AP Government 16 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
working class
liberal
deficit
Government spending exceeds revenue.
Twenty
second Amendment-passed in 1951, limits presidents to two terms.
Reagan Democrats
traditional Democratic middle-class voters turning to Ronald Reagan during the 1980s.
Thirteenth Amendment
abolished slavery and involuntary servitude.
Anti-federalists
Opponents of the American Constitution at the time when the states were contemplating its adoption. This type of person viewed the constitution as a threat to both individual and state rights. Their solution was to propose a Bill of Rights
independent expenditures
Spending by political action committees, corporations, or labor unions that is done to help a party or candidate but is done independently of them.
All courts rely heavily upon __________ horizontal the way similar cases were handled in the past-as a guide to current decisions.
Precedent
single member districts
gerrymanding, reapportioning to isolate a overwhelming majority in a particular area, to have less representatives of that majority
Judicial restraint
Philosophy proposing that judges should interpret the Constitution to reflect what the framers intended and what its words literally say.
Veto
sending the legislation back to Congress with reasons for rejecting it.
Committees are controlled by?
the majority party
federal jurisdiction
involve federal laws, international treaties, or US Constitution
specialized courts exist
Libel
publication of false or malicious statements that damage someone's reputation
presidential primaries
a state-level election to determine which candidate the state's delegates will support.
pluralism
The guiding principle that access to government should be open and widespread. Interest group proliferation is evidence of this in action.
Federal Republic
The Founders' term for a federation.
27th Amendment
Amendment that made Congressional pay raises ineffective until the next term.
classical republicanism
a political philosophy that advocates serving the public before oneself
Democracy
A system of government that gives power to the people, whether directly or through their elected representatives
joint committees
Congressional committees on a few subject-matter areas with membership drawn from both houses.
minority leader
the legislative leader elected by party members holding a minority of seats in the house or senate
independent agencies
Agencies headed by appointees who serve for fixed terms and can be removed only "for cause."
Federal mandate
A requirement the federal government imposes as a condition for receiving federal funds.
third party
In American politics, any political party other than the Democrats and Republicans.
Electoral college
consists of presidential electors from each state. The number of electors is based on the state's population. The states with the greatest population have the most electoral votes. When the voter casts a vote for president, in reality the vote goes to one of the presidential electors designated by the candidate in that state. The number of electors for each state equals the number of senators and representatives that state has in Congress. The candidate with a majority of the electoral votes is elected to office. If no candidate receives a majority, the House of Representatives will determine the outcome of the election.
Nineteenth Amendment
Amendment ratified in 1920 that allowed women to vote.
latency
political opinions that exist but have not been fully expressed yet are still important and may be aroused by leaders and converted into political action
Earmarks
Special spending projects that are set aside on behalf of individual members of Congress for their constituents.
Seventeenth Amendment
Made senators directly elected from the people; removed their selection from state senators
Popular Sovereignty
idea that citizens elect government officials.
The Supreme Court has ruled that __________ that is so pervasive as to create a hostile or abusive work environment is a form of gender discrimination, which is forbidden by the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
sexual harassment
Multiple referral
a congressional process whereby a bill may be referred to several committees
party eras
historical periods in which a majority of voters cling to the party in power, which tends to win a majority of the elections.
Exclusionary Rule
principle that evidence cannot be used against a person if it was obtained illegally. This principle was established by the Supreme Court in the 1967 case, Mapp v. Ohio. In Nix v. Williams (1984), the Supreme Court ruled that evidence that had been illegally obtained could be used against someone in court if the prosecution could prove that the evidence "ultimately or inevitably would have been discovered by lawful means." In the same year, in United States v. Leon, the Court again restricted the exclusionary rule. The Court decided that, "when an officer acting with objective good faith has obtained a search warrant," the evidence obtained should be admissible in court, even if the warrant later proves to be faulty.
selective perception
The phenomenon that people often pay the most attention to things they already agree with and interpret them according to their own predispositions.
political ideology
A consistent pattern of beliefs about political values and the role of government.
direct primary
Election in which voters choose party nominees.
pocket veto
A veto exercised by the president after Congress has adjourned; if the president takes no action for ten days, the bill does not become law and is not returned to Congress for a possible override.
Popular consent
the idea that governments must draw their powers from the consent of the governed
Bicameral
"two rooms." The term refers to a legislative body, such as the US Congress or the British Parliament, that is divided into two separate houses.
extratradition
states are required to return a person charged with a crime in another state to that state for trial or imprisonment
National Party Convention
A national meeting of delegates elected in primaries, caucuses, or state conventions who assemble once every four years to nominate candidates for president and vice president, ratify the party platform, elect officers, and adopt rules.
appropriations
Money granted by Congress or a state legislature for a specific purpose.
Constitutional Convention
The convention in Philadelphia, May 25 to September 17, 1787, that debated and agreed upon the Constitution of the United States.
noneconomic group
An interest group that works on noneconomic issues; also called a citizens' group.
split ticket voting
Voting for candidates of different parties for various offices in the same election. For example, voting for a Republican for senator and a Democrat for president.
Shay's Rebellion
Caused the founding fathers and others to realize they need a stronger government.
Majoritarian Politics
The type of politics best illustrated by auto emission control rules.
Under the Const. and precedent, who has the power to make (negotiate) treaties?
The president
nonsectarian
Not limited to or associated with a particular religious denomination.
Bicameralism
The division of a legislature into two separate assemblies.
Advisory referendum
A process in which voters cast nonbinding ballots on an issue or proposal
direct democracy
Form of government in which all enfranchised citizens vote on all matters of government.
partisan
an adherent or supporter of a person, group, party, or cause, esp. a person who shows a biased, emotional allegiance.
Gideon vs. wainwright
the 1963 decision holding that anyone accused of a felony where imprisonment may be imposed, however poor he/she might be, has a right to a lawyer.
Ideology
set of beliefs and goals of a social or political group that explain or justify the group's decisions and behavior.
cloture
method to cut off a filibuster in the senate, the senate needs 16 votes to call for cloture and 60 votes to end a filibuster
party convention
a meeting of party delegates to vote on matters of policy and in some cases to select party candidates for public office
Individualistic Voting
"How is it important to me?" - thinking about oneself and family when voting
eminent domain
Allows the govt to take property for public use but also requires the govt to provide just compensation for that property
federalism
a way of organizing a nation os that two levels of government have formal authoity over the same land and people. system of shared power between units of government
bills of attainder
Prohibits a person being found guilty of a crime without a trial.
Paper Trail
A nickname given to a federal judge's record of judicial rulings. This becomes relevant during the vetting process in the Senate.
miranda warnings
warnings that must be read to suspects prior to questioning. Suspects must be advised that they have the rights of silence and counsel.
Marginal district
district in which winner wins by less than 50%
1786 rebellion in which an army of 1200 disgruntled farmers marched on Springfield, MA to prevent foreclosures on their farms was called?
Shays Rebellion
Obscenity
Quality or state of a work that taken as a whole appeals to a prurient interest in sex by depicting sexual conduct in a patently offensive way and that lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.
Indirect (Representative) Democracy
A system of government that gives citizens the opportunity to vote for representatives who will work on their behalf
town meeting
government of a town by an assembly of the qualified voters
clear and present danger test
Interpretation of the First Amendment that holds that the government cannot interfere with speech unless the speech presents a clear and present danger that it will lead to evil or illegal acts.
Full Faith &Credit Clause
States are required to recognize the laws &legal documents of other states-Article 4 for Federalism!
Motor Voter Law
Allows citizens to register to vote at welfare and motor vehicle offices.
National Security Council (NSC)
a committee that links the president's key foreign and military advisors.
House post office scandal
refers to the discovery of corruption among various Congressional Post Office employees and members of the United States House of Representatives, investigated 1991-1995, climaxing in the conviction of House Ways and Means Committee chairman Dan Rostenkowski (D-IL).
Currency Act of 1764
Forbade the colonies to issue paper money. The colonists saw the British government increasing its control over the colonies against the colonists' will.
The office in charge of hiring for most agencies of the federal government.
Office of Personal Management.
Miranda v. Arizona
A 1966 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that police must inform suspects of their rights when arrested.
writ of habeus corpus
court order that a prisoner be brought before the judge to determine whether or not he is guilty and is being punished correctly
in the case of Plessy vs. Ferguson
it said seperate but equal accomodations for white and colored races was constitutional
The primary reason for the current existence of only two major political parties in the United States is that
a winner take all electoral system makes it difficult for new parties to emerge and survive.
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