AP Government 8 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
people seeking elected office
13th Amendment
Amendment that abolished slavery.
A political party's official endorsement of a candidate. Generally, success in the primary elections brings momentum, money, and media attention, which ultimately helps a candidate win the nomination from their party.
Section 2 Nigeria
Section 2 Nigeria
Campaigning is very expensive! "Money is the mother's milk of politics"
A relatively small proportion of people in a survey who are chosen to represent the whole
Article V
How to amend the Constitution
critical election
electoral "earthquake" where new issues emerge, new coalitions replace old, and majority party is displaced by the minority. The period's often marked by nat'l crisis and may require more than one election to bring new party era
Procedure for submitting to popular vote the removal of officials from office before the end of their term.
federal financial aid to individuals, e.g., welfare, food stamps, agricultural subsidies.
Interpretations of this clause have been central to attempts to define the nature of which of the following aspects of the United States political system?
National Health Insurance program for the elderly and disabled.
modeled on European style processes to promote greater political integration across the continent.
Stare decisis
Latin for judicial precedent, this concept originated in England in the twelfth century when judges settled disputes based on custom and tradition.
antitrust policy
A policy designed to ensure competition and prevent monopoly, which is the control of a market by one company.
separation of powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law.
antitrust legislation
Federal laws (starting with the Sherman Act of 1890) that try to prevent a monopoly from dominating an industry and restraining trade.
Probable cause
the situation occurring when the police have reason to believe that a person should be arrested. In making the arrest, the police are allowed legally to search for and seize incriminating evidence.
The events and scandal surrounding a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in 1972 and the subsequent cover-up of White House involvement, leading to the eventual resignation of President Nixon under the threat of impeachment.
Unfunded mandates
Federal government requires the states to enforce legislation without the funding necessary
...majority party tries to ensure max # of votes by redrawing legislative districts
Public interest lobbies
according to Jeffrey Berry, organizations that seek "a collective good, the achievement of which will not selectively and materially benefit the membership or activities of the organization."
Party registration
The act of declaring party affiliation; required by some states when one registers to vote.
watchdog journalism
Journalism that attempts to hold government officials and institutions accountable for their actions.
Favorite son
the presidential candidate backed by the home state at the party's nominating convention.
Policy Entrepreneurs
people who invest their political "capital" in an issue. According to John Kingdon, a political entrepreneur "could be in or out of government in elected or appointed positions, in interest groups or research organizations."
The organizations, closely aligned with labor unions, and who acts as the active lobbying faction of that union is?
Political Action Committees
Collective bargaining
Method whereby representatives of the union and employer determine wages, hours, and other conditions of employment through direct negotiation.
a theory of government and politics contending that groups are so strong that government is weakened; an extreme, exaggerated, or perverted form of pluralism
Political party of the late 1800s. This party represented farmers and working-class Americans. They sought inflationary economic policies to increase farm income. THey also lobbied for a number of democratic reforms that would later be adopted by the Progressives, such as direct election of senators.
Policymaking Institutions
The branches of government charged with taking action on political issues. The U.S Constitution established three policymaking istitutions- the congress, the presidency, and the courts. Today, the power of the bureaucracy is so great that most political s
budgetary choices
decision by president (ex: U.S. troops invade Iraq)
statutory construction
judicial interpretation of an act of Congress, sometimes results in passing new legislation
Budget resolution
Set of budget guidelines that must pass both houses of Congress in identical form by April 15.
John Locke
A British philosopher whose ideas on civil government greatly influenced the Founders.
22nd Amendment
Amendment-Two Term Limit (Max is 10 years)
primary election
An election held to choose candidates for office.
Judicial restraint
A judicial philosophy in which judges play minimal policy making roles, leaving that strictly to the legislatures .
Reserved powers
powers that the Constitution does not give to the national government that are kept by the states
Political efficacy
Belief that a person can influence politics and public policymaking-vote makes a difference
When a significant # of voters choose to no longer support a particular pol. party
Griswold v. Connecticut
const implicitly guars citizen's right to privacy
political ideology
A consistent set of beliefs about politics and public policy that sets the framework for evaluating government and public policy.
Dissenting opinion
An opinion disagreeing with a majority in a Supreme Court ruling.
Congress is allowed to go beyond powers specifically listed because of the
elastic clause
The right to vote; also called the franchise.
Conference committee
a committee consisting of senators and representatives that meets to resolve differences in legislation.
18th Amendment
sets up prohibition, which forbids the sale and manufacture of alcohol
the Framers wanted to truly form a representatative government. A desire to compromise so that as many people as possible can win.
federal republic
A system in which sovereignty is wholly in the hands of that national government.
Prior restraint
Censorship imposed before a speech is made or a newspaper is published; usually presumed to be unconstitutional.
Virginia Plan
The first general plan for the Constitution offered in Philadelphia. Its key points were a bicameral legislature, and an executive and judiciary branch chosen by the national legislature
General election
: election in which voters decide which candidates will actually fill elective public offices
Open primary
choose any primary, but only one primary
Majority districts
those with a majority of residents who are part of an ethnic minority
McGovern Frasier Commission
Led to selection of delegates through primary elections.
Schenck v. United States
A 1919 decision upholding the conviction of a social who had urged young men to resist the draft during World War I. Justice Holmes declared that government can limit the speech if the speech provokes a "clear and present danger" of substantive evils.
Ticket splitting
voting with one party for one office and with another party for other offices
Term Limits
laws that limit the number of terms elected officials can serve
Majority opinion
The majority of justices agree on the decision &the reasons for th edecision
exclusionary rule
The rule that evidence, no matter how incriminating, cannot be introduced into a trial if it was not constitutionally obtained. The rule prohibits use of evidence obtained through unreasonable search and seizure
lame duck
A politician who is still in office after having lost a reelection bid.
Legislation Veto
The ability of Congress to override a presidential decision. Although the War Powers Resolution asserts this authority, there is reason to believe that, if challenged the Supreme Court would find this legislative veto in violation of the doctrine of separation of powers.
Pensylvannia v Schempp (1963)
ruled that government can't require prayer in schools (freedom of religion)
Writ of mandamus
Court order directing an official to perform an official duty
legislative veto
The authority of Congress to block a presidential action after it has taken place. The Supreme Court has held that Congress does not have this power
U.S. v. Lopez
Lopez brought a concealed weapon to his high school, and was charged under federal statute, instead of a state charge. The court questioned whether the 1990 Gun Free School Zone Act is unconstitutional because it exceeds the power of Congress. The court ruled that the act was unconstitutional because the possession of a gun in a school zone is non-economic activity. Therefore the act exceeds the power of congress to legislate under the Commerce Clause
private law
A body of law that deals with relationships between private individuals, such as contracts, civil injuries, domestic relations, and partnerships.
checks and balances
system in which each branch of government has the ability to limit powers possessed by other branches.
Brief Orders
The returning of a case to a lower court b/c a smiliar case was recently decided
Senior Executive Service
Established by Congress in 1978 as a flexible, mobile corps of senior career executives who work closely with presidential appointees to manage government.
congress created it in 1947 to advise the president and help coordinate American military and foreign policy.
National Security Council
checks and balances
system that gives each of the three branches of government ways to limit the powers of the other two
classical liberalism
A view that arose in the early modern era in Europe; it argues for the value of the individual, the necessity for freedom, the importance of rationalism, and the value of the free market.
According to the US Const. who has the sole power to try all impeachments?
The Senate.
House Ways and Means committee
Writes tax codes, which must be approved by both House and Senate
House of Representatives
must be 25, 7 years of citizenship, 2 year term, 435 members, speaker of the house, no limit on terms
Party caucus
A meeting of the members of a party in a legislative chamber to select party leaders and to develop party policy. Called a conference by the Republicans.
Power in the major U.S. political parties is
Fragmented among local, state, and national party organizations.
Office of Management and Budget
An office that grew out of the Bureau of the Budget, created in 1921, consisting of a handful of political appointees and hundreds of skilled professionals. It performs both managerial and budgetary functions.
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