Ap Gov. Vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Article 3
Judicial Branch
Article 1
Legislative Branch
House Minority Leader
Nancy Pelosi
Senate Majority Leader
Harry Reid
President of the Senate
Joe Biden
Speaker of the House
John Boehner
Elana Kagan
Associate Justice 2010, Obama
Ruth Bader Ginsburg
Associate Justice 1993, Clinton
Legislative Oversight
Congress' monitoring of the bureaucracy and its administration of policy, performed mainly through hearings
Government
the institution through which the state maintains social order, provides public services, and enforces binding decisions on citizens. Consists of congress president, courts and the bureaucracy
Whip
Party leaders who work with the majority leader or minority leader to count votes beforehand and lean on waivers whose votes are crucial to a bill favored by that party
Casework
Activities of members of Congress that help constituents as individuals.
linkage institutions
How peoples concerns become political issues on the policy agenda. In us they are elections, political parties, groups and the media.
minority rights
A principle of traditional democratic theory that guarantees rights to those who do not belong to majorities and allows that they might join majorities through persuasion and reasoned argument.
democracy
A system of selecting policy makers, and organizing government for the people.
Majority Leader
The principal partisan ally of the Speaker of the House or the party's wheel horse in Senate.
Politics
The process of how we select our leaders or the policies they pursue. Produces decisions on policies
public policies
A policy by the government to take action against a specific problem. Such as Social Security
5th
king
unicameral legislature
one house legislature
Trustee
After listening to constiutents, elected representatives vote based on their own opinions
elite
people who have a disproportionate amount of some valued resource
Sixth Amendment
Designed to protect individuals accused of crimes; includes the right to counsel, the right to confront witnesses, and the right to a speedy and public trial.
Standing committees
Separate subject-matter committees in each house of Congress that handle bills in different policy areas
Centrism
movmement of ideologies toward the middle of the spectrum. Changes curve to a more "normal" one.
political socialization
According to Richard Dawson, "the process through which an individual acquires his or her particular political orientations-his or her knowledge, feelings, and evaluations regarding his or her political world."
centrist
majority of the American people are moderate (middle of the political scale)
25
Minimum age requirement for a member of the House of Representatives
Majority Rule
Governance according to the expressed preferences of the majority.
Federalism
the division of power between states and the federal government
Congress
Determine the number of Supreme Court Justices
Equal Rights Amendment
Suggested Amendment; "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the US or by any state on account of sex."
Hatch Act
Prohibits govt employees from engaging in pol. activities whle on duty/running for office/seeking poli. funding while off duty; if in sensitive positions, may not be involved w/ pol. activities on/off duty
logrolling
act of exchanging favors for mutual gain
open primary
Primary election in which voters may vote in whichever party primary they choose, but they must select that party before entering the voting booth.
Executive Order
Directive issued by a president or governor that has the force of law.
distributive policy
A public policy such as Social Security that provides benefits to all groups in society.
McCulloch v. Maryland
Supreme Court ruling (1819) confirming the supremacy of national over state government
executive agreement
an agreement between the president and another head of state that, unlike a treaty, does not require Senate approval.
presidential coattails
the charismatic power of a president which enables congressional candidates of the same party to ride into office on the strength of his popularity. this influence has declined in recent elections
preemption
The right of a federal law or regulation to preclude enforcement of a state or local law or regulation.
10th Amendment
Amendment that gives the rights not delegated to National government or denied to the States to the States.
federal questions
pertains to the US constitution, acts of Congress, or treaties. provides a basis for federal jurisdiction.
non-means-tested benefits
benefits provided by government to all citizens, regardless of income; Medicare and Social Security are examples
spoils system
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
mandate
a rule that tells states what they must do in order to comply with federal guidlines
The Federalist Papers
a series of 85 political papers written by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison in support of ratification of the US Constitution
public goods
goods, such as clean air and clean water, that everyone must share
political culture
a coherent way of thinking about how politics and government ought to be carried out
Majority opinion
The majority of justices agree on the decision &the reasons for the decision
elite and class theory
theory of government and politics contending that societies are divided along class lines and that upper-class elite will rule, regardless of the formal nicieties of governmental organization
Traditional democratic theory
Government depends upon the consent of the governed
movement
A large body of people interested in a common issue, idea, or concern that is of continuing significance and who are willing to take action on that isse. Movements seek to change attitudes or institutions, not only policies.
eg - civil rights, abolitionist, environmental, women's rights, animal rights, etc. 
Civil Rights Act of 1968
this law banned discrimination in housing, the segregation of education, transprotation, and employment, it helped African Americans gain their full voting rights.
Office of Budget and Management
the largest office within the Executive Office of the President, cabinet level position
national party convention
supreme power within in each of the parties.
War Powers Act
Limits the ability of the president to commit troops to combat-48 hours to tell Congress when and why the troops were sent, they have 60-90 to bring them home if they disagree
McCulloch vs. Maryland (1819)
the Surpreme Court upheld the power of the national government and denied the right of a state to tax the federal bank using the Constitution's supremacy clause. The Court's broad interpretation of the necessary and proper clause paved the way for later rulings upholding expansive federal powers
Writ of Certiorari
A formal writ used to bring a case before the Supreme Court.
Factionalism as a Source of Unity/Guarantee of Liberty
the division of powers among several governments would give to virtually every faction an opportunity to gain some but not full power
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