AP Government 13 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Congressional Calendar
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Americans with Disabilities Act
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demography
the science of human populations
NASA
independent government agency that handles space flight
PAC
(political action committee): legal means for groups to participate in elections by contributing money
Senate
independent federal agency in the executive branch. Selective Service works to register all males in the United States, between the ages of 18 1/2 to 26,to make sure that the Armed Forces can be adequately supplied with people in case of a crisis in national security.
self-incrimination
the situation occurring when an individual accused of a crime is compelled to be a witness against himself or herself in court. The Fifth Amendment forbids it.
Government
a collective of individuals and institutions, the formal vehicles through which policies are made and affairs of state are conducted
earmarks
...pet projects added to appropration bills by members of congress
Express powers
Powers the Constitution specifically grants to one of the branches of the national government.
Party leaders who work with congressional leaders to count votes and pressure congressmen to vote on bills favored by the party.
Whips
pork-barrel legislation
legislation that gives tangible benefits to constituents in several districts or states in the hope of winning their votes in return
executive orders
regulations originating from the executive branch. Executive orders are one method presidents can use to control the bureaucracy.
conference committee
Congressional committee which includes representatives of both houses of Congress. Their purpose is to settle differences between the ouse and Senate versions of bills that have been passed by their respective legislatures.
federal system
government in which sovereignty is shared between state and national governments
Free Exercise Clause
The First Amendment clause guaranteeing religious freedom.
Winner-take-all system
electoral system in which legislative seats are awarded only to the candidates who come in first in their constituencies. In American presidential elections, the system in which the winner of the popular votes in a state receives all the electoral votes of that state.
central clearance
review of all executive branch testimony, reports, and draft legislation by the Office of Management and Budget to ensure that each communication to Congress is in accordance with the president's program.
patronage
appointing members of your own party to political positions
12th amendment
Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.
Constituency
group of residents represented by a public official or any elected officer.
mandate
a presidents claim of broad public support
Bill
a proposed law, drafted in precise, legal language
appointment power
The president's power to appoint people to key federal offices.
Collective security
agreement to form through treaties mutual defense arrangements, such as NATO, which guarantee that if one nation is attacked, other nations will come to its defense.
Conservatism
the disposition to preserve or restore what is established and traditional and to limit change.
suspect classifications
legal classifications, such as race and national origin, that that have invidious discrimination as their purpose and therefore are unconstitutional
Deregulation
A policy promoting cutbacks in the amount of Federal regulation in specific areas of economic activity.
impeachment process
2 Steps. 1.) Investigation and articles of impeachment with majority 218 members. 2.)Trial in Senate, must find guilty of High Crimes and Misdemeanors. need SuperMajority 67/100. Need bi-partisan support. Chief Justice of Supreme Ct. oversees trial.
representative democracy
Form of government under which citizens vote for delegates who in turn represent citizens' interest within the government. The US is this.
Local charter
a document issued by some authority, creating a public or private institution, and defining its purposes and privileges at a local level
dual federalism
the federal system under which the national and state governments were responsible for separate policy areas
county
refurs to a political subdivison of a state.
Objective good faith
Exception to the exclusionary rule that allows the use of illegally obtained evidence at a t trial if the court determines that the police beelived they were within the limits of the law when they obtained the evidence.
Interstate Commerce
Business that is conducted in more than one state.
Fiscal federalism
The pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system; it is the cornerstone of the national government's relations with state and local governments.
party column ballot
type of ballot that encourages party-line voting by listing all of the party's candidates in a column under the party names, makes straight ticket voting easier
soft money
Contributions to a state or local party for party-building purposes.
Political Socialization
The process -- most notably in families, the media, and schools -- by which we develop our political attributes, values, and beliefs.
District courts
Lowest level of fed. courts, where fed. cases begin &trials are held (bank robbery, environmental violations, tax evasion)
Schenck v. US
upheld conviction of a socialist urging young men to resist draft (WWI); determined that government can limit speech if it provokes a "clear and present danger" of substantive evils
ideology
A consistent set of beliefs by groups or individuals.
Crossover sanctions
A technique of Congress to establish federal regulations. These sanctions permit the use of federal money in one program to influence state and local policy in another. For example, a 1984 act reduced federal highway aid by up to 15 percent for any state that failed to adopt a minimum drinking age of 21.
what did the Supreme Court establish in Marbury vs. Madison? (1803)
judicial review.
open primary
primary election in which any voter regardless of party may vote
Cost Overruns
When the money actually paid to military suppliers exceeds the estimated costs.
Minority leader
The legislative leader elected by the party members building a majority of seats in the House of Representatives. The minority leader determines how his or her party will react to the majority party's programs.
multiple referral
a congressional process whereby a bill may be referred to several committees
Logrolling
Vote trading, voting yea to support a colleague's bill in return for a promise of future support
whip
A member of the party leadership in each house who helps the party leader stay informed about what party members are thinking.
Lemon vs. Kurtzman
US Supreme court case. 1971, decision established that aid to church related schools must follow regulations: 1.) have secular legislative purpose 2.) have primary effect that neither advances nor inhibits religion 3.) Not foster excessive gov. entanglement with religion
Legislative Power
power to make laws. In the federal government of the United States, the Congress holds most of the legislative power.
Amicus curiae brief
Information offered to courts to help them decide a case
sponsored party
A local or state political party that is largely supported by another organization in the community
Equal Time Rule
An obligation for broadcasters to give all candidates equal access to the media.
Speaker of the House
decides who willbe recognized to speak- rules whether motions are relevant to the business at hand; decides which bills where the bills will go (committees)-influencial as to what bills are brought up for a vote-appoints members to special and select committees
stare decisis
the rule of precedent whereby a rule or law contained in a judicial decision is commonly viewed as binding on judges whenever the same question is presented
straight-ticket voting
Voting for candidates all of the same party.
527
Named for the section of the IRS Tax Code, a 527 is an advocacy group trying to influence elections through voter mobilization and the spending of unlimited dollars in "independent expenditures." The most famous of these in the 2004 election cycle was the "Swiftboat Veterans for Truth."
socioeconomic status (SES)
A division of population based on occupation, income, and education.
pocket veto
A formal decision to reject a bill passed by Congress after it adjourns - if Congress adjourns during the ten days that the president is allowed in order to sign or veto law, the president can reject the law by taking no action at all.
Filibuster
An attempt to defeat a bill in the Senate by talking indefinitely, thus preventing the Senate from taking action on the bill.
william rehnquist
Nominated by Regan in an attempt to push the Supreme Court in a more conservative direction.
Title IX
No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance
selective incorporation
Process by which the Supreme Court has selectively applied the Fourteenth Amendment to state law.
Religious Freedom Act of 1993
Congress attempted to overturn the principle that conferred on all persons the persons the right to perform their religious rituals unless gov. can show that law/ regulation is in question and is narrowly tailored and in pursuit of a "compelling interest."
winner take all system
an election system in which the candidate with the most votes wins
Marbury v. Madison
The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, (the Judiciary Act of 1789).
Indirect democracy
system in which the people are rule by their representatives. Also known as representative democracy, or republic.
Amicus curiae briefs
Legal briefs submitted by a "friend of the court" for the purpose of raising additional points of view presenting information not contained in the briefs of the formal parties. These briefs attempt to influence a court's decision.
necessary and proper clause
as enacted in McCulloch v. Maryland, in Article 1, Section 8 of the Constitution; the source of implied powers for the national government
Privileges and Immunities Clause
Guarantees that the citizens of all states are given the same rights
The military industrial complex refers to
the close relationship between defense officials and the corporations that supply their hardware nee
Family Medical Leave act (1993)
Act that gave unpaid emergency medical leave for employees with a guarantee that their job would not be taken away in the interim.
Office of Management and Budget
the executive agency that advises the President on the federal budget
Consent of the Governed:
The idea of people must agree on who their rulers will be.
The vast majority of bills introduced every session are
killed off early by a 95% chance.
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