AP Government 17 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
organizational party
...
Bureaucrat
A career government employee.
Speaker of the House
Nancy Pelosi
The Constitution Bicameral
a two-house legislature.
Nineteenth Amendment
Constitutional amendment adopted in 1920 that guarantees women the right to vote.
Formula Grants
Federal categorical grants distributed according to a formula specified in legislation or in administrative regulations
narrowcasting
strategy of some broadcast channels that appeal to a narrow, rather than a broad, audience
Mandates
requirements imposed by the national gov. upon the states. some are unfounded.
Marbury vs. Madison est. the power of judicial review
McCulloch v. Maryland 1819:est. of principle of national supremacy and validity of implied powers.
Legitimacy
A characterization of elections by political scientists meaning that they are almost universally accepted as a fair and free method of selecting political leaders.
Cloture
A procedure for terminating debate, especially filibusters, in the Senate.
Elitism
someone who believes in increased government actions with the economy in order to provide regulations and programs that help the disadvantaged. On the other hand, liberals believe in fewer government actions to regulate personal choices in social policy.
constitutionalism
the belief in limiting government power by a written charter
agency contract
a contract you can leave
Filibuster
unlimited debate, unique to Senate; can only be ended by vote for cloture by 60 members
budgetary choices
legislative enactments of taxes and expenditures (ex: the federal budget)
national chairperson
The director of the party organization. The leader can be critical in the development of party issues, advertisements and reactions to other party actions.
Nullification
A doctrine espoused by Calhoun that states could hold certain national policies invalid within their boundaries.
public opinion
the distribution of the population's beliefs about politics and policy issues
gold plating
tendency (of military officials) to ask for everything at once
Enumerated powers
Seventeen specific powers granted to Congress under Article 1, section 8, of the U.S. Constitution; these powers include taxation, coinage of money, regulation of commerce, and the authority to provide for a national defense
Hatch Act
A federal law prohibiting government employees from active participation in partisan politics.
caucus
an association of members of congress created to advocate a political ideology or a regional, ethnic, or economic interest
Proportional primary
Winners win support of delegates proportional to vote
Attentive public
Those citizens who follow public affairs carefully.
partisan journalism
Journalism that advances the viewpoint of a political party.
New Jersey Plan
offered at the Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia, it urged the delegates to create a legislature based on equal representation by the states.
Budget Resolution
A congressional decision that states the maximum amount of money the government should spend.
salience
the extent to which people believe issues are relevant to them
Oversight
Legislative or executive review of a particular government program or organization. Can be in response to a crisis of some kind or part of routine review.
Federal System
System of government where the national government and state governments share power, derive all power from the peopl and the powers of the government are specified in a Constitution
democracy
Form of government in which political control is exercised by all the people, either directly or through their elected representatives.
Suffrage for women was achieved with the passage of the
Nineteenth Amendment
Certificate
A lower court asks the Supreme Court abt a rule of law/procedure
incentive system
according to Charles Schultze, a more effective and efficient policy than command-and-control; in the incentive system, market-like strategies are used to manage public policy.
Warrant
a court order that makes an official action legal, such as a search warrant or an arrest warrant.
courts of appeal
Appellate courts empowered to review all final decisions of district courts, except in rare cases.
A resolution binding Congress to a total expenditure level.
Budget resolution
Loose Construction
belief that the government can do anything that the constitution does not prohibit
public policy
A choice that government makes in response to a political issue. A policy is a course of action taken in regard to some problem.
Second Continental Congress
Meeting that convened in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775, at which it was decided that an army should be raised and George Washington of Virginia was named commander in chief
stare decisis
"Let the decision stand." Applied in most appellate court decisions.
Policy Gridlock
A condition that occurs when no coalition is strong enough to form a majority and establish policy. The result is that nothing may get done.
Safe Seat
An elected office that is predictable won by one party of the other, so the success of that party's candidate is almost taken for granted.
blanket primary
Voters may vote for candidates of either party.
Twenty-second Amendment
Passed in 1951, the amendment that limits presidents to two terms of office.
proportional representation
An electoral system in which each party gets a number of seats in the legislature proportionate to its percentage of the vote.
political machine
A party organization that recruits its members by dispensing patronage- tangible incentives such as money, political jobs, or an opportunity to get favors from government- and that is characterized by a high degree of leadership control of member activitey.
Liberal
The two coasts, as well as cities, tend to be...
Command-and-Control strategy
The setting of pollution standards and rules in order to improve air and water quality.
The large states plan to determine representation in Congress, submitted during the Const. Convention?
Virginia Plan
mitosis
1. The process in cell division by which the nucleus divides, normally resulting in two new nuclei, each of which contains a complete copy of the parental chromosomes 2. The entire process of cell division including division of the nucleus and the cytoplasm.
Political culture
The widely shared beliefs, values, and norms concerning the relationship of citizens to government and to one another.
Majority Party
The party controlling each party of Congress
veto
The power held by chief of executives (e.g. the president, governors) to reject acts of the legislature. A presidential version of this can be overridden by a 2/3s majority vote of both houses of Congress.
citizen
a native or naturalized member of a state or nation who owes allegiance to its government and is entitled to its protection (
Right to associate
basically the same as right to assemble
Executive Power
power of the President of the United States, delegated or implied by the Constitution, to implement and enforce laws.
good faith exception
if authorities act "in good faith", evidence that otherwise may have been excluded may be admissible
responsible party system
the European model of party government that assumes that parties discipline their members through their control over nominations and campaigns
Nonpartisan Election
An election where there is no formally declared association with a political party affiliation
federalism
a form of government in which power is divided between the federal, or national, government and the states
Engel v Vitale
"prayer period" held that New York schools violated the 1st amendment when they wrote a prayer to be receited in school
joint committee
Committee made up of members of both houses of Congress.
adversarial press
the tendency of the national media to be suspicious of officials and eager to reveal unflattering stories about them
clear and present danger
judicial interpretation of the First amendment that government may not ban speechunless such speech poses an imminent threat to society
National Committee
One of the institutions that keeps the party operating between conventions. The national committee is composed of representatives from the states and territories.
Presidential vetoes?
may be overriden by the Congress with a 2-3rds vote.
Natural rights
The rights of all people to dignity and worth; also calledhuman rights.
Roe v Wade
(1973) legalized abortion on the basis of a woman's right to privacy
War Powers Resolution
passed in 1973; req. presidents to consult with Congress prior to using military force and mandates the withdrawal of forces after 60 days unless Congress declares war or grants an extension
tax incidence
the manner in which the burden of a tax is shared among participants in a market
advice and consent
The power of Congress to confirm or deny executive appointments and treaties.
Orignial jurisdiction
Court hears and decides a case for the first time
original jurisdiction
Court hears and decides a case for the first time.
White House Staff
managed by the White House Chief of Staff, who directly advises the president on a daily basis, it includes the more than 600 people who work at the White House, from the chef to the advanced people who make travel arrangements. The key staff departments include the political offices of the Office of Communications, Legislative Affairs, Political Affairs, and Intergovernmental Affairs. It includes the support services of Scheduling, Personnel, and Secret Service and the policy offices of the National Security Affairs, Domestic Policy Affairs, and cabinet secretaries
social contract theory
Agreement among all the people in a society to give up part of their freedom to a government in return for protection of their natural rights. A theory developed by Locke to explain the origin of legitimate government.
5. What is an initiative?
-Process the permits voters to put legislative measures directly on the ballot.
closed rule
A rule on a bill, issued by the House Rules Committee, which limits or bans amendments during floor debate.
Ex Post Facto Law
Law that makes an act unpunishable as a crime even if the action was legal at the time it was committed
Civil Service Reform Act of 1883
Law that established the federal civil service; also known as the Pendleton Act.
In the United States, most criminal cases end in
a plea bargaini negotiated by the defense and prosecution.
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