AP Government 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
graduate
liberal
National Security Advisor
James Jones
20th Amendment
Amendment-Presidential Term and Succession
Suffrage
The legal right to vote.
how political parties are structured
localstatenational
democracy
government by the people, either directly or indirectly, with free and frequent elections
inflation
increased prices for goods and services combined with the reduced value of money
Veto
The constitutional power of the president to send a bill back to Congress with reasons for rejecting it. A two-thirds vote in each house can override a veto.
Public assistance
Aid to the poor; "welfare."
civil liberties
Individual freedoms that the government cannot take away, including free speech, freedom of religion, and the rights of the accused.
Interest Groups
Organization of individuals with similar policy goals who enter the political process to influence legislation that affects the organizations interests
Capitalism
An economic system characterized by private property, competitive markets, economic incentives, and limited government involvement in the production, distribution, and pricing of goods and services.
monarchy
Government in which political power is exercised by a single ruler under the claim of divine or hereditary right.
Hyperpluralism
is a group theory characterized by many interest groups vying for controlresulting in a government that is tied up in gridlock.
national chairperson
person responsible for the day-to-day activities of the party and is usually hand-picked by the presidential nominee.
Confederation
A loose group of governments working together
Political Action Committee
An organization that finance candidates and may lobby. Such organizations can contribute no more than $5,000 to a federal candidate in any election.
Coattail Effect
The situation occurring when voters cast their ballots for congressional candidates of the president's party because they support the president.
Logrolling
The exchange of pol. favors for support of a bill
filibuster
nonstop Senate debate that prevents a bill from coming to vote
Cooperative federalism
system in which both federal government and state governments cooperate in solving problems
Soft power
The reliance on diplomacy and negotiation to solve international problems.
multilateralism
The idea that nations should act together to solve problems.
Party eras
a time period characterized by national dominance by one political party. There have been four major party eras in American history—the era of good feeling, the Republican era following the Civil War, the Democratic era following the election of Franklin Roosevelt, and the Republican era following the election of Richard Nixon.
Reapportionment
the process of reallocating seats in the House of Representatives every ten years on the basis of the results of the Census.
Congressmen who vote according to the wishes of their constituents, or according to their conscience depending on the importance of the bill are called?
politicos
Implied powers
Powers inferred from the express powers that allow Congress to carry out its functions.
executive privilege
The power to keep executive communications confidential, especially if they relate to national security.
supremacy clause
Section of the Constitution that requires conflicts between federal law and state law to be resolved in favor of federal law. State constitutions and laws that violate the US Constitution, federal laws, or international treaties can be invalidated through this.
privatization
to transfer from public or government control or ownership to private enterprise:
Budget resolution
a bill setting limits on expenditures based on revenue projections, agreed to by both houses of Congress in April each year.
trail balloons
an intentional news leak for the purpose of assessing the political reaction
Legistlative Branch
section of government that makes laws. In the federal government, the legislative branch consists of: Congress, the Library of Congress, the Congressional Budget Office, and General Accounting Office, and the Government Printing Office. On the state level, the state legislatures make up the legislative branch.
expressed (delegated)
The powers stated in the constitution that the federal government has, such as the power to tax, create new states, and make treaties with other governments.
Matching Funds
Contributions of up to $250 are matched from the Presidential Election Campaign Fund to candidates for the presidential nomination who qualify and agree to meet various conditions, such as limiting their overall spending.
background story
A public official's statement to a reporter that is given on condition that the official not be named.
Voting Rights Act of 1970
18 as voting age
Pocket Veto
A veto taking place when Congress adjourns within 10 days of submitting a bill to the president, who simply lets it die by neither signing nor vetoing it.
Extradition
States may return fugitives to a state from which they fled to avoid criminal prosecution at the request of the state's gov
Presidential preference primaries
Voters select delegates to the presidential nominating convention
dual federalism
fed and state govts remained separate and indep
Supremacy Clause
National law supersedes all other laws passed by states; found in Article VI of the Constitution.
Policy agenda
The informal list of issues that Congress and the president consider most important for action.
Federalism
a system in which power is divided between the national and state governments.
New Deal coalition
The supporters of Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal; the coalition included labor unions, Catholics, southern whites, and African Americans; helped the Democrats dominate politics from the 1930s until the 1960s.
Substantive due process
legal process that places limits related to the content of legislation and the extent government can use its power to enact unreasonable laws.
Roth v. United States
obscenity is not constitutionnally protected "I know it when I see it"
closed rule
An order from the house rules committee that sets a time limit on debate; forbids a bill from being amended on the floor.
unitary system
A system in which sovereignty is wholly in the hands of the national government so that subnational political units are dependent on its will.
Issue advocacy
Promoting a particular position or an issue by interest groups or individuals but not candidates. Much issue advocacy is often electioneering for or against a candidate and, until 2004 had not been subject to regulation.
republic
a form of government in which citizens elect representatives to speak or act for them
 front-loading
the tendency of states to choose an early date on the primary calendar
McGovern-Fraser Commission
committee in D party charged w/ recommending changes in party rules to promote more representation of women and minorities in delegate selection process
Party whip
a legislator appointed by the party to enforce discipline
recess appointments
The ability of the president to fill vacant federal positions, such as federal court judgeships, without senatorial approval if the SEnate is in recess. These appointee can serve for almost a year before approval must be considered. After that period, it is difficult for the Senate to remove the person from the positions. It is considered a significant way for a president to put in controversial leaders.
class action suits
Lawsuits permitting a small number of people to sue on behalf of all other people similarly situated.
Civic Duty
The belief that in order to support democratic government, a citizen should always vote.
General Accounting Office (GAO)
performs routine financial audits of money spent by the executive departments and investigates agencies
political culture
an overall set of values widely shared within a society
trial ballon
Information sent out to the media in order to observe the reaction of an audience.
Responsible Party Model
A view favored by some political scientists about how parties should work. According to the model, parties should offer clear choices to the voters, who can then use those choices as cues to their own preferences of candidates. Once in office, parties would carry out their campaign promises.
jurisdiction
A court's power to hear cases of a particular type.
due process clause
clause in the 15th amendment limiting the power of national government
electoral college
The people chosen to cast each state's votes in a presidential election. Each state can cast one electoral vote for each senator and representative it has. The District of Columbia has three electoral votes, even though it cannot elect a representative or Senator.
Retrospective voting
Voting for the candidate or party in office because one likes or dislikes how things have gone in the recent past.
written law
body of law enacted by the legislative branch
competitive federalism
period in the 90's, there was an increased competition between states and the national government to exert influence and power.
1. media
2. interest groups
3. elections
4. political parties
What are the 4 linkage mechanism?
The __________ is responsible for supervising preparation of the federal budget and advising the President on budgetary matters.
Office of Management and Budget
The Supreme Court case that ruled that segregation was not discriminatory (did not violate black civil rights under the Fourteenth Amendemnt) provide that blacks received accommodations equal to those of whites.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
Writ of Habeas Corpus
A court order requiring explanation to a judge why a prisoner is being held in custody.
solidarity incentive
The lure of a social benefit, such as friendship, gained by members of an organization.
The function of the govt is to?
all of the above.
Confederation or confederal system
the states are sovereign and the national government is allowed to do only that which the states permit.
United States v. Nixon
The 1974 case in which the Supreme Court unanimously held that the doctrine of executive privilege was implicit in the Constitution but could not be extended to protect documents relevant to criminal prosecutions.
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
Presidential staff the agency that serves as a clearinghouse for budgetary requests and management improvements for government agencies.
Writ of certiorari
a formal writ used to bring a case before the Supreme Court
Supreme Court case that ruled that State Universities couldn't admit less qualified individuals solely based on race; no quotas either.
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
A written opinion in a Supreme Court case is a
Statement of the legal reasoning behind a decision.
What did Max Weber explain the rise of?
the rise of capitalism in part of the "Protestant ethic" now called work ethic
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