AP Government 22 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
bureaucratic imperialism
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Ratify
To pass/sign/approve into law.
Bundling
Gathering contributions from many individuals in an organization or community, and presenting the sum to a campaign.
collective bargaining
Negotiations between representatives of labors unions and management to determine acceptable working conditions.
Cabinet
part of the "unwritten Constitution," it was first established by George Washington and includes federal departments such as state, defense etc.
Cooperative Federalism
Cooperation among federal, state, &local govts; "marble cake" federalism
Strict Construction
Constitution should be interpreted literally
Politics
process by which we select governmental leaders and what policies these leaders pursue.
Immunity
Exemption form prosecution for a particular crime in return for testimony pertaining to the case.
Deficit
The difference between the revenues raised annually from sources of income other than borrowing and the expenditures of government, including paying the interest on past borrowing.
Deficit spending
the government's meeting budgetary expenses by borrowing more money than it can pay back.
Australian ballot
secret ballot printed by state
bicameralism
The principle of a two-house legislature
Narrowcasting
strategy of some broadcase channels that appeal to a narrow, not broad, audience
Religious tradition
The moral teachings of religious institutions on religious, social, and economic issues.
electoral college
A unique American institution, created by the Constitution, providing for the selection of the president by electors chosen by the state parties. Although its vote usually reflects a popular majority, the winner-take-all rules give clout to big states.
party identification
An informal and subjective affiliation with a political party.
central clearance
Review of all executive branch testimony, reports, and draft legislation by the Office of Management and Budget to ensure that each communication to Congress is in accordance with the president's program.
Power Elite
Identifiable group that possess a disproportionate amount of power in government.
bill
A proposed law written in legal language. Only o member of Congress can submit one, although anyone can write one.
lobbyists
"communication by someone other than a citizen acting on his own behalf, directed to a governmental decisionmaker with the hope of influencing his decision"
entitlement program
Payments made to people meeting eligibility requirements, such as Social Security.
Majority rule
Governance according to the expressed preferences of the majority.
fiscal policy
How the government influences the economy through taxing, borrowing, and spending.
FEC
a commission created by the amendments of the federal election campaign act to administer election reform laws. the duties include overseeing disclosure of campaign finance information and public funding of presidential elections and enforcing contribution limits
Partisanship
excessive support for a cause or candidate
markup
line by line revision of a bill
Issue advocacy
Unlimited and undisclosed spending by an individual or group on communications that do not use words like "vote for" or "vote against," although much of this activity is actually about electing or defeating candidates.
Social Conservative
One who believes that traditional moral teaching should be supported and furthered by the government
authority
the ability to make laws, independent of the power to enfore them
Obscenity
A form of unprotected speech in which the average person, applying contemporary community standards, the dominant theme of the material appeals to prurient interest.
Single-issue Groups
Groups that have a narrow interest tend to dislike compromise, and often draw membership from people new to politics. These features distinguish them from traditional interest groups.
Conservative
One who favors more limited and local government, less government regulation of markets, and more social conformity to traditional norms and values.
Hyperpluralist theory
A theory of government and politics contending that groups are so strong that government is weakened. It is an extreme, exaggerated, or perverted form of pluralism.
broadcast media
Television and radio, as compared with print media.
Parochial participants
Those who avoid elections and civic organizations but will contact officials regarding specific problems.
Checks and Balances
Different branches share power and cooperate. This helps ensure one branch doesn't become too powerful.
Simple Resolution
Resolution used for matters such as establishing the rules under which each body will operate.
government
the system or form by which a community or other political unit is governed
Independent Learners
voter not registered with a political party but tend to vote for candidates of one particular party
Federal Mandate
A requirement imposed by the federal government as a condition for the receipt of federal funds.
political socialization
Complex process by which people get their sense of political identity, beliefs, and values.
Concurrent Resolution
an expression of opinion without the force of law that requires the approval of both the House and the Senate, but not the president
prohibited powers
The powers specifically denied to the national government by the Constitution.
Judicial restraint
Holds that the Court should avoid taking the initiative on social &pol. questions, operation strictly w/n the limits of the Constitution
weapons of mass destruction
Biological, chemical, or nuclear weapons that can cause a massive number of deaths in a single use
Federalism
a system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
A committee that includes members of both houses is called?
joint committee
National convention
the supreme power within each party, which meets every four years, writes the party platform, and nominates candidates for president and vice president.
Representative democracy
A system of government in which citizens elect representatives, or leaders, to make decisions about the laws for all the people.
Who said, "The democratic method is that institutional arrangement for arriving at political decisions in which individuals [leaders] acquire the power to decideby means of a competitive struggle for the people's vote"
Joseph Schumpeter
Coercive Acts
Closed Boston Harbor to all but essential trade (food and firewood) and declared it would remain closed until the damages incurred during the Boston Tea Party were paid for. Several measures tightened English control over the Massachusetts government and its courts, and another required civilians to house British soldiers.
Single Issue
Groups that have a narrow interest, tend to dislike compromise, and often draw membership from people new to politics. These features distinguish them from traditional interest groups.
independent executive agency
The government not accounted for by cabinet departments, independent regulatory agencies, and government corporations. Its administrators are typically appointed by the president and serve at the president's pleasure. NASA is an example.
Voter registration
A system adopted by the states that requires voters to register well in advance of Election Day. A few states permit Election Day registration.
divided government
occurs when the president is from one party and congress is controlled by the other party. this also occurs if the house is controlled by one party and the senate by the other party.
Bill of Attainder
Declare an individual guilty of a capital offense without a trial.
Dual Federalism
Separate powers - layer cake; , A system of government in which both the states and the national government remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies.
blanket primaries
Primaries in which voters can be from and vote for any party.
4. Twenty-fifth amendment
passed in 1951, this amendment permits the vice president to become acting president if the president's cabinet determines that the president is disabled. The amendment also outlines how a recuperated president can reclaim the job.
open primary
a primary in which either party may vote
Global interdependence
A relationship in which the lives of all people are closely intertwined and any one's nations problems are part of a larger global problem
federalist papers
A series of 85 essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay written to persuade voters to approve the constitution
Class action lawsuits
Lawsuits permitting a small number of people to sue on behalf of all other people similarly situated.
The president's authority over the military comes from?
being commander in chief
safe district
a House district in which the winner of the general election carries more than 55 percent of the vote
progressive tax
when gov't takes more from the rich than the poor
temporary assistance for Needy Families
A government program that provides cash assistance for low income families
Reform party
A minor party founded by Ross Perot in 1995. It focuses on national government reform, fiscal responsibility, and political accountability. It has recently struggled with internal strife and criticism that it lacks an identity.
authorization bill
Act of Cong (type of bill) that makes or continues a government or entitlement program, also defines budget limits for said program.
gross domestic product (GDP)
The total output of all economic activity in the nation, including goods and services.
Bully pulpits
the ability to use the office of the presidency to promote a particular program and/or to influence Congress to accept legislative proposals.
Writ of habeas corpus
a court order requiring explanation to a judge why a prisoner is being held in custody
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Federal law that increased government supervision of local election practices, suspended the use of literacy tests to prevent people (usually African Americans) from voting, and expanded the government efforts to register voters. The version of this in 1970 permanently banned literacy tests.
general act charter
applies to any number of cities in a certain region or that fall within a certain classification
White House Press Corps
A large White House staff that meets witih reporters, briefs the president on questions he is likely to be asked, attempts to control the flow of news from cabinet departments to the presss, and arranges briefings for out-of-town editors (to bypass what many presidents think are the biases of this group
equal protection of the law
A standard of equal treatment that must be observed by the government
Critical Elections / Political Realignment
These are elections in which a large number of new voters participate and in which voters switch their party allegiance. The best examples of critical elections include 1860 (the expansion of slavery / Civil War) and 1932 (FDR and the Great Depression.)
The south experienced a regional realignment starting in 1964 when white voters switched from the Democratic Party to the Republican Party.
Americans have less trust in govt, but still have confidence in political institutions:
congress, police, armed force, legal system
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