AP Government Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Chief of Staff
Rahm Emanuel
7th Amendment
Amendment-Civil prosecutions: Jury Trial
Standing Committees
permanently established legislative committees that consider and are responsible for legislation within a certain subject area
affirmative action
Government-mandated programs that seek to create special employment opportunities for blacks, women, and other victims of past discrimination.
Legislation that concerns the raising of revenues by the government.
Civil Liberties
Constitutional freedoms guaranteed to all citizens
Big State Strategy
Presidential political campaign strategy in which a candidate focuses on winning primaries in large states because of their high delegate counts
Legislative Oversight
Congress' monitoring of the bureaucracy and its administration of policy, performed mainly through hearings
Thomas Hobbes
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)
The men who wrote the Constitution.
The political equivalent of an indictment in criminal law, prescribed by the Constitution. The House of Representatives may impeach the president by a majority vote for "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors."
Community policing
Assigning police to neighborhoods where they walk the beat and work with churches and other community groups to reduce crime and improve relations with minorities.
Republican era
1860-1928 defined by anti-slavery which united the Republican party and split the democratic partyalso a 2nd era was when Democrat William Jennings Brian supported getting off the gold standard and everyone got scared and voted Republican
Party realignment
the signaling resulting from a national election or a major shift in the political spectrum and characterized by the start of a party era.
The events and scandal surrounding a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in 1972 and the subsequent cover-up of White House involvement, leading to the eventual resignation of President Nixon under the threat of impeachment.
a statute enacted by a city government
Civil Rights Act
(1964) Prohibited discrimination of African Americans in employement, voting, or public accomidations. Also said there could be no discrimination against race, color, sex, religion, or national origin.
attentive public
Those citizens who follow public affairs carefully.
Policy Networks
a series of interconnecting iron triangles whose agenda may be different but influences a group of policy
Mandatory spending
Required govt spending by permanent laws
Legislative veto
process in which Congress overturned rules and regulations proposed by executive branch agencies. Struck down in 1983.
Categorical grant
money granted by the federal government to the states for a narrow purpose ( e.g., school lunch program) rather than for a broad purpose (e.g., transportation).
Mass media
Means of communication that are reaching the public, including newspapers and magazines, radio, television (broadcast, cable, and satellite), films, recordings, books, and electronic communication.
military aid
Assistance to other countries designed to strengthen the recipient's military.
Congressional districts
A congressional district is a contiguous territory that has an equal population. They are represented by members of the House.
Sound Bites
short video clips of approximately fifteen seconds which are typically all that are shown from a politicians speech or activities on the nightly news.
committees that are permanent and are the first stopping point in the bill making process ae?
Political predisposition
A characteristic of individuals that is predictive of political behavior.
due process
(law) the administration of justice according to established rules and principles
a system of choosing policymakers and of organizing government so that policy matches the public's preferences.
national debt
the financial obligations of a national government resulting from deficit spending.
Senate Finance Committee
responsible for writing the tax code.
an example that is used to justify similar occurrences at a later time
Unenumerated rights
rights not listed in the Constitution or constitutional amendments; but either implied or, for some other reason, recognized and protected by the Supreme Court.
revenue sharing
A law providing for the distribution of a fixed amount or share of federal tax revenues to the states for spending on almost any government purpose.
McGovern-Fraser Commission
A commission formed at the 1968 Democratic convention in response to demands for reform by minority groups and others who sought better representation.
ideological party
A party that values principled stands on issues above all else
government corporation
A government agency that operates like a business corporation, created to secure greater freedom of action and flexibility for a particular program.
Prospective Voting
voting based on the imagined future performance of a candidate
Rules committee
Determines the rules of debate for bills in the House of Representatives-also known as the calender committee
Policy adoption
The approval of a policy by legislation
Natural Rights:
Rights that every human should be entitled to: life, liberty, and property. This is all John Locke's theory about government.
Unfair treatment of a person based on race or group membership.
National party convention
A national meeting of delegates elected in primaries, caucuses, or state conventions who assemble once every four years to nominate candidates for president and vice president, ratify the party platform, elect officers, and adopt rules.
Food Stamp Program
A government assistance program that provides a means for the poor to receive good and some related items.
skewed sample
A sample that is not representative and leads to inaccurate polling results; a deceptive practice used to manipulate public opinion.
Civil law
deals with contract issues and tort cases such as negligence and slander and defines the legal rights of individuals.
A group of individuals with a common interest upon which every political party depends.
conference committees
A joint committee appointed to resolve differences in the Senate and House versions of the same bill.
critical election
an elction that produces a sharp change in the existing pattern of party loyalties among groups of voters
Bad tendency test
Interpretation of the First Amendment that would permit legislatures to forbid speech encouraging people to engage in illegal action.
state of nature
The basis of natural rights philosophy; a state of nature is the condition of people living in a situation without man-made government, rules, or laws.
Personal Liberty
-A key characteristic of US democracy. Initially meaning freedom from governmental interference, today it includes demands for freedom to engage in a variety of practices free from governmental interference or discrimination
Linkage institutions
provide a link between citizens and govnerment. Ex) parties, elections, interest groups, the media.
Tenth Amendment
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.
New Hampshire primary
Traditionally, these are the first of the public votes for the new presidential election. In 2008, it was held January 8th.
political action committees (PACs)
Political funding vehicles created by the 1974 campaign finance reforms. A corporation, union, or some other interest group can create one of these and register it with the Federal Election Commission, which will meticulously monitor its expenditures.
necessary and proper clause
Another name for the elastic clause.
regressive tax
a tax for which the percentage of income paid in taxes decreases as income increases
Straw poll
Early form of polling that asks the same question of a large number of people
amicus curiae briefs
submitted by "friends of the court" for purpose of raising additional points of view and info not contained in brief points.
Concurring Opinion
A signed opinion which agrees with the majority view of different reasons.
New Jersey Plan
smaller states wanted Congress to be equal representation
Roe v. Wade
A 1973 Supreme Court case that legalized abortion during the first trimester.
writ of certiori
bring a case to the supreme court
divided government
One party controls the White House and another party controls one or both houses of Congress
Congressional Budget and Impoundment Act 1974
1. Assure effective congressional control over the budgetary process.
2. provide for the congressional determination each year of the appropriate level of Federal revenues and expenditures
3. provide a system of impoundment control
4. to establish nation budget priorities
5. to provide for the furnishing of information by the executive branch in a manner that will assist the Congress in discharging his duties
guarantee clause
Article IV - The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence; written about in Federalist No. 10
party in government
officials who have been elected into office
1. Pluralism
2. Hyperpluralism
3. Elite and Class Theory
4. Political Systems Model
What are the 4 contemporary theories of American democracy?
Voting Rights Act
(1965) Guaranteed the right to vote to all Americans, and allowed the federal government to intervene in order to ensure that minorities could vote
amicus curiae
A Latin term meaning "a friend of the court." Refers to interested groups or individuals, not directly involved in a suit, who may file legal briefs or make oral agruments in support of one side.
Senior Executive Service
Established by Congress in 1978 as a flexible, mobile corps of senior career executives who work closely with presidential appointees to manage government.
convention delegate
A party member or official who goes to the national convention to vote for the party's presidential nominee and to ratify the party's platform.
A law requiring you to serve a sentence without benefit of a trial is called?
bill of attainder
amendment XII(ratified in 1804)
-electors for each state shall meet and vote by ballot for Presidentand Vice President, that is not from the same state.-the President of the Senate shall be entitled to count each vote in front of the House and Senate.
Federal Election Campaign Act
A law passed in 1974 for reforming campaign finances. The act created the Federal Election Commission (FEC), provided public financing for presidential primaries and general elections, limited presidential campaign spending, required disclosure, and attempted to limit contributions.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
An international trade organization with more than 130 members, including the United States and the People's Republic of China, that seeks to encourage free trade by lowering tariffs and other trade restrictions.
privileges and immunities
a clause in Article IV, Section 2, of the Constituion according citizens of each state most of the privileges of citiziens of other states.
Consent of the Governed
agreement by the people of a nation to subject themselves to the authority to a government. Natural rights philosophers, such as John Locke, believe that any legitimate government must draw its authority from the consent of the governed.
First and Second Continental Congress
Set up a boycott on British goods and set up for second continental congress. ---adopted the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation. Acted as the de facto U.S. national government during the Revolutionary War by raising armies, directing strategy, appointing diplomats, and making formal treaties
What % of people are part of the no issue content group? What are NICG?
22%; devoid of any ideological or issue content; they voted routinely for a party or judged the candidates solely on their personalities
community needs
ends filibusters in Senate
a sudden, unpredictable, and potentially dangerous event.
a characteristic of independent regulatory agencies that gives them legislative powers to issue regulations.
Nickname critics give to congressional trips (for business or not) at taxpayers' expense.
Drawing the boundaries of legislative districts in bizarre or unusual shapes so that they favor one party.
__________ opinions are those offered by one or more Supreme Court justices not only to support a majority decision, but also to stress a different Constitutional or legal basis for the judgment.
a valuable tool for understanding demographic changes
Opponents of ratification of the Constitution and of a strong central government, generally.
Throughout history, the House of Representatives have impeached how many presidents?
duke power case
employee test for eligibility/promotions/raises can be used
questions need to be vetted so there is no racial bias
10th amendment
rights reserved to the States
the best predictor of this year's budget is last year's budget plus a little bit more.
Informal meetings in the Congress of groups with similar interests or constituencies.
A procedure that enables voters to reject a measure adopted by the legislature.
per curiam decision
A court decision without explanation.
budget resolution
guides government spending for the following fiscal year, must pass both houses of Congress in identical form
type of government where the national government derives its powers from the states; a league of independent states
means-tested programs
Government programs available only to individuals below the poverty line.
majority leader
the legislative leaded elected by party members holding the majority of seats in the house or senate
A short form of perquisites, meaning "fringe benefits of office." Among the perks of political office for high-ranking officials are limousines, expense accounts, free air travel, fancy offices, and staff assistants.
A procedural practice in the Senate whereby a senator temporarily blocks the consideration of the bill or nomination.
An extreme form of socialism that advocates violent revolution to create a socialist state.
a group theory that involves different groups all vying for control of the policy
agenda. No single group emerges, forcing the groups to compromise.
white primaries
Primaries in which African Americans could not vote. This is essentially the practice of keeping African Americans from voting in primary elections (at the time, the only meaningful election in the one-party South was the Democratic primary) through arbitrary implementation of registration requirements and intimidation. Such practices were declared unconstitutional in 1944.
when two opposing sides feel intensely about an issue that is difficult to compromise on
The proportion of the voting age public that votes, sometimes defined as the number of registered voters that vote.
A geographic district created within a state with a government that has general responsibilities for land, welfare, environment and rural service policies
a governing body composed of those considered to be the best or most able people in the state.
(T/F) The Supreme Court has ruled that racial and ethnic classifications are inherently suspect.
Rewrite of a bill after hearings have been held on it (happens in sub-committee)
Supremacy Clause
Article VI, Section 2 of the Constitution, which states that the "Constitution, and the laws of the United States made in pursuance thereof ... shall be the supreme law of the land." Thus, if any state laws come into conflict with the Constitution , then the Constitution must win out.
exit poll
Public opinion surveys used by major media pollsters to predict electoral winners with speed and precision.
political culture
The widely shared beliefs, values, and norms about how citizens relate to government and to one another.
Period at the beginning of a new president's term during which the president enjoys generally positive relations with the press and Congress, usually lasting about six months.
An official who is expected to vote independently based on his or her judgment of the circumstances; one interpretation of the role of the legislator.
A form of government in which the right to participate is always conditioned on the possession of wealth, social status, military position, or achievement
Circuit Court
part of the federal court system. There are 13 federal circuit courts: one for the District of Columbia, one for patent and trademark cases, and 11 for the rest of the country. Circuit courts, also called "courts of appeal," deal with all appeals of decisions made in district courts, for both civil and criminal cases. In addition, circuits courts may review decisions of independent regulatory agencies and departments, such as the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
unitary gov't
all power resides in the central gov't
public opinion
A collection of shared attitudes of citizens about government, politics, and the making of public policy.
Eighth Amendment
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
social security
A social insurance program that aims to keep retired people and the disabled out of poverty.
two-party system
An electoral system with two dominant parties that compete in state or national elctions. Third parties have little chance of winning.
Establishment Clause
Clause in the First Amendment that says the government may not establish an official religion.
Environmental Protection Agency
The government agency established in 1970 to implement environmental legislation.
Since 2000, how many new seats have been added to the House of Reps?
Market economy
economic system in which decisions on production and consumption of goods and services are based on voluntary exchange in markets
The authority of a governor to cancel someone's conviction of a crime by a court and to eliminate all sanctions and punishments resulting from the conviction
Form of government in which power is concentrated in the hands of a small group of individuals.
bully pulpit
a position of authority or public visibility, esp. a political office, from which one may express one's views.
15th amendment
right to vote will not overpass people by race, color, or $$ condition
Freedom of expression
right to express oneself and one's views in spoken words, actions, printed materials, assemblies or gatherings and petitions submitted to the government. It refers to the collective rights guaranteed in the First Amendment to the US Constitution: religion, speech, press, assembly and petition.
jim crow laws
laws passed by state legislatures in the south in the late 19th and early 20th century to create a racially segregated society in order to deprive african americans of the right to vote
national committee
in charge of the national party when it is not assembled in convention
Office Block Ballot
A ballot for elections where the candidates are grouped by what position they are running for. Their party is still declared but they are with members from other parties.
Speaker of the House
An office mandated by the Constitution. The Speaker is chosen in practice by the majority party, has both formal and informal powers, and is second in line to succeed to the presidency should that office become vacant.
categorial grants
federal grants that can be used only for specific purposes, or categories of state and local spending
Miranda v. Arizona
Requires that anyone arrested for a crime be advised of the right to counsel and the right to remain silent.
National Primary
A proposal by critics of the caucuses and presidential primaries, which who would replace these electoral methods with a nationwide primary held early in the election year.
comparable worth
the issue raised when women who hold traditionally female jobs are paid less than men for working at jobs requiring comparable skill
The framers of the Const. gave the power of electing the president of the US to the?
Electoral College
Eminent domain
Power of a government to take private property for public use; the U.S. Constitution gives national and state governments this power and requires them to provide just compensation for property so taken.
Political ideology
The coherent set of values and beliefs about the purpose and scope of government held by groups and individuals
privileges and immunities clause
Section of the Constitution stating that a state may not refuse police protection or access to its courts to a US citizen because he lives in a different state.
unreasonable search and seizure
obtaining evidence in a haphazard or random manner, a practice prohibited by the 4th amendment; probable cause and a search warrant are required for this to be legal
Congressional Budget Impoundment and Control Act of 1974
Act that reformed the congressional budgetary process, making it more independent of the president's budget.
Ex post facto law
Laws applied to acts committed before passage of the laws are unconstitutional
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
responsible for preparing the president's budget and assessing the budgetary implications of legislative proposals.
Wesberry v. Sanders
The 1964 case in which the Supreme Court invalidated unequal congressional districts, saying that all legislative districts must contain about equal numbers of people. The ruling is popularly known as the principle of one person, one vote.
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)
Supreme Court decision in which the Court ruled that the Constitution implicitly guarantees citizens' right to privacy.
Which of the following statements about plum book appointees is FALSE?
Plum book appointees are often instrumental in changing and reforming their agencies.
judicial philosophy
A set of ideas that shape how a judge or lawyer interprets the law and the Constitution.
in loco parentis
a person assigned by a court to stand "in place of the parents" and possess their legal rights and responsibilities toward the child
To allay fears that the Consititution would restrict personal freedoms, the Federalists promised to
add amendments to the document specifically protecting individual liberties.
All of the following statements pertaining to the presidential veto are true EXCEPT:
A president may veto part of a bill.
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