AP Government 26 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Self-incrimination
testifying against oneself.
24th Amendment
prohibited poll taxes
2nd amendment
right to bear arms
Superdelegates
National party leaders who automatically get a delegate slot at the Democratic national party convention.
Virginia Plan
offered at the Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia, it urged the delegates to create a legislature based on the population of each state.
divided government
Governance divided between the parties, especially when one holds the presidency and the other controls one or both houses of Congress.
Veto
Presidential power to reject proposed legislation.
The criticism that government refuses to make tough choices between X or Y, instead pretending there is no need to choose and trying to favor both is most often made by __________ theorists.
Hyperpluralist
Community Policing
Assigning police to neighborhoods where they walk the beat and work with churches and other community groups to reduce crime and improve relations with minorities.
Effective participation
people must have ample opportunities
Government
those institutions that create public policy.
Tenth Amendment
The constitutional amendment stating, "The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, not prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people."
judicial restraint
Philosophy proposing that judges should interpret the Constitution to reflect what the framers intended and what its words literally say.
Medicaid
public assistance program designed to provide health care for poor Americans; funded by both states and fed. govt.
Joint committees
congressional committees on a few subject-matter areas with membership drawn from both houses
markup
The action made when correcting or revising a bill.
proportional representation
An electoral system used throughout most of Europe that awards legislative seats to political parties in proportion to the number of votes won in an election.
block grants
Federal grants automatically given to states to support broad programs. (Compared to categorical grants)
Public Opinion
an ever-changing consensus of ideas among the general public about current issues
constitutional court
A federal court exercising the judicial powers found in Article III of the Constitution and whose judges are given constitutional protection: they may not be fired (they serve during" good behavior"), nor may their salaries be reduced while they are in office. The most important constitutional courts are the Supreme Court, the ninety-four district courts, and the courts of appeals (one in each of eleven regions plus one in the District of Columbia).
common law
The accumulation of past judicial decisions applied in civil law disputes.
president
white male, upper middle to rich class, protestant, 54, has a family and children
coattail effect
Weaker or lesser-known candidates from the president's party profit from the president's popularity by winning votes.
Fourteenth Amendment
granted full citizenship to all individuals born in the united states
spoiler
A losing candidate who costs another candidate the election.
majority-minority district
A congressional district created to include a majority of minority voters; ruled constitutional so long as race is not the main factor in redistricting.
Offset
The EPA incentive that allows a company higher pollution at one plant in exchange for lower pollution at another.
constituency
the votes in a legislator's home district
Treaty
A formal, public agreement between the United States and one or more nations that must be approved by two thirds of the Senate.
Law
Any written or positive rule or collection of rules prescribed under the authority of the state or nation, as by the people in its consitution.
supremacy clause
Section of the Constitution that requires conflicts between federal law and state law to be resolved in favor of federal law. State constitutions and laws that violate the US Constitution, federal laws, or international treaties can be invalidated through this.
De facto Segregation
segregation of racial groups that arises as a result of economic, social, or other factors rather than by operation or enforcement of laws or other official state action.
Regional primaries
proposal by critics of the caucuses and presidential primaries to replace these electoral methods with a series of primaries held in each geographic region.
emolument
A gift given to a government official, which must be limited to avoid committing bribery.
House Rules Committee
Committee that reviews all bills (except revenue, budget, and appropriations) that come out of committee before they enter the full House for debate; they attach "rules" to bills.
presidential coattails
These occur when voters cast their ballots for congressional candidates of the president's party because they support the president. Recent studies show that few races are won this way.
Engel v. Vitale
1962 SuCo: School prayer is unconstitutional.
Hard power
The reliance on economic and military strength to solve international problems
Sound bites
short video clips of aproxitmatly 10 seconds
strict-constructionist approach
The view that judges should decide cases on the basis of the language of the Constitution.
open primaries
elections to select party nominees in which voters can decide on Election Day whether they want to participate in the Democratic or Republican contests.
Franking privilege
allows members of Congress to send mail postage free
Closed Shop
A company with labor agreement under which union membership can be a condition of employment.
filibuster
A lengthy speech designed to delay the vote on a bill; used only in the Senate.
riders
amendments to bills, often in the form of appropriations, that sometimes have nothing to do with the intent of the bill itself and many times are considered to be pork barrel legislation
internationalism
The view that the United States should play an active role in world affairs.
prior restraint
censorship of or punishment for the expression of ideas before the ideas are printed or spoken
Political Culture
The widely shared beliefs, values, and norms concerning the relationship of citizens to government and to one another.
According to the authors of your text; on issues of great importance to their constituents, representatives will most likely vote as?
delegates.
Independent Counsel Law
creating a special prosecutor position which could be used by Congress or the Atty. General to investigate individuals holding or formerly holding certain high position in the federal government.
imperial presidency
president is seen as emperor taking strong actions without consulting Congress or seeking its approval
Police Power
State power to enact laws promoting health, safety, and morals.
prior restraint
Censorship of news material before it is made public.
Merit principle
the idea that hiring should be based on entrance exams and promotion ratings to produce administrations by people with talent and skill
North Atlantic Trade Organization
a military alliance of democratic states between America and western countries of Europe which was founded in 1949
527
Named for the section of the IRS Tax Code, a ### is an advocacy group trying to influence elections through voter mobilization and the spending of unlimited dollars in "independent expenditures." The most famous of these in the 2004 election cycle was the "Swiftboat Veterans for Truth."
Presidential Primaries
Elections in which voters in a state vote for a candidate (or delegates pledged to him or her). Most delegates to the national party conventions are chosen this way.
Discharge petition
If signed by majority of reps, will bring a bill to floor out of committee
Realignment
A shift of voting patterns to form new coaltions of party support
shield law
law guar news reporters the right to protect the anonymity of their sources; there is no federal one
Grants-in-aid (categorical grants)
aid from federal government to states for specific programs. helps feds control states
Who is the current governor of the State of Michigan?
Rick Snyder.
dual federalism
A system of government in which both the states and the national government remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies
McCulloch v. Maryland
An 1819 Supreme Court decision that established the supremacy of the national government over state governments. In deciding this case, Chief Justice John Marshall and colleagues held that Congress had certain implied powers in addition to the enumerated powers found in the Constitution.
Congress can control the exectuive agencies by witholding funds needed to run that agency. This iscalled?
Power of the purse
Preemption
The right of a federal law or a regulation to preclude enforcement of a state or local law or regulation.
New Jersey Plan
Proposal to create a week national government.
Critical election
one in which each party's coalition of support begins to break up and a new coalition of forces is formed for each party
minority opinion
When the one to four justices who did not vote with the majority give their reasons for opposing the majority opinion. The legal community uses minority opinions as a guide to the power of the majority opinion and possible future challenges to that decision.
Ex post facto law
retroctive criminal law that works to someone's disadvantage
National Security Council
a committee in the executive branch of government that advises the president on foreign and military and national security. Includes president, vice president, and the secretaries of state and defense.
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA)
Largely banned party soft money, restored a long-standing prohibition on corporations and labor unions for using general treasury funds for electoral purposes, and narrowed the definition of issue advocacy.
sovereign immunity
the rule that a citizen cannot sue the government without the government's consent
Speaker of the House
Individual chosen by members of the House of Representatives to preside over its sessions.
By the reality of neighborhood schools located in areas that happen to be racially segregated.
De facto educational segregation occurs
Grand Jury
A jury of 12 to 23 persons who, in private, hear evidence presented by the government to determine whether persons shall be required to stand trial. If the jury believes there is sufficient evidence that a crime was committed, it issues an indictment.
First Catholic nominated for president by a major party
Al Smith, by Democrates in 1928
the Senate in the 18th, 19th centuries
Senate originally appointed by state House of Representatives
Why has there been so much political conflict in our history?
the geographic divide in the country
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