AP Government 14 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
implied powers
...
ferderalists
supporters of the constitution
The President's _________________ serves as the principal conduit of information from the White House to the press on a daily basis
Press Secretary.
redistricting
redrawing of congressional district boundaries by the party in power of the state legislature
blanket primary
(declared unconstitutional)-all voters can vote in multiple primaries. Unconstitutional because it considers a person more than one vote.
Initative
Process through which voters may propose new laws.
capitalism
An economic system in which individuals and corporations, not the government, own the principle means of production and seek profit.
Steering committee
Assigns Democrats to standing committees in the Senate.
cabinet
advisory council for the president consisting of heads of the executive departments the vice president and a few other officials selected by the president
Extradition
Legal process whereby an alleged criminal offender is surrendered by the officials of one states to officials of the state in which the crime is alleged to have been committed.
__________ privileges refers to the free use of the mails enjoyed by Congress.
Franking
Divided Government
Governance divided between the parties, as when one holds the presidency and the other controls one or both houses of Congress.
8th amendment
prohibits excessive fines/bail and cruel/unusual punishment
gregg v. ga
delegated powers
Constitutional powers granted solely to the federal government.
initiative
a procedure allowing voters to submit a proposed law to a popular vote by obtaining a required number of signatures.
Exit Polling
Features interviews with voters on election day in a representative sample of districts.
Virginia Plan
A constitutional proposal that the smaller states' representatives feared would give permanent supremacy to the larger states.
bill
A proposed law written in legal language. Only o member of Congress can submit one, although anyone can write one.
prospective voting
voting based on the candidate's position and current political issues
Political Efficacy
The belief that one's political participation really matters - that one's vote can actually make a difference
Miller v. Johnson
1995 SuCo: Racial gerrymandering violates the equal protection clause.
central clearance
review of all executive branch testimony by office of management and budget to ensure that each communication to congress is in accordance with the presidents program
Constitution democracy
powers of government are limited through a written document or shared beliefs
Party identification
An informal and subjective affiliation with a political party that most people acquire in childhood.
Articles of Confederation
America's first national constitution, which loosely bound the states under a weak national Congress.
Whips
also known as assistant floor leaders, they check with party members and inform the majority leader of the status and feelings of the membership regarding issues that are going to be voted on. They are responsible for keeping party members in line and having an accurate count of who will be voting for or against a particular bill.
Palko v. Connecticut
originally, double jeopardy not incorporated
Government corporations
Businesses established by Congress to perform like a private business (Amtrak, TVA, FDIC)
Social capital
Democratic and civic habits of discussion, compromise, and respect for differences, which grow out of participation in voluntary organizations.
crisis manager
the presidents' role of supervising the reaction to a crisis
Magna Carta
1215 document that guaranteed British freemen the right to trial by jury and the right of the Great Council (which represented English nobility) to approve taxes proposed by the monarchy.
Independent regulatory agency
a government agency responsible for some sector of the economy, making and enforcing rules to protect the public interest. t also judges disputes over these rules
Bicameral legislature
a legislature divided into two houses The U.S. Congress and every American state legislature except Nebraska's are bicameral
county government
the government unit that administers a county
Dissenting Opinion
written explanation of the opinion of one or more judges in a court who disagree with the decision of the majority of the court.
quid pro quo
Something given with the expectation of receiving something in return.
Plessy v. Ferguson
United States Supreme Court decision in the jurisprudence of the United States, upholding the constitutionality of racial segregation even in public accommodations (particularly railroads), under the doctrine of "separate but equal". Involved Homer Plessy, who was 1/8th black.
direct primary
election in which voters choose party nominees
Civil rights
Policies that extend basic rights to groups historically subject to discrimination are known as
Concurrent powers
authority possessed by both the state and national governments that may be exercised concurrently as long as that power is not exclusively within the scope of national power or in conflict with national law
Civil case
a lawsuit brought against one person or group to enforce or protect a private right; prevent a private wrong (tort); or obtain compensation for a private wrong (tort). This is different from a criminal case, which involves the committing of a crime, or public wrong.
horse race
A close contest; by extension, any contest in which the focus is on who is ahead and by how much rather than on substantive differences between the candidates.
bureaucratic view
view that the government is dominated by appointed officials
McCulloch v. Maryland
Supreme Court decision upholding the supremacy of the national government over the states.
Enlightened understanding
marketplace of ideas in a nonhostile environment
regime
A word used to describe a particular government.
fairness doctrine
A former rule of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) that required broadcasters to give time to opposing views if they broadcast a program giving one side of the a controversial issue.
national party convention
a national meeting of delegates elected in primaries, caucuses, or state conventions who assemble once every four years to nominate candidates for president and vice president ratify the party platform and elect officers and adopt rules
Pardons
to grant freedom from punishment to a criminal or anyone who has disobeyed the law.
The president under article II has the power to make treaties limited by?
nothing
caucus
a private meeting of party leaders to choose candidates for office
Minority leader
the legislative leader selected by the minority party as spokesperson for the opposition.
Parole
The authority of a governor to release a prisoner before his full sentence has been completed and to specify conditions that must be met as part of the release
Pluralist Theory
theory of government and politics that focuses on politics being mainly a competition among groups, each one competing for inclusion of its own preferred policies
Rules Committee
In the House of Representatives, the committee that decides which bills come up for a vote, in what order, and under what restrictions on length of debate and on the right to offer amendments.
Political ideology
The coherent set of values and beliefs about the purpose and scope of government held by groups and individuals
Political Party
organized group of people who want to control or influence government by winning elections, holding public office, and having the government's laws and policies reflect their political beliefs. In the United States, there are two major parties: the Democratic Party and the Republican Party.
judicial review
power of supreme court to declare law passed by congress unconstitutional
political culture
an overall set of values widely shared within a society
Ways and Means Committee
House committee that handles tax bills
Appellate court
a court which hears cases which have been decided in lower courts. For cases involving state law, most states provide state appellate courts, while federal circuit courts ("courts of appeal") deal with most appeals related to federal law. The State Supreme Court is the highest appellate court, the "court of last resort," for cases involving state law, while the US Supreme Court is the highest appellate court, the "court of last resort," for cases involving federal law.
frank privilege
the ability of members of congress to mail letters to their constituents free of charge by submitting their facsimile signature for postage
Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise
Resolved differences between northern and southern states; Congress could not tax exports nor ban the slave trade for 20 years.
Safe Seat
Nickname for a seat of Congress that is well protected by incumbency.
Standing to sue
The requirement that plaintiffs have a serious interest in a case, which depends on whether they have sustained or are likely to sustain a direct and substantial injury from a party or an action of government.
amicus curiae brief
Literally, a "friend of the court" brief, filed by an individual or organization to present arguments in addition to those presented by the immediate parties to a case.
A method of polling that divides the country into four parts is called?
stratified polling
due process clause
14th amendment clause stating that no state may deprive a person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law
Stamp Act Congress
Meeting of representatives of nine of the thirteen colonies in NYC, 1765, where a document was drafted to send to the king listing how their rights had been violated
Supreme Court
Highest court in the US. The only federal court specifically mentioned in the Constitution.
Gitlow vs. New York
US Supreme court case. 1925, decision holding that freedom of press and religion cannot be controlled by an government
House Ways and Means Committee
The House of Representatives committee that, along with the Senate Finance Committee, writes the tax codes, subject to the approval of Congress as a whole.
All people who might be group members because they share some common interest make up
A potential group.
monetary policy
a form of gov regulation in which the nation's money supply interest rates are controlled
Orignial jurisdiction
Authority of a court to first hear a case
Consent of the Governed
The idea that government derives its authority by sanction of the people.
Hunt
v.
Cromartie (1999)
In Shaw v. Hunt, the U.S Supreme Court found that North Carolina's legislature violated the Constitution by using race as the predominant factor in drawing its Twelfth Congressional District's 1992 boundaries. Court held that the District Court's conclusion that the state violated the Equal Protection Clause in drawing the 1997 boundaries is based on clearly erroneous findings. Justice Breyer wore for the Court that "the primary evidence upon which the District Court relied for its 'race, not politics,' conclusion is evidence of voting registration, not voting behavior; and that is precisely the kind of evidence that we said was inadequate the last time this case was before us." 
proportional tax
A tax in which the average tax rate is the same at all income levels.
Traditionally, what has been the purpose of political pork?
congressmen get projects for their constituents which benefits the community but not necessarily the country as a whole.
title vii of the civil rights act of 1964
employment discrimination
gender discrimination
sexual harassment
Pendleton Civil Service Act
Passed in 1883, an Act that created a federal civil service so that hiring and promotion would be based on merit rather than on patronage.
the pocket veto can only be used
when congress adjourns within 10 days of having submitted a bill to the president who lets it die by neither signing it nor vetoing it.
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