AP Government 18 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Bicameral
Two chambers.
reregulation
Significantly changing government regulations on an industry.
mass media
television, radio, newspapers, magazines the internet, and other means of popular communication.
Amendment
A change to the Constitution
Symbolic Speech
nonverbal communication such as burning a flag or wearing an armband. Court accorded some symbolic speech protection under 1st Amendment (free speech rights) if it doesn't bother schooling
Electioneering
Direct group involvement in the electoral process. Groups can help fund campaigns, provide testimony, and get members to work for candidates, and some form political action committees (PACs). Link to: 527s; FECA 1974; BiCRA 2002.
candidate-centered
politicians are nominated largely on the basis of their qualifications and personal appeal, not party loyalty
judicial restraint-
Philosophy proposing that judges should interpret the Constitution to reflect what the framers intended and what its words literally say.
filibuster
lengthy speech that halts all legislative action in Senate; not possible in HOR b/c strict time limits govern their debates
Fundamentalists
Conservative Christians who (as a group) have become more active in politics in the last two decades and were especially influential in the 2000 presidential election.
Standing committees
Separate subject-matter committees in each house of Congress that handle bills in different policy areas.
Pendleton Act
Established Civil Service Commission for federal employment on basis of open, competitive exams; made it illegal to require federal political appointees to contribute to a particular party
democrat
a member of the Democratic Party
Reconciliation
revisiosn of program authorizations to make the final budget meet the limits of the budget resolution, usu. occuring toward the end of the budgetary process (for savings)
democracy
a system of selecting policymakers and of organizing government so that policy represents and responds to the public's preferences
random polling
Polling conducted by selecting people from random phone and address lists. The poll data may not reflect actual intent to vote.
Federal Register
An official document, published every weekday, which lists the new and proposed regulations of executive departments and regulatory agencies.
uncontrollable expenditures
Expenditures that are determined not by a fixed amount of money appropriated by Congress but by how many eligible beneficiaries there are for a program or by previous obligations of the government.
soft money
money contributed for the political party as a whole, not a specific candidate
Caucus
a meeting to determine which candidate delegates from a state party will support.
deficit
An excess of federal expenditures over federal revenues.
Policy entrepreneurs
people who invest their political "capital" in an issue. According to John Kingdon, a policy entrepreneur "could be in or out of government, in elected or appointed positions, interest groups or research organizations."
heperpluralism
a theory of government and politics contending that groups are so strong that government is weakened. Hyperpluralism is an extreme, exaggerated, or perverted form of plurlism.
Hard money
Political contributions given to a party, candidate, or interest group that are limited in amounts and fully disclosed. Raising such limited funds is harder than raising unlimited funds, hence the term "hard money."
regulatory policy
Government policies that limit what businesses can do; examples include minimum wages, workplace safety measures, and careful monitoring of stock sales.
Price supports
the government's price guarantees for certain farm goods. The government subsidizes farmers to not grow certain crops and also buys food directly and stores it, rather than let the oversupply in the market bring the prices down.
Political Agenda
Issues that people believe require governmental action.
Jim Crow
A slang expression for African Americans that emerged in the 1820s and came to signify the laws and governmental practices designed to segregate blacks from whites, especially in the American South.
Interstate Compacts
Contracts between states that carry the force of law; generally now used as a tool to address multistate policy concerns
Admendment
A change or addition to the constitution
Legal __________ came to an end in 1954, when, in Brown v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court set aside its earlier precedent in Plessy v. Ferguson.
segregation
seniority system
A simple rule for picking committee chairs, in effect until the 1970s. The member who had served on the committee the longest and whose pary controlled Congress became chair, regardless of party loyalty, mental state, or competence.
Conscientious Objector
One who refuses military service on religious or ethical grounds.
Electronic Throne
The presidential skill of using the television as a platform for public persuasion; developed as an alternative to press conferences.
policy agenda
The issues that attract the serious attention of public officials and other people actively involved in politics at the time.
Which of the following is NOT currently one of the three major sources of federal revenue?
Excise taxes
Interstate commerce
commerce between two or more states which can be regulated by the federal government
single-issue groups
groups that have a narrow interest, tend to dislike compromise, and often draw membership from people new to politics. These features distinguish them from traditional interest groups.
Declaration of Independence
Document drafted by Thomas Jefferson in 1776 that proclaimed the right of the American colonies to separate from Great Britain
laissez faire
idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs
Defendant
In a criminal action, the person or party accused of an offense.
front-loading
Choosing an early date to hold the primary election.
Governmental corporations
provide services that could be handled by the private sector and generally charge cheaper rates than a private sector producer.
unfunded mandate
A mandate for which the federal government gives the states no money.
national convention
A meeting of party delegates elected in state primaries, caucuses, or conventions that is held every four years. Its primary purpose is to nominate presidential and vice presidential candidates and to ratify a campaign platform.
Class Consciousness
An awareness of belongings to a particular socioeconomic class where interests are different from those of others.
Entrepreneurial Politics
The type of politics best illustrated by controversies over factory pollution.
The most important power Congress has is the power to?
make laws
executive order
Directive issued by a president or governor that has the force of law
approval ratings
a measurement of how popular, or unpopular, a leader or program is among the public.
Unitary System
System of government where the local and regional governments derive all authority from a strong national government
Pendleton Act (1883)
Federal law establishing the Civil Service Commission. Passed in response to growing public outcry over corruption in government, this created competitive tests for civil service job applicant and mandated that jobs be awarded on the basis of merit, not as favors to political supporters.
tax
a sum of money demanded by a government for its support or for specific facilities or services, levied upon incomes, property, sales, etc.
Work Ethic
A set of values that includes working hard, saving one's money, and obeying the law.
Double jeopardy
The act of trying an individual a second time after he has been acquitted on the same charges.
equal access rule
the broadcast media must give all candidates for politcal office the same opportunity to be heard under federal communications commission rules
nonpartisan election
A local or judicial election in which candidates are not selected or endorsed by political parties and party affiliation is not listed on ballots.
Crossover Primary
voting for a party that they don't normally identify with
categorical grants
Federal grants that can be used only for specific purposes. These grants have strings attached. (Compare to block grants)
articles of confederation
the first constitution of the US, adopted by Congress in 1777 and 1781. The articles establishes a national legislature, the Continental Congress, but most authority rested with the state legislatures
off-year election
An election taking place in a year when no presidential elections are occurring; midterm election.
party identification
a sense of affiliation that a person has with a particular political party
Retrospective Voting
A theory of voting in which voters essentially ask this simple question: "What have you done for me lately?"
The case where the doctrine of Judicial review was established was?
Marbury vs. Madison.
Minor party
A small political party that rises and falls with a charismatic candidate or, if composed of ideologies on the right or left, usually persists over time; also called a third party.
Conditions of aid
Terms set by the national government that states must meet if they are to receive certain federal funds.
Constitutional National Security Responsibilities of President?
commander in chief, make treaties (subject to agreement of 2/3 of the Senate), nominate ambassadors (with Senate majority agreement), receive ambassadors of other nations
minimum wage
the lowest legal wage that can be paid to most workers
Scott v. Sandford
1857 SuCo: An escaped slave has no rights, and Congress can't ban slaves in the territories.
Brief orders
The returning of a case to a lower court b/c a smiliar case was recently decided
President pro tempore
Serves as president of the Senate in the absence of the vice president; chosen by the majority party.
Writ of Certiorari
Meaning "to make certain," this is the formal acceptance given to a petition before the Court. Receiving a writ of certiorari means the Supreme Court will hear your case. Less than 5% of petitions are granted a writ of certiorari.
War Powers Act
President is limited to sixty days of deployment of troops overseas. Then he needs congressional approval or 30 days to withdraw with no approval.
New Jersey Plan
proposal at the C.C. made by William Paterson of NJ for a central government with a single-house legislature in which each state would be represented equally
10. What are reserved powers?
-Powers given to the state government alone.
cases regarding freedom of expression
Near v. Minnesota (1931), Schenck v. United States (1919), Zurcher v. Stanford Daily (1978), Roth v. US (1957), Miller v. California (1973)
Attitudinal View of Representation
assumes that members vote on the basis of their own beliefs because the array of conflicting pressures on members cancel out one another.
cases regarding right to privacy
Roe v. Wade (1973), Casey v. Planned Parenthood, Griswold v. Connecticut
An interest group would likely have the greatest influence on policy matters involving
narrow issues, only a few interest groups, and technical information
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