AP Government 12 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
city laws
science of population changes.
redrawing the legislative boundaries to benefit a party, incumbent, or group
reverse discrimination
Discrimination against majority-status people due to affirmative action policies.
(Office of Personal Management) responsible for hiring most agencies, elaborate rules.
system for national government in which some powers are delegated to either national or state government, and other powers are shared between the two levels. This system presented a compromise at the 1787 Constitutional Convention between delegates fighting for a strong central government and delegates concerned about states' rights.
executive orders
regulations originating from the executive branch. They are one method presidents can use to control the bureaucracy.
New Federalism
Federal/state relationship proposed by Reagan administration during the 1980s; hallmark is returning administrative powers to the state governments
...indictment in criminal law, HofR impeaches, tried in senate
Laissez-faire economics
Theory that opposes governmental interference in economic affairs beyond what is necessary to protect life and property.
Supporters of a stronger central government who advocated ratification of the Constitution. After ratification they founded a political party supporting a strong executive and Alexander Hamilton's economic policies.
a valuable tool for understanding demographic changes, the US Constitution requires that this be done every 10 years
excepted service
Provision for appointing federal offices without going through the competitive service.
bread-and-butter issues
Those political issues specifically directed at the daily concerns of most working-class Americans, such as job security, tax rates, wages, and employee benefits.
necessary and proper clause
constitutional authorization for Congress to make any law required to carry out its powers
the easing of tensions or strained relations (especially between nations)
group of individuals with a common interest upon which every political party depends.
Independent agency
A government entity that is independent of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches.
a written statement that defames the character of another person
1st amendment
freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition
an alteration or addition to a document. Although over 6,000 constitutional amendments to the US Constitution have been proposed in Congress, only 27 have been adopted, the most recent having been ratified in 1992. According to the Constitution, there are four ways in which it can be amended. An amendment can be proposed to the states either after a two-thirds vote in both houses of Congress, or by a vote in two-thirds of the state legislatures. Once it has been proposed to the states, it can be ratified either by the legislatures of three-fourths of the states or by conventions in three-fourths of the states. All 27 amendments, except the 21st Amendment, were proposed by a two-thirds majority of Congress and ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the states.
enumerated powers
powers of fed gov specifically addressed in Const.
Retrospective voting
voting theory that suggests that individuals who feel that they are better off as a result of certain policies are likely to support candidates who pledge to continue those policies, and those who feel worse off are inclined to support opposition candidates.
Soft money
Unlimited amounts of money that political parties previously could raise for party-building purposes. Now largely illegal except for limited contributions to state and local parties for voter registration and get-out-the-vote efforts.
A formal postponement of the execution of a criminal sentence; the president has the power to grant reprieves.
Strict constructionists
individuals who believe in a conservative interpretation of the Constitution.
A legal process whereby an alleged criminal offender is surrendered by the officials of one state to officials of the state in which the crime is alleged to have been committed.
Express Powers
Powers specifically enumerated in the Constitution as belonging to the national government
Policy of erecting trade barriers to protect domestic industry.
political rights
Constitutional rights of an individual to participate in government, including the right to vote or hold public office
Congressional Budget Office
Congressional agency of budget experts who assess the feasibility of the president's plan and who help create Congress' version of the federal budget.
people who tend to participate in all forms of politics
categorical grants
Grants given by the federal government to state and local authorities for a specific purpose defined in a federal law.
income distribution
The "shares" of the national income earned by various groups.
Unitary system
a system of government in which constitutional authority lies in the hands of the national government. In such a system, political subdivisions created by the central government take responsibility for much of the everyday administration of the government. Great Britain is an example of a country with a unitary system of government.
political ideology
a coherent set of beliefs about politics, public policy, and public purpose. It helps give meaning to political events, personalities, and policies
spoils system
The system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power.
Liberal Ideology
less gov. spending, less use of troops, freedom of choice, oppose prayer in schools, favor affirmative action, view gov. as a regulator in the public interest, tax the rich more, spend more money on the poor, solve problems that cause crime and guard defendants rights' carefully
Social contract theory
A voluntary agreement between the government and the governed
Rules committee
Determines the rules of debate for bills in the House of Representatives-also known as the calender committee
establishment clause
part of the First Amendment stating that "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion"
sound bite
A brief statement on TV or radio.
Pocket veto
A veto exercised by the president after Congress has adjourned; if the president takes no action for 10 days, the bill does not become law and does not return to Congress for possible override.
The Supreme Court case that established national supremecy was
Muccoulloch vs. Maryland
The process by which we select our governmental leaders and what policies these leaders pursue. Politics produces authoritative decisions about public issues.
realigning election
an election during periods of expanded suffrage and change in the economy and society that proves to be a turning point, redefining the agenda of politics and the alignment of voters within parties
Earth Day
A national event in 1970 which signified the birth of the Environmental Movement and has since been observed annually.
a private meeting of party leaders to choose candidates for office
roll call vote
A congressional voting procedure that consists of members answering "yea" or "nay" to their names.
Nongovernmental organization (NGO)
A nonprofit association or group operating outside of government that advocates and pursues policy objectives.
Dillon's Rule
A court ruling that local governments do not have any inherent sovereignty but instead must be authorized by state governments
Majority Leader
The elected leader of the party controlling the most seats in the House of Representatives or the Senate; is second in authority to the Speaker of the House and in the Senate is reguarded as its most powerful member.
separation of powers
constitutional authority is shared by three different branches of government
McCleskey vs. kemp
the 1987 decision that upheld the constitutionality of the death penalty against charges that it violated the 14th amend because minority defendents were more likely to receive the death penalty than were white defendants.
Constitution Party
Believes in reducing the rold of the US government, reducing spending, replacing income tax with a tariff based revenue system, abolishing most forms of federal taxation, US terminates its participation in any international affairs, opposes abortion and euthanasia
Federal Mandate
A requirement placed on a state by federal government, such as to clean its rivers and lakes. They are often required to receive federal funds
social movement
A widely shared demand for change in some aspect of the social or political order.
entrepreneurial politics
some large part of it benefits, but imposes substantial cost on a small part of the society
uncontrollable spending
the portion of the federal budget that is spent on programs, that the president and congress are unwilling to cut
straw poll
Early form of polling that asks the same question of a large number of people.
Poll Taxes
Taxes levied on the right to vote designed to disenfranchise poor blacks.
political socialization
process by which we are taught our political values beliefs, and attitudes
Judicial Restraint
view that the courts should reject any active lawmaking functions and stick to judicial interpretations of the past
a group, usually a small part of a larger group, united around some cause; disagreement within an organization
Roger B. Taney
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court when Dred Scott decision was made
Minority Party
The party in each house with the second amount of people
Twenty-fourth Amendment (1964)
Outlawed poll taxes, which had been used to prevent the poor from voting.
plessy vs ferguson
a case that was brought to supreme court by black lawsuits to challenge the legality of segregation. The court ruled that segregation was legal as long as it was "equal"
electoral mandate
A concept based on the idea that "the people have spoken." It is a powerful symbol in American electoral politics, according legitimacy and credibility to a newly elected president's proposals.
Formal Amendment
a change in the actual wording of the Constitution. Proposed by the Congress or national convention and ratified by the states.
Informal amendment
a change in the meaning, but not the wording, of the Constitution, e.g., through a court decisions such as Brown v. Board.
on the record
The official is quoted by name. For example: "I say that water runs downhill, and you can quote me on that."
marble cake federalism
a model of federalism in which the powers of state and national governments are intertwined.
Mcculoch vs. Maryland
Supreme court upheld the power of the national govt. and denied the right of the states to tax the federal bank using the supremacy clause. This paved the way for other rulings upholding expansive fed. powers
A committee along with the Senate Finance Committee that writes the tax code.
House Ways and Means Committee
Full faith and Credit
first words of Article IV, Section 1 of the Constitution, which requires states to respect the "public acts, records, and judicial proceedings" of all the other states.
Civil Service Reform Act of 1978
recognized that many high level positions in the civil service have important policy making responsibilities and that the president and his cabinet officers ought to have more flexibility in recruiting, assigning, and paying such people.
dual federalism (layer cake)
a system of govt in which both the states and national govt remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies.
US Term Limits, Inc. v. Thornton, 1995
US Supreme Court case striking down term limits for incumbents.
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