AP Government 11 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
18th Amendment
Government by the people.
think tank
institutional collection of policy-oriented researchers and academics who are sources of policy ideas
public assistance
Another term for welfare.
fed. election commision; bipartisan 6-member agency that administers and enforces campaign finance laws.
Fund raiser
Raises money for the campaign
symbolic speech
nonverbal communication, such as burning a flag or wearing an armband. The Supreme Court has accorded some of it protection under the first amendment.
Those who favored strong state governments and a weak national government; opposed the ratification of the U.S. Constitution
soft money
political contributions earmarked for party-building expenses at the grass-roots level or for generic party advertising. Unlike money that goes to the campaign for a particular candidate, such party donations are not subject to contribution limits
Presidential refusal to allow an agency to spend funds that Congress authorized and appropriated.
(also known as progressives) The faction in the Republican party of the 1890s to the 1910s composed of reformers who opposed the use of patronage and party bosses and favored the leadership of experts. After 1910 they evolved into a nonpartisan "good government" movement that sought to open up the political system and curb the abuses of parties.
Gender gap
the ideological differences between men and women (women tend to be less conservative)
system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials
Process by which governments return fugitives to the jurisdiction from which they have fled.
block grants
Money from the national government that states can spend within broad guidelines determined by Washington
the policy of imposing duties or quotas on imports in order to protect home industries from overseas competition
Critical election
an electoral "earthquake" where new issues emerge, new coalitions replace old ones, and the majority party is often displaced by the minority party. Critical election periods are sometimes marked by a national crisis and may require more than one election to bring about a new party era.
rule-making process
The formal process for making regulations.
due process
established legal procedures for the arrest and trial of an accused criminal
6th amendment
Right to a fair, speedy trial
confused state of society in which there is no government and no laws.
Standing Committee
seperate subject matter commitees in each house of congress that handle bills in different policy areas.
Initiative petition
direct democracy technique that allows proposed legislative items to be placed on a statewide ballot when enough signatures are obtained.
Executive privilege
The right to keep executive communications confidential, especially if they relate to National Security.
Shays' Rebellion
A 1786 uprising of Massachusetts farmers against high taxes and debt.
Regulatory policy
policy that results in government control over individuals and businesses. Examples include protection of the environment and consumer protection.
Political Socialization
according to Richard Dawson, "the process an individual acquires his or her particular political orientations—his or knowledge, feelings, and evaluations, regarding his or her political words."
period during which the partisan ties of the public diminish and the party system breaks down
Keynesian economics
Economic theory based on the principles of John Maynard Keynes stating that government spending should increase during business slumps and be curbed during booms.
a written statement that unfairly or falsely harms the reputation of the person about whom it is made
Nineteenth Amendment (1920)
Granted voting rights to women.
Literacy Test
A requirement that citizens pass a literacy test in order to register to vote
Silent Majority
A phrase used to describe people, whatever their economic status, who uphold traditional values, especially against the counter culture of the 1960's.
Articles of Confederation
this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage
Representative Democracy
system of government which derives its authority from the people and governs according to the will of the majority, but in which the people elect individuals to represent their will.
Daniel J. Elazar
Individual who argues federalism has contributed to political flexibility and individual liberty.
Implied powers
Powers of the federal government that are not specifically addressed in the Constitution
melting pot
the mixing of cultures, ideas, and peoples that has changed the American nation. The United States, with its history of immigration, has often been called a melting pot
Independent regulatory agencies
Federal regulatory agencies that are independent, thus not fully under the power of the president.
Example: Federal Trade Commission, Securities and Exchange Commission.
Expressed Powers
powers that congress has that are specifically listed in the constitution
A revision/change to a bill, law, or constitution
Direct primary
Election within the party to choose their favorite candidate for a particular office
Fourteenth Amendment
adopted after civil war, states "No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the priviledges or immunities of citizens of the US; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property , without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws"
Democracy seen as a system of many groups pulling government in many directions at the same time, causing gridlock and ineffectiveness.
Voter registration
System designed to reduce voter fraud by limiting voting to those who have established eligibility to vote by submitting the proper documents.
In the Senate, a filibuster can be ended by invoking
National debt
total debt owed by the federal government due to past borrowing. Also known as the public debt.
libertarian party
a minor party that believes in extremely limited government.
What occurs when the government in one year spends more money than it takes in from taxes.
Retrospective Voting
voting for a candidate because you like his or her past actions in office
restrictive rule
an order from the House Rules Committee that permits certain kinds of amendments but not others to be made into a bill on the floor
White primary
Democratic party primary in the old "one-party South" that was limited to white people and essentially constituted an election; ruled unconstitutional in Smith v. Allwright (1944).
American Dream
An American ideal of a happy, successful life, which often includes wealth, a house, a better life for one's children and for some, the ability to become president
Select (or special) Committee
Temporary committee appointed for specific purpose, such as conducting a special investigation
concurrent powers
powers shared by the national and state governments
National party convention
supreme power within each of the parties. The convention meets every four years to nominate the presidential and vice-presidential candidates and to write the party's platform
Natoinal Party Convention
The supreme power within each party; meets every four years to elect candidates and discuss platform
Compelling interest test
Used to interpret the Free Exercise clause and the Equal Protection Clause. Before the government can deny freedom of religion or show preferential treatment toward any group, it must also prove that it has a compelling public purpose in doing so.
blanket primary
A primary election in which each voter may vote for candidates from both parties.
majoritarian politics
benefit large number of people at a cost large numbers of people will have to bear
Seniortiy system
System in which the chairmanship of a committee is given tot eh member with the longest continuous service
independent regulatory commission
a government agency or commission with regulatory power whose independence is protected by congress
substantive due process
The policies of government or the particular subject matter of the laws determining what the law is about and whether the law is fair or if it violates constitutional protections.
Civic Duty
The belief that in order to support democratic government, a citizen should actively participate in the political process.
political action committee
political arm of an interest group that is entitled to raise money to contribute to candidates of political parties
Straight Ticket Voting
practice of voting for candidates of only one party in an election
district court
a division of the trial court (federal or state), serving a specific geographic area, with only one judge usually required to hear and decide a case
De jure discrimination
Racial segregation that is a direct result of law or official policy
Whig Party
Political party from the 1830s to the 1850s. Loosely affiliated group of progressives and religious Americans whose common bond was their opposition to the Democratic Party. This disintegrated because of internal disputes concerning slavery.
Craig vs. Boren
court case that girls were allowed at 18 to buy beer but boys had to wait until 21; ruled gender discrimintation
state party caucus
A meeting of all state party leaders for selecting delegates to the national party convention. Usuall organized as a pyramid (Not the congressional version)
Judicial Review
power of the courts to rule on the constitutionaality of laws and government actions. established by Marbury vs. Madison,1803
sound bite
A brief statement no longer than a few seconds used on a radio or television news broadcast.
The 25th Amendment was added in 1967 to?
define presidential successsors
closed primaries
: a primary election in which only a party's registered voters are eligible to vote
New York Times v. Sullivan
United States Supreme Court case which established the actual malice standard which has to be met before press reports about public officials or public figures can be considered to be defamation and libel; and hence allowed free reporting of the civil rights campaigns in the southern United States.
Executive office of the President
Created by Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1939. Contains the National Security Council, The Council of Economic Advisors, Office of Management and Budget, ant the office of National Drug Control Policy.
Freedom of Information Act
citizens have the right to inspect all government records except those containing military, intelligence, or trade secrets or revealing private personnel actions
full faith and credit clause
Art. IV, Sect 1 of Const requiring each state to recognize the official documents and civil judgements rendered by the courts of other states
Title IX of the Education Act of 1972
Major civil rights legislation that banned discrimination in education. It appears in this chapter as an example of ineffective policy implementation; unclear goals open to inconsistent interpretation.
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