ap gov vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
non citizen
speaker of the house
A sudden, unpredictable, and potentially dangerous event requiring the president to play the role of crisis manager.
how long something stays important
Divided Government
Governance divided between the parties, especially when one holds the presidency and the other controls one or both houses of Congress.
Civic Culture
Culture characterized by trust, legitimacy, and limited involvement, which some theorists believe is most conducive to democracy.
State can declare a law unconstitutional
Marginal district
Political districts in which candidates elected to the House of Representatives win in close elections, usually less than 55% of the vote
Drawing the boundaries of legislative districts so that they are unequal in population.
As mandated by the Constitution, the population of the United States is officially counted every ten years. Census data is then used to help distribute federal money and to reapportion congressional districts.
minority rights
a principle of traditional democratic theory that guarantees rights to those who do not belong to majorities and allows that they might join majorities through persuasion and reasoned argument
Majority rule
Meaning that in choosing among alternatives, the will of over half the voters should be followed
feminization of poverty
The increasing concentration of poverty among women, especially unmarried women and their children
Elite theory
theory that upper class elites exercise great influence over public policy.
qualitative method
cannot truly understand a country without being steeped in its history and culture
activities of members of Congress that help constituents aas individuals; cutting through bureaucratic red tape to get people what they think they have a right to get.
Executive privilege
The power to keep executive communications confidential, especially if they relate to national security.
A public official's statement to a reporter that is given a condition that the official not be named.
Hamiltion vs. Jefferson
Hamiltion: national supremacy since the constitution was supreme law (interpreted loosely)

Jefferson: states rights with people as ultimate sovereign national govermnet is a threat to liberties (10th limited)
national convention
Occasion at which a political party officially announces its presidential nominee and reveals its party platform for the next four years. Today's national conventions are merely media events, however; nominees have already been determined by primary election results.
de facto segregation
segregation by fact (ex: segregation that results from such factors as housing patterns rather than law)
Checks and Balances
The different branches of government overlap in some area, allowing each branch to "check" the power of another.
street-level bureaucrats
A phrase coined by Michael Lipsky, referring to those bureaucrats who are in constant contact with the public and have considerable administrative discretion.
McGovern-Fraser Commission
a commission formed at the 1968 Democratic convention in response to demands for reform by minority groups and others who sought better representation
equality of opportunity
economic liberal's goal to regulate potentially damaging business practices, and provide safety nets for individuals unable to compete in the job market
direct democracy
Procedures by which voters have a direct impact on policymaking by means of a voting booth.
public policy
a choice that government makes in response to a political issue
amendment that gives you the right to due process, no double jeopardy, and no self-incrimination
material incentives
Money or things valued in monetary terms.
Order issued by higher court to a lower court to send up the record of a case for review.
Twenty-second Amendment (1951)
Limited the number of years an individual may serve as president. According to the Twenty-second Amendment, a president may be elected no more than twice.
party identification
a sense of affiliation that a person has with a particular political party
independent executive agencies
The government not accounted for by cabinet departments, independent regulatory agencies, and government corporations. Its administrators are typically appointed by the president and server at the president's pleasure.
Bill of Rights
The first 10 amendments to the Constitution-guarantees liberties to the people-written in 1789-ratified in 1791
Baseline budgeting
OMB prepares a baseline to use in expected spending of the gov'ts spending
House Rules Committee
Determines the rules for debate of each bill, including whether the bill may be amended. This is the most powerful committee in the House.
Executive agreement
Agreement w/ another head of state not requiring approval form teh Senate
Spring Review
The annual process in which the Office of Management and Budget requires federal agencies to review their programs, activities, and goals and submit their requests for funding for the next fiscal year.
Original Jurisdiction
The authority of a given court to be the first court to hear a case.
judicial review
power of the courts to rule on the constitutionality of laws and government actions
devolution revolution
The effort to slow the growth of the federal government by returning many functions to the states.
civil service laws
these acts removed the staffing of the bureaucracy from political parties and created a professional bureaucracy filled through competition
full faith and credit clause
provides that states must respect the public acts, laws, and judicial rulings of other states
Baker V carr
case that est. one man one vote. this decision created guidelines for drawing up congresional districts and guaranteed a more equitable system of representation to the citizens of each state
The conflict of Civil Rights and Democracy
must have a balance; favor minority but majority rules
1st district
Judicial implementation
Executive enforces laws
fairness doctrine
Federal Communications Commission policy that required holders of radio and television licenses to ensure that different viewpoints were presented about controversial issues or persons; largely repealed in 1987
government authority shared by national and state governments
Presidential refusal to allow an agency to spend funds authorized and appropriated by Congress.
The policy of colonizing other countries - literally, establishing empires.
Implied Preemption
Federal law conflicting with state/local laws, that cannot be effected because of those laws
The official endorsement of the candidate for office by a political party
A gatekeeper can influence what subjects become national political issues and for how long.
soft money
Political donations made to parties for the purpose of general party maintenance and support. Soft-money contributions are not limited by federal law. Soft money may be used for get-out-the-vote campaigns, issue advocacy, and advertisements that promote the party (but not individual candidates).
policymaking system
the process by which political problems are communicated by the voters and acted upon by the government policymakers. The system begins with people's needs and expectations for government action.
Policymaking institutions
Est. by the US constitutional congress, the presidency, and the courts. Power of the bureaucracy is so powerful it is considered a fourth policy institution
finance committee
Senate committee that handles tax bills
Selective exposure
the practice of selectively choosing media sources which are in harmony with one's own beliefs.
Institution or person that is widely accepted and recognized by the public
Types: traditional, rational-legal, charismatic
a proposed law, drafted in precise, legal language. Anyone can draft a bill, but only a member of the House of Representatives or the Senate can formally submit a bill for consideration
New Deal
The measures advocated by the Roosevelt administration to alleviate the Depression
Majority leader
The legislative leader elected by party members holding the majority of seats in the House or the Senate
process that permits voters to put legislative measures directly on the ballot
dual federalism
Form of US federalism during the nation's early history. During this period, the federal and state governments remained separate and independent. What little contact most Americans had with government occurred on the state level, as the national government concerned itself primarily with international trade, construction of roads, harbors, and railways, and the distribution of public land in the West.
applying the Bill of Rights to that states
17th Ammendment
allowed american voters to elect u.s senators, Passed by Congress in 1912 gave people a chance to vote for their senators directly instead of through state legislatures
plea bargaining
a legal negotiation in which a prosecutor reduces a charge in exchange for a defendant's guilty plea
Americans with Disabilities Act
Policy requiring employers and administrators to make "reasonable accommodations" and prohibits discrimination based on disability
Police power
capacity of the states to regulate behavior and enforce order within their territory for the betterment of the general welfare, morals, health, and safety of their inhabitants
a method of surveying in which one delegate is chosen (typically randomly) to give an opinion on a certain issue
elastic clause
the part of the Constitution that permits Congress to make any laws "necessary and proper" to carrying out its powers
Newt Gingrich
Republican speaker of the house from 1995 to 1999; led by Republican Revolution, ending forty years of Democratic party majorities in that body; made sweeping reforms to House rules
The ones who keep track of everything the newly selected candidate does.
Idependent Regulatory Commission
Agency outside of major executive departments charged with the regulation of important aspects of the economy. (determine rights of individuals and property)
killer amendment
Amendment to a bill proposed by its opponents for the specific purpose of decreasing the bill's chance of passage.
the act or process of carrying out a lawsuit
Amicus curiae brief
Friend of the court; interest groups may be invited to file legal briefs supporting/rejection arguments of the case
Jeffersonian republicans
much of the south, James madison and Jefferson,
presidential approval
Refers to the degree to which the American public as a whole approves the way the President is performing his responsibilities as the nations leader.
Kyoto treaty
a treaty signed in 1997. It requires countries who sign it to reduce thieir gas emissions to levels below what they were producing in 1990
Standing Committee
A permanent committee in the House or Senate that considers bills within a certain subject area.
gross domestic product
total value of all goods and services produced annually in the US
formal amendment
a change in the actual wording of the Constitution; proposed by Congress or national convention, and ratified by the states
national party convention
the supreme power within each of the parties. the convention meets every four years to nominate the party's presidential and vice-presidential candidates and to write the party's platform
Furman v. Georgia (1972)
a split court found that the death penalty, as used in the states, constituted "cruel and unusual punishment" because the procedures by which states were sentencing people to death sentences were, in its words, "capricious and arbitrary"
winner takes all system
an electoral system in which the party that receives at least one more vote than any other party wins the election
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
Created to allow the free movement of goods between Canada, Mexico, and the U.S. by lessening and eliminating tariffs
1955-1964 (Russia)
changes to the Constitution
drawing of legislative district boundary lines following each 10-year census
rural residential areas within commuting distance of the city.
an interest group's most valuable resource
Newspapers published by the massive media conglomerates that account for almost 3/4 of the nation's daily circulation
Interest groups arising from the unequal distribution of property and wealth
a presidential advisory group selected by the president, made up of the vice president, the heads of the federal executive departments, and other high officials to whom the president elects to give the cabinet status
Iron triangles
Entites composed of bureaucratic agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees or subcommittees, which have dominated some areas of domesic policymaking. Characterized by mutual dependency, in which each elements provides key service, imformation, or policy for the others
Political Party
an organization to gain political power
Representative Democracy
Citizens elect people to make decisions for them
commerce clause
the clause in the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 1) that gives Congress the power to regulate all business activities that cross state lines or affect more than one state by other nations
Political Questions
Dispute that requires knowledge of nonlegal character, or the use of techniques not suitable for a court, or explicitly assigned by the Constitution to congress or the President; judges refuse to answer Constitutional questions that they declare political.
procedure enabling voters to reject a measure passed by the legislature
minimum number of members needed for the House or Senate to meet.
a formal accusation of misconduct in office against a public official; House has the sole power
Traits: Populists are more likely than the average citizen to older, poorly educated, low-income, religious, and female and to live in the South or Midwest.
sampling error
Margin of error in public opinion poll. Most polls are accurate within a margin of +- 4 percent.
ideological party
a party that values principles most; principles are more important than winning; profess a comprehensive view of American society that is radically different from that of established parties
line item veto
presidential power to strike, or remove, specific items from a spending bill without vetoing the entire package, declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court
Appropriations Bill
A proposed law to authorize spending money.
McGovern-Frasier Commission
A commission formed at the 1968 Democratic convention in response to demands for reform by minority groups and others who sought better representation.
prospective judgement
a voter's evaluation of a candidate based on what he or she pledges to do about an issue if elected
income tax
Direct tax on the earnings of individuals and corporations
direct primary
Election in which voters choose party nominees.
open rule
An order from the House Rules Committee that permits a bill to be amended on the legislative floor.
Clear-and-Present-Danger test
Law should not punish speech unless there was clear and present danger  of producing harmful actions.
Federalist Papers
A series of documents about the federalist position.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Supreme Court ruling that "separate but equal" facilities for the different races were not unconstitutional. This ruling opened the door to 75 years of state-sanctioned segregation in the South.
pure independents
voter who has no consistent pattern of party voting
national primary
a proposal by critics of the caucuses and presidential primaries systems who would replace these electoral methods with a nationwide primary held early in the election year.
inalienable rights
rights thought to be based on nature and Providence rather than on the preferences of people
social movement
a widely shared demand for change in some aspect of the social or political order.
eminent domain
right of gov to take priate property for the public good. fair compensation must be paid to the owner of such property
political participation
All the activities used by citizens to influence the selection of political leaders or the policies they pursue; usually done through voting or polls
equality of result
Making certain that people achive the same result.
random digit dialing
A technique used by pollsters to place telephone calls randomly to both listed and unlisted numbers when conducting a survey.
McCulloch v Maryland
the supreme court ruled in favor of the national gov and denied state the right to tax a federal bank(supremecy clause)[Marshall court]
Intermediate Courts of Appeal
Those courts that hear appeals prior to their coming to the court of final resolution.
writ of certiorari
a formal writ used to bring a case before the Supreme Court
writ of habeas corpus
a court order that requires police to bring a prisoner to court to explain why they are holding the person
Tinker v. Des Moines School District
1969 SuCo: Armbands are a form of symbolic speech protected under the Constitution.
Concurring Opinion
Budget resolution
proposes budget ceiling
Amicus Curiae
"Friend of the Court"
individuals or groups who are not parties to a lawsuit may aid or influence the court in reaching its desicion.
a basic principle of traditional democratic theory that describes the relationship between the few leaders and the many followers
civil law
concerns noncriminal disputes between private parties
three-fifths compromise
Compromise between northern and southern states at the Constitutional Convention that three-fifths of the slave population would be counted for determining direct taxation and representation in the House of Representatives.
de jure segregation
segregation produced by law
wrote Leviathan: he said that government must exisit to prevent deterioration into our state of nature.
nonstop senate debate that prevents a bill from coming to a vote
block grant
federal funds provided for broad purpose unrestricted by detailed requirements and regulations
needed for success in nomination
momentum, money, media
politics- benefits from a policy that imposes substantial costs on some small, identifiable segment of society.
party whip
enforces party discipline; helps party leader stay informed about what party members are thinking, round up members for important votes, gets nose count
Opponents of the U.S. Constitution. Argued that it was a class-based document, that it would erode fundamental liberties, and it would weaken the power of the states
Power Elite
C. Wright Mills
corporate, military, political, media, unions, control/served
gov is dominated by a few top leaders most of whom are outside the government
Developing Nation
country with low level of material well-being
sound bites
Short video clips of approximately 10 seconds. Typically, they are all that is shown from a politician's speech on the nightly television news.
Aguilar v. Felton
sent public school teachers into parochial schools to provide remedial education to disadvantaged children
the recent tendency of states to hold primaries early in the calendar in order to capitalize on media attention
Runoff primary
When no candidate receives a majority of votes, an election held between the two candidates who received the most votes in the primary
Pocket Veto
Veto that is effected when Congress adjourns during the time a president has to approve a bill and the president takes no action on it.
judicial restraint
A judicial philosophy in which judges play minimal policymaking roles, leaving that duty strictly to the legislatures
the process by which people decide who shall govern and what policies shall be adopted
connecticut compromise
Compromise agreement by states at the Constitutional Convention for a bicameral legislature with a lower house in which representation would be based on population and an upper house in which each state would have two senators
What year did the Civil Rights Act pass?
Shay's Rebellion
A series of armed attacks on courthouses that spurred the birth of the US constitution.
The name of the hotel in which spies working for President Richard Nixon's 1972 election campaign were caught breaking into Democratic National Headquarters. The name Watergate soon became synonymous with a number of illegal activities undertaken by the Nixon White House. The resulting scandal forced Nixon to resign the presidency in 1974.
discount rate
the rate of interest set by the Federal Reserve that member banks are charged when they borrow money through the Federal Reserve System
an element of the American view of the political system, in which Americans believe that government officials should be accountable to the people
Must be 30 years old, a resident of the state represented, and a citizen of the United States for 9 years
position issue
an issue about which the public is divided and rival candidates or political parties adopt different policy positions
term limits
a restriction on the number of terms an elected official may serve in a given office
Committee of Correspondence
Organizations in each of the American colonies abreast of developments with the British; served as powerful molders of public opinion against the Brittish.
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)
Supreme Court decision in which the Court ruled that the Constitution implicitly guarantees citizens' right to privacy.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
the law that made racial discrimination against any group in hotels, motels, and restaurants illegal and forbade many forms of job discrimination
privileges and immunities clause
guarantees that citizens of all states are afforded the same rights
privileges and immunity clause
citizens of each state can have most of the privileges of other states
Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992)
Reaffirmed Roe v. Wade but upheld certain limits on its use.
New York Times v. Sullivan (1964)
To Libel a public figure, there must be "actual malice."
Direct Tax
Cruel and Unusual Punishment
Loss of property as payment
a belief that limited government ensures order, competitive markets, and personal opportunity
the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs
people within a district or state-government official represents them.
Chief Executive
President of the United States.
Special election initiated by petition to allow citizens to remove an official from office before his or her term expires
publication of false or malicious statements that damage one’s reputation
group of items categorized by a certain characteristic
exclusionary rule
supreme court guideline that excludes the use of illegally obtained evidence in criminal trial
solicitor general
A presidential appointee and the third-ranking office in the Department of Justice. The solicitor general is in charge of the appellate court litigation of the federal government.
Pluralist theory
interest groups compete in the political arena with each promoting its own policy preferences through organized efforts-everyone gets a piece of the pie-a marketplace of ideas, compromise happens-positive view
people began to question the divine right of kings
linkage institutions
the political channels through which people's concerns become political issues on the policy agenda
proportional representation
an electoral system used throughout most of Europe that awards legislative seats to political parties in proportion to the number of votes won in an election.
Affirmative action
Programs designed to increase minority participation in some institution (businesses, schools, labor uniuns, or government agencies by taking positive steps to appoint more minority group members.
domination of an industry by a single company by fixing prices and discouraging competition; also, the company that dominates the industry by these means
Fiscal Federalism
The pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system; it is the cornerstone of the national government's relations with state and local governments.
Articles of Confederation
each state retained its sovereignty and independance, had one vote in congress, and the central/national government was really weak
service strategy
a policy providing poor people with education and job training to help lift them out of poverty.
Party Column Ballot
Type of ballot that encourages party-line voting by listing all of a party's candidates in a column under the party name.
Legislative veto
To reject the actions of the president/executive agency by a vote of one/both house of Congress w/o the consent of the president; ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court
Senator: US citizen for how many years?
9 years
Stare Decisis
Latine for "let the decision stand." Supreme Court policy of following precedent in deciding cases.
Marxist view
govt. is a reflection of economic focuses; dominated by capitalists
dual sovereignty
A doctrine holding that state and federal authorities can prosecute the same person for the same conduct, each authority prosecuting under its own law.
voting with one party for one office and with another party for other offices.
Simpson-Mazzolli Act
An immigration law, named after its legislative sponsors that requires employees to document the citizenship of their employees. Civil and criminal penalties can be assessed against employers who knowingly employ illegal immigrants
NJ Plan
proposal to create a weak nat'l government
Miller vs. Johnson (1995)
reapportionment cannot be based on race
authoritarian system
a system of government that bases its rule on force rather than consent of the governed
Congressional whip
People under the party kneaders in the houses
due to a change in party policy, some members go away from the party and do not choose a new one
Limited Government
idea that certain things are out of bounds for government because of the natural rights of citizens. Limited government was central to John Locke’s philosophy in the 17th century and it contrasted sharply with the prevailing view of the divine rights of monarchs.
Newly Industrialized Countries (NIC's)
The handful of countries, such as South Korea, that have developed a strong industrial base and grown faster than most of the third world.
Congressional Budget Impoundment and Control Act of 1974
Act that reformed the congressional budgetary process, making it more independent of the president's budget.
Stenberg v. Carhart (2000)
States may not ban partial birth abortions if they fail to allow an exception to protect the health of the mother.
War Powers Resolution
A law, passed in 1973 in reaction to American fighting in Vietnam and Cambodia, requiring presidents to consult with Congress whenever possible prior to using military force and to withdraw forces after 60 days unless Congress declares war or grants an extension. Presidents view the resolution as unconstitutional.
Heart of Atlanta Motel Vs US
forbids the discrimination based on race in public accommondations. it explanded the interpretation of the interstate commerce clause
What three questions must be answered to decide whether the media has a profound affect on politics AND whether the opinions of the writers and editors influence this effect?
1. Do the members of the media have a distinctive political attitude?2. Does the attitude affect what they write or say?3. Does what they write or say affect what citizens believe?
coming together/ mixing
federal spending of revenues
The right to use power
Substantive Due Process
Constitutional requirement that governments act reasonably and that the substance of the laws themselves be fair and reasonable; limits what a government may do.
policy agenda
issues important to political officers
organization that maintains a monopoly of violence
-has institutions like an army, police, taxation, judiciary and social welfare
When opposing parites &interests often block each other's proposals, creating a pol. stalemate/inaction btwn the esecutive &legislative branches of govt
Civil Liberties
protections the constitution provides against abuse of government power
cooperative federalism
system in which both federal government and state governments cooperate in solving problems
United States v. Nixon (1973)
limited presidential power
Super Delegates
Party leaders and elected officials who become
delegates to the national convention without having to run in primaries or caucuses
The condition of being relatively free of governmental restraints
issue loyalists
People committed to one issue (environmentalists etc.)
new federalism
system in which the national government restores greater authority back to the states
Lawrence v. Texas
struck down TX statue criminalizing oral and gay sex by consenting gay couples, bowers vs hardwick overruled, 2003, they held that the intimate consensual sexual conduct was part of the liberty protected by substantive due process under the 14th amendment
single-issue groups
groups that have a narrow interest, tend to dislike compromise, and often draw membership from people new to politics.
Ingraham v. Wright
8th amendment - corpral punishment (hitting) IS constitutional
Political Issue
An issue that arises when people disagree about a problem and a policy choice
Presidential preference primaries
Voters select delegates to the presidential nominating convention
Nineteenth Amendment
Provided women with the right to vote.
civic competence
A belief that one can affect government policies
grand jury order that a suspect must stand trial for a criminal offense
Sampling errors
Percentage of possible erros in teh polling process
splinter parties
unite around the feeling the majority parties are ignoring demands on some segment
1965 voting rights act
guaranteed voting rights to blacks
Sound Bite
A Short, pithy comment that is likely to attract media attention
parliamentary system
a system of government in which the legislature selects the prime minister or president
Rule of Law
In a democracy, the principle that legal rules rather than arbitrary and personal decisions determine what happens.
Lobbyist Disclosure Act
legislation aimed at bringing a higher level of accountability to federal lobbying practices in the US.
solidary incentive
The social rewards that lead people to join political organizations.
act of correcting an error or a fault or an evil
politcal efficacy
a belief that you can participate in politics (internal efficacy) or that the government will respond to the citizenry (external efficacy)
Equal time rule
an FCC rule that if a broadcaster sells time to one candidate, it must sell equal time to other candidates.
Secretary of State
The head of the Department of State and traditionally a key adviser to the president on foreign policy
Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier
1988 SuCo: Censorship of school newspapers is constitutional.
Instructed Delegate
A legislator who is an agent of the voters who elected him or her and who votes according to the views of constituents regardless of personal beliefs.
Planned Parenthood vs. Casey (1992)
reaffirmed Roe vs. Wade but upheld provisions
Free Expression since WWI
right of people to speak, publish, and assemble free to exercis religion and government may not establish religion
Amy Klobuchar D-MN
unchecked government powerunlimited power (north korea, nazi germany)
the principle of a two-house legislature
A policy document allocating burdens (taxes) and benefits (expenditures)
Maintaining elections
Traditional majority power maintains power based on voters' party loyalty
opponents of the Constitution; aka states' righters
Social Security
Social insurance that provides economic assistance to persons faced with unemployment, disability, or old age. It is financed by taxes on employers and employees.
us v nixon
executive privilege not absolute
Political Appointees
those who have received presidential appointments to office. Contrast with Civil Service employees, who receive federal jobs by competitive exams.
a short form of "perquisites," meaning "fringe benefits of office." among the perks of of political office for high-ranking officials are limousines, expense accounts, free air travel, fancy offices, and staff assistants
A claim for government funds that cannot be abridged without violating the rights of the claimant; for example, social security benefits or payments on a contract.
Standards or guides based on prior decisions that serve as a rule for settling similar disputes
Meeting of party members to select delegates to back a primary candidate
policy differences
The perception of clear differences between parties.
all agencies, a system of departments and agencies formed to carry out the work of government
A belief that morality and religion ought to be of decisive importance.
fighting words
Words that by their very nature inflict injury on those to whom they are addressed or incite them to acts of violence
Who are the most influential people in forming the young population's political opinions?
gender gap
differences in the political views and voting behavior of men and women
Policy Gridlock
A condition that occurs when no coalition is strong enough to win the majority and establish policy
One of the key inducements used by party machines. A ______ job, promotion, or contract is one that is given for political reasons rather than for merit or competence alone.
Popular Sovereignty
the notion that the ultimate authority in society lies with the people (natural law)
pork barrel
the mighty list of federal projects, grants, and contracts availiable to cities, business, colleges, and intitutions available in a congressional district.
Freedom of expression
Freedom of speech/right to petition the govt for redress as 1st amendment right
government corporation
A government agency that operates like a business corporation, created to secure greater freedom of action and flexibility for a particular program.
Conference Committee
A special joint committee appointed to a reconcile differences when bills pass the two chambers of Congress in different forms.
who wrote noted in federalist paper 10
james madison
Informal Amendment
A change in meaning, but not the wording, of the Constitution.
political question
An issue the Supreme Court will allow the executive and legislative branches decide.
Role of Government
"Government should do for all people what they cannot do for themselves at all." -Abe
Free rider problem
the problem faced by interest groups when citizens can reap the benefits of interest group action without actually joining, participating in, or contributing money to such groups.
Sons of Liberty
organized by Patrick Henry and Samuel Adams in response to the British involvement
Petit Jury
A jury of 6-12 persons who determine guilt or innocence in a civil or criminal action.
Political Culture
An overall set of values widely shared within a society.
Gitlow v. New York (1925)
Incorporated freedom of speech into the Bill of Rights, New York state bound by the first amendment.
civic duty
The belief that it is a citizen's duty to vote in order to support democracy.
privileges and immunities
states that the citizens of each state must have most of the privileges of citizens in other states
equal protection of the law
a standard of equal treatment that must be observed by the government
ex post facto law
a law which makes criminal an act that was legal when it was commited, or that increases the penalty for a crime after it has been commited, or that changes the rules of evidence to make conviction easier. the state legislatures are forbidden to pass such laws by Article I, Sections 9 & 10 of the Constitution
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