AP Gov. Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
government by the people
departments, agencies, bureaus, and commissions in the executive branch of government
Representative democracy
Citizens choose officals (representatives) who make decisions about public policy
civil disobedience
nonviolent, peaceful protests against laws that are believed to be unjust.
Laissez-Faire Economics
Theory that opposes governmental interference in economic affairs beyond what is necessary to protect life and property.
Direct group involvement in the electoral process. Groups can help fund campaigns, provide testimony, and get members to work for candidates, and some form political action committees (PACs). Link to: 527s; FECA 1974; BiCRA 2002.
spoken untruths that damage a reputation
block grants
grants-in-aid awarded for general purposes, allowing the recipient great discretion in spending the grant money
proportional representation
an electoral system used throughout most of Europe that awards legislative seats to political parties in proportion to the number of votes won in an election.
per curiam opinion
a brief, unsigned court opinion
Linkage Institutions
The political channels through which people's concerns become political issues on the policy agenda. In the United States, ______ __________ include elections, political parties, interest groups, and the media.
member of the Electoral College chosen by method's determined by each state
House of Representatives
Redistricting occurs every 10 years
The publication of false or malicious statements that damage someone's reputation.
The document setting forth the laws &principles of the govt; a plan of govt
a political party member in congress charged with keeping members informed of the plans of the party leadership, counting votes before action on important issues, and rounding up party members for votes on bills
project grants
Grant programs in which state/local governments submit proposals to federal agencies and for which funding is provided on a competitive basis. Used in 60's and promoted federal power
exit polls
Public opinion surveys used by major media pollsters to predict electoral winners with speed and precision.
The minimum number of members who must be present to permit a legislative body to take official action
divided government
a government in which one party controls the White House and another party controls one or both houses of Congress
cooperative federalism
the federal system under which the national and state governments share responsibilities for most domestic policy areas
senate motion to end a filibuster that requires 3/5 vote.
the role played by the national media in keeping track of and helping make political reputations
dual federalism
Views the Constitution as giving a limited list of powers to the national government and leaving the rest to sovereign states. Each level of government is dominant within its own sphere.
Reed v. Reed
1971 SuCo: First upheld gender discrimination claim.
Party Platform
A political party's statement of its goals and policies for the next four years
Judicial review
Authority given the courts to review constitutionality of acts by the executive/state/legislature; est. in Marbury v. Madison
Political culture
widely shared views about who should govern, for what ends, and by what means.
Federal system
divides the power between the central government and the sub-units
Motor Voter Act
requires states to permit people to register to vote at the same time they apply for their drivers license
Hamdi v. Rumsfeld (2004)
both foreigners and American citizens detained as "enemy combatants" have a right to have a hearing to contest the basis of their detentions
Convention Bump
an increased in the popularity of a candidate after the party nominating convention; boost
Traditional democratic theory
Government depends upon the consent of the governed
Simple Resolution
An expression of opinion either in the House
or Senate to settle procedural matters in either body
amicus curiae briefs
Briefs submitted to the court by outside parties to influence the decision.
Double jeopardy
Being tried twice for the same offense (if you appealing, it is not double jeopardy because you are asking to be retried)
poll tax
A requirement that citizens pay a tax in order to register to vote.
ex post facto law
retroactive criminal law that works to the disadvantage of an individual; forbidden in the Constitution
Religious Freedom Restoration Act
1993. Right to free religious practice is protected unless the government can show a compelling interest for the regulation of such practice.
Spin control
placing a certain slant on a story to deflect negative public attention against a candidate or office holder.
Substantive due process
the law itself is fair or unfair-not the procedures-but the law
party caucus
a meeting of the members of a party in a legislative chamber to select party leaders and to develop party policy. Called a conference by the Republicans
Discharge Petition
a motion to force a bill to the House floor that has been bottled up in committee
State of the Union Message
An annual message to Congress in which the president proposes a legislative program. The message is addressed not only to Congress but also to the American people and to the world.
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