legislation is returned to Congress.
Watergate
a political scandal involving abuse of power and bribery and obstruction of justice
National Committee
Delegates who run party affairs between national conventions.
Referendum
procedure enabling voters to reject a measure passed by the legislature
Republic
supreme power is vested in the people whose power is exercised by representatives chosen by the people
gatekeeper, scorekeeper, watchdog
3 cheesy roles of the media
Sixteenth Amendment
Allowed Congress to levy an income tax
sound bites
short video clips of approximately 15 seconds, typically all that is shown from a politician's speech or activities on the nightly television news
Lemon test
Lemon v. Kurtzman to measure the constitutionality of state laws in regard to establishment clause (3 pronged test)
Constitutional Convention
1787 meeting at which the Articles were scrapped for the Constitution
Stare Decisis
"Let the decision stand" - doctrine whereby a previous decision by a court applies as a precedent in similar cases until that decision is overruled.
free excercise clause
1st amendment guarantee that prohibits gov't from unduly interfering with the free excercise of religion
presidential veto
a president's authority to reject a bill passed by Congress may be overridden only by a two-thirds majority in each house
exclusionary rule
a rule that provides that otherwise admissible evidence cannot be used in a criminal trial if it was the result of illegal police conduct
Random Sample
Method of selecting from a population in which each person has an equal probability of being selected.
Capitalism
An economic system in which things are privately owned.
Bill of Rights
First ten amendments to the US Constitution. The Bill of Rights guarantees personal liberties and limits the powers of the government.
executive privilege
the privilege of a president and his staff to withhold their "privileged" conversations from congress or the courts
conditions of aid
Federal rules that states must follow if they choose to receive the federal grants with which the rules are associated
sample survey
the main way to gauge, monitor, or test what people think concerning political issues
class action suits
Lawsuits permitting a small number of people to sue on behalf of all other people similarly situated.
intergovernmental lobby
The pressure group of groups that are created when states and local government hire lobbyists to lobby the national government.
separation of powers
The system that prevents any branch of government from becoming too powerful by dividing important tasks among the three branches. Also called the system of checks and balances.
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
Congress has the power to regulate interstate commerce
critical or realignment period
Periods when a major, lasting shift occurs in the popular coalition supporting one or both parties.
concurring opinion
a signed opinion in which one or more members agree with the majority view but for different reasons
Step 1: Bill Introduced
With exception of revenue or tax bill, bills can originate in either house. Bills are assigned a number and assigned to the appropriate committee.
Equal Protection of the law
A standard of equal treatment that must  be observed by the government.
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
A law passed in 1990 that requires employers and public facilities to make "reasonable accommodations" for people with disabilities and prohibits discrimination against these individuals in employment.
Defacto Segregation
segregation by nature
tendency toward the left
liberal
earmarks
Spending placed by committee members.
those who supported the constitution
federalist
Medicare
health care for the elderly
Brookings Institute
Liberal think-tank ideological interest group.
divided government
Governance divided between the parties, as when one holds the presidency and the other controls one or both houses of Congress
realism
A theory of international relations that focuses on the tendency of nations to operate from self-interest
constituents
The residents of a congressional district or state
democratic consensus
Widespread agreement on fundamental principles of democratic governance and the values that undergird them
Amicus Curiae
"friend of the court" brief
national supremacy
a constitutional doctrine that whenever conflict occurs between the constitutionally authorized actions of the national government and those of a state or local government, the actions of the federal government prevail
line-item veto
Deemed unconstitutional, process of eliminating individual parts of a bill.
survey researchers guarantee that everyone ahs equal probability of being sampled
random sampling
Sierra Club
Environmental action public interest group.
Sample
A relatively small proportion of people who are chosen in a survey so as to be representative of the whole
initiative
Procedure whereby a certain number of voters may, by petition, propose a law or constitutional amendment and have it submitted to the voters
political party
An organization that seeks political power by electing people to office so that its positions and philosophy become public policy
hard power
reliance on economic and military strength to solve international problems
delegated powers
Powers given explicitly to the national government and listed in the Constitution
revolving door
Employment cycle in which individuals who work for government agencies that regulate interests eventually end up working for interest groups or businesses with the same policy concern
mass media
Means of communication that are reaching the public, including newspapers and magazines, radio, television (broadcast, cable, and satellite), films, recordings, books, and electronic communication
central clearance
review of all executive branch testimony, reports, and draft legislation by the Office of Management and Budget to ensure that each communication to Congress is in accordance with the president's program
exit polling
Polls taken outside the polling station.
enumerated powers
The powers explicitly given to Congress in the Constitution.
privilege of immunity for the president from the judicial process
exec privilege
establishes term limits for a president
22nd amendment
state returns a criminal offender to the state where the crime was committed
extradition
Federalist paper
85 essays madison hamilton and jay
revenue sharing
A grant-in-aid program that allowed states maximum discretion in the spending of federal funds. States were not required to supply matching funds and they received money according to a statistical formula. The program was terminated in 1986.
Executive Agreement
agreement made between the president and a leader of a foreign country that does not have to be ratified by the Senate
527 groups
A political group organized under section 527 of the IRS Code that may accept and spend unlimited amounts of money on election activities so long as they are not spent on broadcast ads run in the last 30 days before a primary or 60 days before a general election where a clearly identified candidate is referred to and a relevant electorate is targeted. 527 groups were important to the 2000 and 2004 elections.
deficit
An excess of federal expenditures over federal revenues
regressive tax
A tax whereby people with lower incomes pay a higher fraction of their income than people with higher incomes
trade deficit
An imbalance in international trade in which the value of imports exceeds the value of exports
de facto segregation
segregation resulting from economic or social conditions or personal choices
concurrent powers
Powers that the Constitution gives to both the national and state governments, such as the power to levy taxes
ethnocentrism
belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group
electoral college
The electoral system used in electing the president and vice president, in which voters vote for electors pledged to cast their ballots for a particular party's candidates
candidate appeal
How voters feel about a candidate's background, personality, leadership ability, and other personal qualities
plurality
Candidate or party with the most votes cast in an election, not necessarily more than half
Civil Rights Act (1964)
banned discrmination in public places
voter registration
System designed to reduce voter fraud by limiting voting to those who have established eligibility by submitting the proper form.
cooperative federalism
stresses federalism as a system of intergovernmental relationship in delivering government goods and services to the people and calls for cooperation among various levels of government
pocket veto
A veto exercised by the president after Congress has adjourned; if the president takes no action for ten days, the bill does not become law and is not returned to Congress for a possible override.
A categorical grant that has specific legislative guidelines
formula grant
a president sends a bill back to congress with reasons
veto
any male has the right to vote
15th amendment
this body administers the campaign finance laws
federal election commission
in depth reporting to unearth scandals schemes, etc...
investigative journalism
Riders
amendments to bills, often in the form of appropriations, that sometimes have nothing to do with the bill itself. often considered to be pork barrel legislation
Pork barrel legislation
the practice of legislators obtaining funds through legislation that favors their home districts
Political Idealogy
A coherent set of beliefs about politics, public policy, and public purpose. It helps give meaning to political events, personalities, and policies
Gibbons v. Ogden
Congress had power to regulate interstate commerce
Articles of Confederation
the first governing document of the confederated states, drafted in 1777, ratified in 1781, and replaced by the present Constitution in 1789
search warrent
a writ issued by a magistrate that authorizes the police to search a particular place or person, specifying the place to be searched and the objects to be seized
rule
A precise statement of how a law is implemented
political socialization
The process by which we develop our political attitudes, values, and beliefs
free rider
An individual who does not join a group representing his or her interests yet receives the benefit of the group's influence
special or select committee
A congressional committee created for a specific purpose, sometimes to conduct an investigation.
elections are awarded to those who come in first
winner take all
one registers while applying for a drivers' license
motor voter act
confederal system
a political system in which the states are sovereign and determine what authority the central government has.
Federal Reserve System
federal body that regulates the money supply by controlling open-market operations
closed shop
A company with a labor agreement under which union membership can be a condition of employment.
excise tax
a consumer tax on a specific kind of merchandise, such as tobacco
checks and balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power.
Progressive tax
tax based upon the amount of money an individual earned, such as an income tax. legal from the 16th Amendment
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
An international trade organization with more than 130 members, including the United States and the People's Republic of China, that seeks to encourage free trade by lowering tariffs and other trade restrictions
Plessy v Ferguson (1896)
case that ruled that states had the right to impose "separate but equal" facilities on its citizens as well as create other laws that segregated the races
Federal Election Campaign Acts
in 1971 it set up restrictions on the amount of advertising used by a candidate. It created disclosure of contributions over $100, limited amount of personal contributions from a candidate, set up system of federal matching funds for presidential candidates.
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