AP Government 9 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
stalwarts
...
Chad
Punched holes in ballots
legislators
Elected representatives who make public policy.
Permanent committees are called
standing committees.
amendment
Addition to the Constitution. Amendments require approval by two-thirds of both houses of Congress and three-quarters of the states.
Counsel
With all the current federal regulation of campaign financing, legal assistance is essential to endure compliance of the laws.
select committees
Congressional committees appointed for a specific purpose, such as the Watergate investigation.
Powers of House
initiate impeachment, appropriation, determine prez if tie; starts revenue bills
party identification
a citizen's self-proclaimed preference for one party or the other
Public choice
Synonymous with "collective action," it specifically studies how government officials, politicians, and voters respond to positive and negative incentives.
Deregulation
elimination of federal regulations on private companies.
categorical grants
federal grants for specific purposes
Divided government
Governance divided between the parties, especially when one holds the presidency and the other controls one or both houses of Congress.
Clientelism
the practice by which particular individuals or segments receive disproportionate policy benefits or political favors from a political patron, usually at the expense of the larger society.
Federalist Party
headed by Alexander Hamilton, this party, made up of the country's upper class, supported a strong national government and set a policy agenda that would solve the nation's economic problems.
minority majority
the emergence of a non-Caucasian majority, as compared with a White, generally Anglo-Saxon majority. It is predicted that by about 2060, Hispanic Americans, African Americans, and Asian Americans together will outnumber White Americans.
Signing Statements
statement issued by the president after he signs a bill wherein he provides his interpretation of the law/modifies the intent of Congress
When Congress cannot reach agreement, these resolutions allow agencies to spend at the level of the previous year.
Continuing resolutions
Prior restraint
a government preventing material from being published. This is a common method of limiting the press in some nations, but it is usually unconstitutional in the United States according to the first amendment and as confirmed in the 1931 case of Near v. Minnesota.
Limited Government
Articles of Confederation - No president, or national court and congress was limited. Unanimous consent was needed. Congress had no powers of taxation, regulate commerce or pass laws.
Congressional caucuses
association of members created to support a political ideology or regional economic interest (black caucus, women's caucus...)
logrolling
...vote trading. ill scratch your back if you scratch mine.
Subgovernments
a network of groups within the American political system that exercise a great deal of control over specific policy areas. Also known as iron triangles, they are composed of interest group leaders interested in a particular policy, the government agency in charge of administrering that policy, and the members of congressional committees and subcommittes handling that policy.
Implied powers
Powers inferred from the express powers that allow Congress to carry out its functions.
caucus
A gathering of political leaders to make decisions, such as which candidate to nominate for an office; set policy; and plot strategy.
Discount rates
interest levels established by the Federal Reserve that effect the ability of the consumer to borrow money. Raising and lowering rates is used as a tool to combat inflation.
Hyperpluralism
A theory of government and politics contending that groups are so strong that government is weakened. Hyperpluralism is an extreme, exaggerated, or perverted form of pluralism. (Pessimists)
Voting for candidates for different offices or different parties is called?
ticket splitting
Hard money
Political contributions given to a party, candidate, or interest group that are limited in amounts and fully disclosed. Raising such limited funds is harder than raising unlimited funds, hence the term "hard money."
filibuster
A tactic for delaying or obstructing legislation by making long speeches
filibuster
A lengthy speech that halts all legislative action in the Senate. These are not possible in the House of Representatives because strict time limits govern all debates there.
Linkage Institutions
The poliltical channels through which people's concerns become political issues on the policy agenda. In the United States, linkage institutions include elections, political parties, interest groups, and the media.
protest
the act of making a strong public expression of disagreement and disapproval
republic
A form of government in which citizens choose their leaders by voting
Magna Carta
British document, signed by King John, which reaffirmed long-standing rights and responsibilities of the English nobility; limited the powers of the king; and recognized that all people, including the government and monarch, are subject to the law.
Anti-federalist
The title for those opposed to the ratification of the Constitution, favored states rights, smaller government, insisted that a Bill of Rights be added to the Constitution
personal following
The political support provided to a candidate on the basis of personal popularity and networks.
Abscam of 1980
First FBI investigation to trap corrupted congressmen.
General Election
Election in which voters choose their leaders for elected offices
Executive order
The president directs an agency to carry out policies/existing laws (informal power)
Supremacy Clause
Ntional law supersedes all other laws passed by states (Art VI)
joint committee
cong committee, membs of both houses, usually to investigate and research specific subjects
policy evaluation
Determines if a policy is achieving its goals.
Natural law
God's or nature's law that defines right from wrong and is higher than human law.
The Supreme Court case that established national supremacy was
McCulloch vs. Maryland.
Super Tuesday
A term used to describe primary elections held in a large number of states on the same day.
Linkage institution
the means by which individuals can express preferences regarding the development of public policy.
literacy test
A requirement that citizens pass a literacy test in order to register to vote. It was established by many states to prevent former slaves (most of whom were illiterate) from voting. Illiterate whites were allowed to vote by a "grandfather clause" added to the law saying that person could vote, even through he did not meet the legal requirements, if her or his ancestors voted before 1867.
Material Incentives
money or things valued in monetary terms
quorum
a gathering of the minimal number of members of an organization to conduct business
National tide
The inclination to focus on national issues, rather than local issues, in an election campaign. The impact of the national tide can be reduced by the nature of the candidates on the ballot who might have differentiated themselves from their party or its leader if the tide is negative, as well as competition in the election.
Declaration of Independence
Document drafted by Thomas Jefferson in 1776 that proclaimed the right of the American colonies to separate from Great Britain
Sixteenth Amendment
: Authorized congress to impose income tax
Valence issue
an issue on which voters distinguise parties by a degree to which they associate a party/candidate with goals or symbols the electorate approves/disapproves of.
Merit principle
the idea that hiring should be based on entrance exams and promotion ratings to produce administration by people with talent and skill.
Selective Perception
Pay more attention to what we agree with.
Exclusionary Rule
The rule that evidence, no matter how incriminating, cannot be introduced into a trial if it was not constitutionally obtained. The rule prohibits use of evidence obtained likewise though
national party platform
a statement of the general and specific philosophy and policy goals of a political party, usually promulgated at the national convention
Shaw v Rend
The U.S. Attorney General rejected a North Carolina congressional reapportionment plan because the plan created only one black-majority district. The Court held that although North Carolina's reapportionment plan was racially neutral on its face, the resulting district shape was bizarre enough to suggest that it constituted an effort to separate voters into different districts based on race.
Lame Duck
person holding office after his or her replacement has been elected to the office, but before the current term has ended.
McCulloch v. Maryland
MD legislature passed a tax on perations of the Baltimore branch of the 2nd bank of the U.S., a govt agency. The cashier, McCulloch, issued bank notes w/o paying tax. MD sued. S Court ruled in MD's favor.
unified government
A government in which the same party controls both the White House and voth houses of Congress. When Bill Clinton becamse president in 1993, it was the first time since 1981 (and only the second time since 1969) that the same party was in charge of the presidency and Congress.
Article of Confederation
The first constitution of the United States, adopted by Congress in 1777 and enacted in 1781. The articles established a national legislature, the Continental Congress, but most authority rested with the state legislature.
Miller v. California (1973)
For something to be considered obscene, it must have:
1. The work, taken as a whole, appealed "to a prurient interest in sex."
2. The work showed "patently offensive" sexual conduct that was specifically defined by an obscenity law.
3. The work, taken as a whole, lacked "serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value." (freedom of expression)
Popular consent
The idea that a just government must derive its powers from the consent of the people it governs
States cannot take away life, liberty or property without due cause
Due Process Clause
Stare decisis
the rule of precedent whereby a rule or law contained in a judicial decision is commonly viewed as binding on judges whenever the same question is presented
hopper
the box in the House in which proposed bills are placed and thereby officially introduced
Describe the interventionist state that persists in Nigeria. Has it diminished in scope?
The interventionist state that persists in Nigeria is a state introduced into the colony in large part to restructure and subordinate the local economy to European capitalism. It was a broad license to intrude into major sectors of the economy and society. Its interventionist state extended its management of the economy, including broad administrative controls and significant ownership positions in areas as diverse as agriculture, banking, commerce, manufacturing, transportation, mining, education, health, employment, and, eventually, oil and natural gas. To promote better macroeconomic management and to toot out endemic corruption has not borne results in the form of economic growth, employment, or the reduction of poverty.
Political Action Committees (PACs)
funding vehicles created by the 1974 campaign finance reforms. A corporation, union, or some other interest group can create a PAC and register it with the FEC, which will meticulously monitor the PAC's expenditures.
Gideon v. Wainwright
1963 SuCo: Anyone accused of a felony where jail time is possible has a right to a lawyer.
refers to spending that is intended to benefit constituents of a politician in return for their political support, either in the form of campaign contributions or votes
Pork Barrel Spending
Council of Economic Advisors
Established by the Employment Act of 1946. It analyzes the national economy in order to advise the President on economic policy. The Council consists of three members, appointed by the President and approved by the Senate, one of whom the President designates as Chairperson.
grandfather clause
A voting law that stated that a person could vote if his grandfather was eligible to vote prior to 1867; designed to keep blacks from voting.
Under the Articles, accepted currency consisted of?
money coined by individual banks.
Internet team
: The campaign staff that makes use of Web-based resources to communicate with voters, raise funds, organize volunteers, and plan campaign events
dissenting opinion
an opinion by a judge who voted in the minority that explains the reasons for opposing the majority opinion
ex post facto laws
law that makes an act criminal even though the act was legal when it was commited
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
An international trade organization with more than 130 members, including the United States and the People's Republic of China, that seeks to encourage free trade by lowering tariffs and other trade restrictions.
Grand Jury (5th amendment)
ranges in size from 6 to 23, depending on the state, and functions to determine whether there is enough evidence available against a person accused of a crime to justify a trial.
OMB (Office of Management and Budget)
1921) to prepare estimates of how much will be spent by federal agencies, to negotiate and to make that legislative proposals of these other departments jive with the president's program.
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