Ap Gov. Vocab 2 Flashcards

Supreme Court of the United States
Terms Definitions
A critical turning point.
an organization characterized by hierarchical structure, worker specialization, explicit rules, and advancement by merit
composed of one legislative body
Legislative Oversight
ongoing process of congressional monitoring of the executive branch to ensure that the latter complies with the law
Political form of government where governing power is derived from the people.
Transfer of power from federal government to states
any satisfaction that people believe that they will enjoy if the policy is adopted
Twenty-Fourth Amendment
Constitutional Amendment passed in 1964 that made poll taxes illegal.
shield law
Law guaranteeing news reporters the right to protect the anonymity of their sources. Many states have passed shield laws, but there is no federal shield law.
Virginia Plan
Initial proposal at the Constitutional Convention made by the Virginia delegation for a strong central government with a bicameral legislature dominated by the big states.
a majority greater than a simple majority of one over half (3/5, 2/3)
Not appointed to the Supreme Court Judge position because of your views (or because of the litmus test)
revolving door
Employment cycle in which individuals who work for government agencies that regulate interests eventually end up working for interest groups or businesses with the same policy concern.
Senatorial Courtesy
Practice whereby the President, before formally nominating a person for a federal judgeship, finds out whether the senators from the candidate's state support the nomination.
white primary
primary election in which southern states allowed only whites to vote
Establishment Clause
Prohibits the establishment of a national religion-1st amendment
The person already holding an elective office.
more honest ballots
australian ballots
parties no longer print ballots
ballots no longer cast in public
parties no longer count ballots
voting eligibility rules are harder to get around
Federal Reserve Board
Executive agency that is largely responsible for the formulation and implementation of monetary policy. By controlling the monetary supply, the Fed helps maintain a stable economy.
Necessary and Proper Clause
Constitutional clause that gives congress the power to make all laws "necessary and proper" for executing its powers
White House Office
Closest advisors to president, no confirmation by Senate because they work for the President. Most have long relationships with the President and worked on his campaign. Consists of Chief of staff, national security advisor, chief domestic policy advisor, and the press secretary, also the west wing has offices for the VP and his/her staff
grandfather clause
A clause in registration laws allowing people who do not meet registration requirements to vote if they or their ancestors had voted before 1867.
symbolic speech
an act that conveys a political message
nonpartisan elections
elections in which candidates are not identified by party membership on the ballot.
political cue
a signal telling a legislature what values are at stake in a vote, and how that issue fits into his or her own political views on a party agenda
Article 3
Article of the Constitution that sets up the Judicial Branch and defines treason.
Plea Bargain
Agreement between a prosecutor and a defendant that the defendant will plead guilty to a lesser offense to avoid having to stand trial for a more serious offense.
Presidential qualifications
35 years old, natural born citizen, must live in the US for 14 years
Dred Scott(1856)
Dred Scott v. Sandford (1856): The United States Supreme Court decided that ruled that people of African descent, whether or not they were slaves, could never be citizens of the United States, and that Congress had no authority to prohibit slavery in federal territories.
The division of a legislature into two seperate assemblies.
4 purposes of government
keep order, provide security, provde services, guide community
Trial balloon
Tests the public reaction to policy or appointments by releasing information to the media and gauging public reaction
interstate compact
An agreement among two or more states. Congress must approve most such agreements.
Senate Finance Committee
The Senate committee that, along with the House Ways and Means committee, writes the tax codes, subject to the approval of Congress as a whole.
Limited govt
Basic prinicple of U.S. govt that each person has rights that govt cannot take away
Original Jurisdiction
The jurisdiction of courts that hear a case first, usually in a trial. They determine the facts about a case
writ of habeas corpus
a court order directing a police officer, sheriff, or a warden who has a person in custody to bring the prisoner before a judge to show sufficient cause for his or her detention. The purpose of the order is to prevent illegal arrests and unlawful imprisonment. Under the Constitution, the writ cannot be suspended except during invasion or rebellion.
Civil Service Reform Act
ended the Civil Service Commission and split up its responsibilities
Bill of Attainder
Law that declares a person, without a trial, guilty of a crime
standing vote
a procedure in both the House and the Senate that involved members standing in order to cast their votes; these votes are not recorded
selective incorporation
view that the Bill of Rights is to be applied to the states in a more gradual matter on a case by case basis, via the due process clause of the 14th amendment
Elementary & Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA)
the federal government's primary law to assist the nation's elementary and secondary schools. It emerged as part of President Lyndon Johnson's Great Society
Tinker vs. Des Moine Ind. Comm. School District (1969)
schools cannot limit symbolic speech unless it disturbs the education program
Layer Cake
Separate(marriage amendment)
alot more liberal than TV
13th Amendment
Amendment that abolished slavery.
the system of fundamental principals according to which a nation, state is governed
judicial activism
Philosophy proposing that judges should interpret the Constitution to reflect current conditions and values.
Largest territorial unit between a state and a city or town
A basic principle of traditional democratic theory that describes the relationship between the few leaders and the many followers.
procedures whereby voters can remove an elected official from office
electoral college
A unique American institution created by the Constitution, providing for the selection of the president by electors chosen by the state parties
The practice of letting voters accept or reject measures proposed by the legislature
Proportional Representation
Electoral system in which parties receive a number of seats in parliament proportionate to their share of the vote.
supply-side theory
a conservative economic theory that maintains that sharp tax cuts increase the incentive for people to work, save, and invest. the greater productivity of the economy stimulated by these increased investments would produce more revenue for the government despite the tax cut
National chairman
manage full time the congressional campaign committee
9th Amendment
Amendment that protects rights not listed in the Bill of Rights.
Reserved powers
Powers belonging specifically to the states and the people because they were not delegated to teh national government nor denied to the states
judicial review
the power to declare congressional (and presidential) acts invalid because they violate the Constitution. Began by Marburry vs. Madison
One side of the idealogical spectrum defined by support for lower taxes; a free market; and a more limited government.
political issue
result of people disagreeing about a problem or about the public policy and how to fix it
money set aside (as by a legislature) for a specific purpose
political culture
the widely shared beliefs, values, and norms that citizens share about their government
dual federalism
views the Constitution as giving a limited list of powers, primarily foreign policy and national defense, to the national government, leaving the rest to sovereign states. Each level of government is dominant within its own sphere
Purposes of Government
to maintain social order, provide public services, provide national defense, provide/ maintain the economy
plurality system
an electoral system in which the winner is that person who gets the most votes, even if they do not constitute a majority of the votes
Policy Agenda
issues that policymakers put on their attention
party realignment
The displacement of the majority party by the minority party, usually during a critical election period.
Concerted effort to get people to stop buying goods and services from a merchant in order to punish that person or to coerce him into changing policies.
Political efficacy
Belief that a person can influence politics and public policymaking-vote makes a difference
a requirement laid down by act of Congress, prohibiting a state or local government from exercising a certain power
New Jersey Plan
A framework for the Constitution proposed by a group of small states; its key points were a one-house legislature with one vote for each state, a multiperson "excuetive" the gress as the "supreme law" of the land, and a suprem judiciary with limited power.
media politics
must use multiple sources of media for campaign
--FDR was first president to invent to do so
legislative veto
The authority of Congress to block a presidential action after it has taken place. The Supreme Court has held that Congress does not have this power
Korematsu v United States
1944 upheld Japanese war encampments; over 100,000 interned
General Election
An election used to fill a political office
responsible party model
A model stating that parties should give clear choices to the voters, and once in office, should make good on their campaign promises.
good faith exception
An exception to the Supreme Court exclusionary rule, holding that evidence seized on the basis of a mistakenly issued search warrant can be introduced at trial if the mistake was made in good faith, that is, if all the parties involved had reason at the time to believe that the warrant was proper.
Simple Resolution
An expression of opinion either in the House or Senate to settle procedural matters in either body.
brown v board of education
separate but equal is unequal
Articles of Confederation
Ratified in 1791. Set up a weak association of states that favored states' rights over central power so that states retained their sovereignty.
monetary policy
an attempt to use the amount of money and bank deposits and the price of money (interest rate) to affect the economy
19th Amendment
made it clear that no state may deny the right to vote based on sex
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
Requires employers to make reasonable accommodations for the disabled, and not to discriminate against them in hiring.
Boy Scouts of America v. Dale
2000 SuCo: Freedom of association is more important than anti-discrimination statutes.
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