AP Government Vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Tariff
import tax
adversary system
trial court system
Franchise
the right to vote
Hyperpluralists believe that the dominant player in American politics is
Groups
Parliamentary
a system of legislative/executive relationship where the executive is a member of the legislative branch
de jure segregation
Segregation created by law.
The right to peacably assemble
1st Amendment
Coattail Effect
Occurs when people vote straight-ticket for a popular candidate and the popular candidate carries others of the same political party into office
Regulatory Commission
government agencies responsible for some sector of the economy, making and enforcing rules to protect public interest (EX: ICC)
Libel
The publication of false or malicious statements that damage someone's reputation.
committee clearance
The ability of a congressional committee to review and approve certain agency decisions in advance and without passing a law.
Spiroagnu and Nixon
The provisions for presidential succession in the 25th Amendment have been used twice. Name those two times. It was ratified in 1967.
The right to freedom and speech
1st Amendment
A fundamental aspect of American democracy is
Personal Liberty
bush doctrine
right to preemptively attack before others can
Article 3
Article of the Constitution that established the Judicial Branch
Article 2
Article of the Constitution that established the Executive Branch
Unitary Government
power is distributed from the top
National Debt
All deficits added together and everything owed
Australian ballot
A secret ballot printed by the state.
civic competence
A belief that one can affect government policies
Norma McCorvey
Original litigant in Roe who, today, is an outspoken opponent of abortion.
inherent powers
The assumed powers of the presidency not specifically listed in the Constitution but derived from his role as chief executive.
De jure
Which has been prohibited by judicial interpretation, de jure segregation or de facto segregation?
bill of attainder
legislative punishment of one person (prohibited)
Engel v. Vitale
Case ruling against state sponsored prayer in school
Consolidated Bill (Omnibus)
Puts all the Appropriations Bills together that need to be passed and passes them all at once
Cross-Over Sanctions
using federal dollars in one program to influence state and local policy in another (EX: highway funds withheld for drinking age to 21)
Grand Jury
type of jury that determines whether there is enough evidence for a trial
external efficacy
A belief that the system will respond to a citizen's demands. What I want, the government will achieve, I do not need to participate as much.
Nonviolent Civil disobedience
A philosophy of peaceful violation of laws considered unjust and accepting punishment for the violation.
The group that usually has the lowest turnout for elections
College Students
closed primary
election where you can only vote for members of your political party
Evolutionary Theory
theory of the origin of state that says that the state evolved from family organization as people ceased being nomadic
Mapp v. Ohio
In the case of, the Supreme Court ruled that the protection against unreasonable search and seizure applied to the state and local governments, as well as the national government, thus nationalizing the exclusionary rule.
pocket veto
A bill fails to become law because the president did not sign it within ten days before Congress adjourns.
The formal institutions of the American national government include:
Congress, The Presidency, The Bureaucracy, and the Courts
Exploratory Committee
the first step in the road to the white house, allowing future candidates to register with the FEC, begin raising money, and conduct polls
Reverse Discrimination
The use of race or sex to go give preferential treatment to blacks or women.
PAC (Political Action Committee)
allows interest groups to be active in politics by giving money to candidates who support them
Capital punishment is an extreme sanction, but is suitable to the most extreme of cases.
In Gregg v. Georgia (1976), concerning applications of the Eighth Amendment, the Supreme Court ruled that
from the bureaucracy or interest groups
What do we mean by the "revolving door?"
A state cannot forbid abortions during the first trimester of pregnancy.
The Supreme Court case of Roe v. Wade (1973) ruled that
bloc voting
...
Print media
newspapers and magazines
Constitution
Replaced the Articles of Confederation, and is considered a "living document."
education
overall has a liberalizing influence
Iron triangle
(aka subgovernment) Interactions between congress, the bureaucracy (government agencies), and interest groups. The interest groups try to guarantee re-election of Congressmen for supporting their programs. Congress support legislation that advances the interest group in exchange for public approval. Bureaucrats are also pressured by interest groups.
Government
institutions and officials which enact laws and execute and enforce public programs. Government in the United States is made up of executive, legislative and judicial branches at federal, state, and local levels.
liberalism
A political ideology whose advocates prefer a government active in dealing with human needs, support individual rights and liberties, and give higher priority to social needs than military needs.
Frontloading
states' decisions to move their presidential primaries and caucuses to earlier in the nomination season in order to capitalize on media attention.
reapportionment
the assigning by congress of congressional seats after each CENSUS. state legislatures do this
Legislative __________ is the process of monitoring the bureaucracy and its administration of policy.
Oversight
laissez-faire
An economic theory that government should not regulate or interfere with commerce
platform
Statement of purpose and policy objectives drafted and approved by political parties at their national conventions. Party platforms rarely exert much influence on day-to-day politics.
nomination
a party's official endorsement of a candidate for office.
Sedition Act
A Federalist bill of 1789 criminalizing criticism of government.
categorical aid
Federal grants for specific purposes defined by federal law: to build an airport, for example, or to make welfare payments to low-income mothers. Such grants usually require that the state or locality put up money to "match" some part of the federal grants, though the amount of matching funds can be quite small.
antitrust policy
Policy that ensures competition and prevents monopoly.
pluralism
a political theory of power sharing among a group of independent political parties
Filibuster
a tactic for delaying or obstructing legislation by making long speeches
Articles of Confederation
pre-Constitution document, ratified in 1781, creating the first government of the United States. The Confederation, established by the Articles, was a loose union of states with a weak Congress and no executive or judicial branch.
treaty
a formal, public agreement between the US and one or more nations that must be approved by 2/3 of the senate
Political Culture
The collection of beliefs and attitudes toward government and the political process held by a community or nation.
Whip
Party leader who is the liaison between the leadership and the rank-and-file in the legislature.
judicial restraint
A judicial philosophy that believes the court's responsibility is to interpret the law, not set policy.
Monopolistic bureaucracies
organizations where there is no competitive equal, such as the Social Security Administration, that also exists in the private sector. Thus the citizen is forced to deal with that particular government agency.
Miller v. California
clarified rules: prurient interest,, sexual content, lacking merit
desegregation
Doing away with the practice of providing seperate facilities for blacks and whites
Project grants
Congress appropriates a certain sum, which is allocated to state and local units and sometimes to nongovernmental agencies, based on applications from those who wish to participate. Examples are grants by the National Science Foundation to universities and research institutes to support the work of scientists or grants to states and localities to support training and employment programs.
CEO
the presidential role of heading and overseeing the bureaucracy
Articles of Confederation
The United States' first constitution. The government formed by the Aritcles of Confederation lasted from 1781 (the year before the end of the Revolutionary War) to 1789. The government under the Articles proved inadequate, because it did not have the power to collect taxes from the states, nor could it regulate foreign trade in order to generate revenue from import and export tariffs.
Executive orders
rules that have the force of law
Political elite
An identifiable group of persons who poses a disporportional share of some valued resource, such as moeny or political power.
social welfare policies
policies that provide benefits to individuals, particularly those in need
Unicameral
"one room." The term refers to a legislature that has only one body, such as the Israeli Knesset or the German Bundestag.
Unitary System
A system in which sovereignty is wholly in the hands of the national government.
Mapp v. Ohip
United States Supreme Court decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in criminal prosecutions in state courts, as well as federal courts. Involved CPD and Dollree Mapp.
honeymoon
period at the beginning of a new president's term during which the president enjoys generally positive relations with the press and Congress, usually lasting about six months
electoral college
The electoral system used in electing the president and vice president, in which voters vote for electors pledged to cast their ballots for a particular party's candidates.
Principles of Democracy
Personal liberty, respect for the individual, equality of opportunity, popular consent, free and fair elections, majority rule, freedom of expression, and the right to assemble and protest
Free Exercise Clause
Congress may not make laws restricting/ prohibiting a person's relgious practices-1st amendment
Environmental impact statement
Required studies &reports of likely environmental impacts, filed w. the Environmental Protection Agency prior to the beginning of a project
NAACP v. AL
protected the right to assemble peaceably (decided the NAACP did not have to reveal its membership list and thus subject its members to harassment)
prior restraint
Censorship of information before it is published or broadcast.
White primary
Democratic party primary in the old "one-party South" that was limited to white people and essentially constituted an election; ruled unconstitutional in Smith v. Allwright (1944).
midterm election
A congressional election that does not coincide with a presidential election.
loaded language
Words that reflect a value judgement, used to persuade the listener without making an argument. For example, if someone likes a politician, he might call him "the esteemed Senator Smith"; if he doesn't like him, he might refer to him as "that right-wing or radical senator."
Cost
A burden that people believe they must bear if a policy is enacted.
Congressional oversight
The authority of the United States Congress to conduct hearings, investigations, and budget reviews of the actions by the executive branch.
sequential referral
a congressional process by which a speaker may send a bill to a second committee after the first is finished acting
Retrospective issue of voting
Holding incumbents, usually the president's party, responsible for their records on issues, such as the economy or foreign policy
Equal Protection Clause
14th amendment clause that prohibits states from denying equal protection under the law, and has been used to combat discrimination
Joint Committee
Includes memmbers from both houses of Congress; conducts investigations of special studies
caucus (congressional)
An association of members of Congress created to advocate a political ideology, a constituency, or regional or economic interests. Almost a hundred of these groups now exist, and they rival political parties as a source of policy leadership.
Civil rights
right or rights belonging to a person by reason of citizenship including especially the fundamental freedoms and privileges guaranteed by the 13th and 14th amendments and subsequent acts of Congress.
National Security
the condition of the nation, in terms of threats, especially threats from outside. One of the major jobs of the federal government is to ensure the security of the nation.
Amicus Curiae Brief
Friend of the court; interest groups may be invited to file legal briefs supporting/rejection arguments of the case.
purposive incentive
A benefit that comes from serving a cause or principle.
Reckless disregard
A court standard fo rfinding the media guuilty of libeling officials.
Crime
a public wrong. There are two kinds of crimes: felonies and misdemeanors. A felony is the most serious type of crime (e.g., murder), which is punishable by a large fine, imprisonment, or death. A misdemeanor is a relatively less serious crime (e.g., speeding), which is punishable by a small fine or a short jail term.
rally point
a rise in public approval of the president that follows a crisis as americans rally round the flag and the chief executive
policy formulation
The crafting of a policy to resolve public problems.
Talking Head
A shot of a person's face talking directly to the camera. Because this is visually unappealing, the major commercial networks rarely show a politician talking one-on-one for very long.
off the record
What the official says cannot be printed. For example "Off the record, the head of my party is a complete wacko."
Veto override
If the President vetoes a bill, goes back to the house it started in and needs 2/3 majority from both houses to become law.
fee shifting
a rule that allows a plaintiff to recover costs from the defendant if the plaintiff wins
Line-item veto
The authority of a chief executive to void part of a bill that has been passed by the legislature that involves taxing and spending
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Federal executive agency charged with enforcing most federal laws. Under J. Edgar Hoover's leadership, it grew to become a powerful government agency.
Social contract
the notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others
Food and Drug Administration
Federal agency formed in 1913 that approves all foods and drugs for sale in the US.
necessary and proper clause
Clause of the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3) setting forth the implied powers of Congress. It states that Congress, in addition to its express powers, has the right to make all laws necessary and proper to carry out all powers the Constitution vests in the national government.
House Rules Committee
An institution unique to the House of Representatives that reviews all bill (except revenue, budget, and appropriations bills) coming from a House committee before they go to the full House.
When the Senate and House pass a bill in different forms. Party leadership appoints members from each house to work out the differences.
Conference Committees
Electoral Mandate
A concept based on the idea that "the people have spoken." It is a powerful symbol in American electoral politics, according legitimacy and credibility to a newly elected president's proposals.
Elite / Class Theory
theory of government and politics that holds the belief that society is divided into classes and that the upper-class/elite will rule, regardless of government organization
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke
1978 SuCo: Less qualified individuals can't be accepted for programs based only on their race. However, affirmative action is not unconstitutional.
The functions of conference committees is to
bring together congress people from both sides of the aisle to compromise legislation.
Clinton v. New York City
Ruled that the law granting the president the line item-veto was unconstitutional, 1998
Full Faith and Credit Clause
A state must recognize the validity of the public acts, records, and court decisions of other states. For example a state must recongnize as valid birth certificated issued by antother state
Generally, the Anti-Federalist felt that the government created by the Constitution was
too strong and it needed a Bill of Rights to protect human rights won in revolution.
Magna Carta date.
1215
defendant
individual/organization charged with complaint in court
Apportionment
Distribution of representatives among the states based on the population of each state
AARP
American Association of Retired Persons; Nationwide organization for people over 50 that offers discount drug purchases, health & auto insurance, publications, & other activities
representation
a basic principle of traditional democratic theory that describes the relationship between the few leaders and the many followers
John Marshall
Individual who shared Hamilton's viewpoint on federalism as a member of the United States Supreme Court.
three-fifths compromise
Compromise between northern and southern states at the Constitutional Convention that three-fifths of the slave population would be counted for determining direct taxation and representation in the House of Representatives.
Federalists
Supported a strong central govt &expanded legislative powers
Entitlement Program
Programs such as unemployment insurance, disaster relief, or disability payments that provides benefits to all eligible citizens.
Select Committees
Congressional committees appointed for a limited time and purpose.
dealignment
weakening of partisan preferences that points to a rejection of both major parties and a rise in the number of independents
Executive Order
Regulations originating from the executive branch. They are one method presidents can use to control the bureaucracy; more ofter, though, presidents pass along their wishes through their aides.
Supremacy Clause
Constitutional mandate that national law supersedes all other laws passed
select committee
Congressional committee appointed for a limited time period and purpose.
Bureaucracy
according to Max Weber, a hierarchical authority structure that uses task specialization, operates on the merit principle, and behavies with impersonality.
Counsel
Legal assistence is needed to make sure the candidates are in compliance with the law
political socialization
According to Richard Dawson, "the process through which an individual acquires his [or her] particular political orientations- his [or her] knowledge, feelings, and evaluations regarding his [or her] political world."
enumerated powers
The powers explicitly given to Congress in the Constitution.
attentive public
Those citizens who follow public affairs carefully.
Confederation
system in which sovereign states are only loosely tied to a central government, ex. the US under the Articles of Confederation
legislative turnover
The rate of incumbent state legislators leaving office
interest group
political group org around a particular polit goal/phil; attempt to influ public policy thru polit action and donations to sympth cands
reserved powers
Powers belonging specifically to the states and the people because they were not delegated to the national government nor denied to the states.
Connecticut Compromise
senate is equal representation (all states has 2 reps) and house of representative is based on population
credentials committee
Party officials who decide which delegates may participate in the national convention.
Stability
The degree to which public opinion remains the same of an issue.
Poll Tax
payment required for voting; abolished by the 24th amendment
coalition building
the banding together of several interest groups for the purpose of lobbying
Women's suffrage
The right of women to vote.
Minority Leader
the legislative leader elected by party members holding a minority of seats in the House of Representatives or the Senate
establishment clause
Section of the Constitution that prohibits the government from designating one faith as the official religion of the US.
Madisonian Model
A structure of government proposed by James Madison in which the powers of the government are separated into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial.
Publius
The name used by Alexander Hamilton as a pseudonym for the Federalist Papers essays, derived from the name of a famous Roman consul. Publius was noted as a supporter of citizens' rights and as an opponent of kings. Hamilton used this name to hint at the power of the new Constitution to protect rights and to cover his contributions to the essays.
Narrowcasting
Media programming on cable TV or the Internet that is focused on one topic and aimed at a particular audience. Examples include MTV, ESPN, and C-SPAN. While it certainly increases our entertainment options, critics claim it makes our news coverage more biased and splintered, contributing to selective perception.
unfunded mandates
actions imposed by the federal or state government on lower levels of government which are not accompanied by the money needed to fund the action required.
Critical election
Sharp changes in the existing patterns of party loyalty due to changing social and economic conditions
realigning election
An election during periods of expanded suffrage and change in the economy and society that proves to be a turning point, redefining the agenda of politics and the alignment of voters within parties.
the inability of the government to act because rival parties control different parts of the government
Gridlock
limited government
The idea that certain things are untouchable by government because of the natural rights of its citizens. (related to John Locke)
monetary policy
distinguished from fiscal policy -- a form of government regulation in which the nation's money supply and interest rates are controlled.
20 Amendment
Advanced the dates for the President's inauguration to January 20 from March 4th, and the date for Congress to convene to January 3rd from march 4th. This avoided the time in office with diminished power.
regressive tax
A tax whereby people with lower incomes pay a higher fraction of their income than people with higher incomes.
Plea Bargaining
An actual bargain struck between the defendant's lawyer and the prosecutor to the effect that the defendant will plead guilty to a lesser crime (or fewer crimes) in exchange for the state's promise not to prosecute the defendant for more serious (or additional) crimes.
underemployment
When people who seek work can only find part-time jobs.
fiscal policy
the policy that describes the impact of the federal budget-taxes, spending, and borrowing-on the economy
Constitutional Convention
The convention in Philadelphia, May 25 to September 17, 1787, that debated and agreed upon the Constitution of the United States
Voting Rights Act of 1982
prohibited discriminatory voting procedures, requires equal access to voting for minority groups
Plea bargain
agreement between a prosecutor and a defendant that the defendant will plead guilty to a lesser offense to avoid having to stand trial for a more serious offense
due process
guarantee that no citizen may be subjected to arbitrary action by national or state gov't
Conference committee
A joint committee appointed to resolve differences in house and senate versions of the same bill
unitary government
system of government in which a central authority holds all power.
Poll Taxes
taxes levied on the right to vote designed to hurt poor Blacks.
cooperative federalism
A system of government in which powers and policy assignments are shared between states and the national government. They may also share costs, administration, and even blame for programs that work poorly.
class action suits
lawsuits permitting a small number of people to sue on behalf of all other people similarly situated.
Public goods
goods such as clean air and clean water that everyone must share and are entitled to.
prospective issue voting
Voting based on what a candidate pledges to do in the future about an issue if elected.
Restrictive Rule
A rule issued by the Rules Committee that permits some amendments to a bill but not to others.
House Appropriations Committee
Committee in charge of setting the specific expenditures of money by the government of the United States.
Appellate Jurisdiction
The authority of a court to review decision made by lower courts.
Rider
A provision attached to a bill - to which it may or may not be related - in order to secure its passage or defeat.
presidential democracy
A regime in which the president and the legislators must be entirely separate.
Congress powers
Declare war and make peace, send and receive foreign ambassadors,build a navy, develop an army, borrow money and establish a monetary system, fix uniform standards of weight and measures, settle disputes among state
voting-age population
The citizens who are eligible to vote after reaching a minimum age requirement. In the United States a citizen must be at least eighteen years old in order to vote.
separate but equal
Principle upheld in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) in which the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public facilities was legal.
Spoils system
A system of public employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends.
selective incorporation
Court cases that apply Bill of Rights to states
sophomore surge
An increase in the number of votes candidates receive between the first time elected and their first time reelected.
9. What are enumerated powers?
-Powers given to the national government alone.
Congressional Budget Impoundment and Control Act of 1974
Act that reformed the congressional budgetary process, making it more independent of the president's budget.
Congressional Budget Office (CBO)
An agency of Congress that analyzes presidential budget recommendations and estimates the cost of proposed legislation.
Checks and Balances
The three branches check each other to make sure they have balanced powers.
Theory of deterrence
A theory that is based on creating enough military strength to convince other nations not to attack first.
What powers did the Constitution grant to the Executive Branch?
veto Congressional legislation, nominate judges, commander-in-chief, direct gov't
Baker v. Carr
case that est. one man one vote. this decision created guidelines for drawing up congresional districts and guaranteed a more equitable system of representation to the citizens of each state
Elite and Class theory
a group theory that revolves around an economic strata of society controlling the policy agenda.
Full faith and credit clause
the concept that each state will honor the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state.
All of the following are reasons incumbents in the House of Representatives enjoy an electoral advantage over challengers EXCEPT that incumbents
Get substantial financial support from their party's national committee.
writ of certiorari
...
Pork
Legislation that allows representatives to bring home the bacon to their districts in the form of public work prorgrams, military bases, or other programs designed to benefit their districts directly.
13th Amendment
Amendment that abolished slavery.
NOW
National Organization for Women. Similar to NAACP in protecting rights of women.
Bureaucratic Theory
The hierarchical structure and standarized procedures of govt allow bureaucrats to hold the real power over public policy; proposed by Max Weber
legitimacy
A characterization of elections by political scientists meaning that they are almost universally accepted as a fair and free method of selecting political leaders. When it is high, as in the United States, even the losers accept the results peacefully.
Fifth amendment
the constitutional amendment designed to protect the rights of persons accused of crimes, including protection against double jeopardy, self-incrimination, and punishment without the due process of law.
Issue network
Individuals in WA--located w/n interest groups, congressional staff, think tanks, universities, &the media--who regulary discuss &advocate public policies
heritage
traditions passed down from generation to generation
mandates
Rules imposed by the federal government on the states as conditions for obtaining federal grants or requirements that the the states pay the costs of certain nationally defined programs.
Othodox
A belief that morality and religion ought to be of decisive importance
Slander
like libel just spoken instead of written
John Locke
British political theorist of the Enlightenment who argued that government should be based on the consent of the governed, and that people had the right to revolt against ineffective or unfair government. His most famous work, Two Treatises on Government, was published in 1690.
commercial speech
Communication in the form of advertising. It can be restricted more than any other types of types of speech but has been receiving increased protection from the Supreme Court.
Commerce Clause
Clause stating that Congress can regulate interstate and international commerce.
minority rights
A principle of traditional democratic theory that guarantees rights to those who do not belong to majorities and allows that they might join majorities through persuasion and reasoned argument.
senatorial courtesy-
presidential custom of submitting the names of prospective appointees for approval to senators from the states in which the appointees are to work
Revolving Door
Employment cycle in which individuals who work for governmental agencies regulating interests eventually end up working for interest groups or businesses with the same policy concern.
defamation of character
Unfairly hurting a person's reputation.
soft power
The reliance on diplomacy and negotiation to solve international problems.
Devolution
An effort to shirft responsibility of domestic programs to the states in order to decrease the size &activites of the fed. govt; some states have attempted to shift responsibilities further to local govts
Party Identification
A voter's sense of psychological attachment to a party.
Proportional representation
representation of all parties in proportion to their popular vote
Casework
Activities of members of Congress that help constituents as individuals; cutting through bureacratic red tape to get people what they think have a right to get.
Block grants
Grants of money from the federal government to states for programs in certain general areas rather than for specific kinds of programs.
Political Tolerance
The willingness to allow people with whom one disagrees to have the full protection of the laws when they express their opinions.
search warrant
An element of the 4th amendment requiring that citizens be given a court-ordered document telling them what the police are searching for and the area being searched.
Party machines
A type of political party organization that relies heavily on material inducements, such as patronage, to win votes and to govern.
Amendment 10
Powers not delgated to the national government or denied to the states are reserved for the states or the people.
continuing resolutions
When Congress cannot agree on an appropriation bill, this resolution allows an agency to spend at the previous year's level.
party platform
A political party's statement of its goals and policies for the next four years. It is drafted prior to the party convention by a committee whose members are chosen in rough proportion to each candidate's strength. It is the best formal statement of a party's beliefs.
exit poll
pub opinion surveys used by major media pollsters to predict electoral winners with speed and precision
Representative democracy
Government in which the people elect those who govern and pass laws; also called a republic.
Federalist No. 51
Argues that separation of powers within the national government is the best way to prevent the concentration of power in the hands of one person or a single group.
Courts of Appeal
Appellate courts empowered to review all final decisions of district courts, except in rare cases. In addition, they also hear appeals to orders of many federal regulatory agencies.
district court
Lowest level of fed. courts, where fed. cases begin & trials are held (bank robbery, environmental violations, tax evasion)
Plurality
in an election, the number of votes that the leading candidate obtains over the next highest candidate
sovereignty
ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states
Elastic Clause
The final paragraph of Article I, Section 8, of the constitution, which authorizes congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the enumerated powers.
dissenting opinion
an opinion that disagrees with the court's disposition of the case
strict scrutiny
criteria used by supreme court in racial discrimination cases and others involving civil liberties/rights that places burden of proof on gov't, not challengers, to show that law in question is constitutional
insider stories
Media stories about events that are not usually made public.
strict constructionism
Belief that the Constitution should be read in such a way as to limit as much as possible the powers of the federal government. Strict constructionists emphasize the importance of the Tenth Amendment, which reserves to all states and powers not explicitly granted the federal government.
Johnson v. DeGrady
1994-- court ruled that a legislative redistricting plan doesnt vilate the boting rights act if it does not create the greatest possbile # of districts in which minority group votes would make up a majority (upheld making distrcts for minorities as long as the minorities dont become a majority)
ticket splitting
voting with one party for one office and with another party for other offices
Zelman v. Simmons Harris
2002 Supreme Court decision that upheld a state providing families with vouchers that could be used to pay for tuition at religious schools
Pennsylvania Charter of Privilege
granted to Pennsylvania giving the colonial assembly more power than any legislative body in Britain
Preemption
The right of a federal law or a regulation to preclude enforcement of a state or local law or regulation.
gross domestic product
The total value of all economic transactions within a state.
Unitary system of government
type of government that centralizes all the powers of government into one central authority.
Federalism
A way of organizing a nation so that two levels of government have formal authority over the same land and people.
Faction
A term the founders used to refer to political parties and special interests or interest groups.
Sponsored party
A local or state political party that is largely supported by another organization in the committee
multiple referral
The practice of referring a bill to several committees.
Consent of the Governed
The idea that government derives its authority by sanction of the people (Locke).
checks on the executive branch
Supreme Court can declare presidential acts unconstitutional, congress can override veto, congress can impeach, and congress must approve treaties
Independent regulatory agency
has responsibility for a sector of the economy to protect the public interest.
consumer price index (CPI)
The key measure of inflation that relates the rise in prices over time.
Writ of habeas corpus
A court order requiring explanation to a judge why a prisoner is being held in custody.
teller vote
A method of voting used only in the House. Members' votes are counted by having them pass between two tellers, first the yeas and then the nays. Since 1971, teller votes are recorded at the request of twenty members.
class action suit
A case brought into court vy a person on behalf of not only himself or herself, but all other persons in the country under similar circumstances. For example, in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, the Supreme Court decided that not only Linda Brown but all others similarly situated had the right to attend a local public school of their choice without regard to race.
GS (General Service) Rating
assigned to ea. job in fed. agencies, this rating helps to determine the salary associated w/ the position
According to the Const. term "impeachment" refers to?
the actual bringing of charges against a public official requiring simple majority vote of the House of Reps.
What is the road to becoming a Supreme Court justice?
president nominates, nominee goes through confirmation hearing by the Senate Judiciary Committee; senators usually don't appeal nominations because it's not in their jurisdiction
Amendment 19
Women's Suffrage
electioneering
helping sympathetic candidates get into office.
quasi-legislative
a characteristic of independent regulatory agencies that gives them legislative-like power to issue regulations.
red tape
Complex bureaucratic rules and procedures that must be followed to get something done.
8th Amendment
Amendment that prohibits excessive bail amounts and cruel and unusual punishment.
Incumbents
Those already holding office. In congressional elections, incumbents usually win.
Civil Liberties
Legal and constitutional protections against government infringement of political liberties and criminal rights.
Incorporation
a process that extended the protections of the Bill of Rights against the actions of state and local governments
briefs
written documents in which attorneys explain, using case precedents, why the court should find in favor of their client
Paid Media
Political Advertisements purchased for a candidates campaign
(T/F) Equality for women did not appear on the nation's political agenda until the middle of the twentieth century.
False
collective bargaining
negotiation between an employer and trade union
Natural Rights
rights, freedoms and privileges which are such a basic part of human nature that they cannot be taken away. These are different from rights which are given to people by the law. According to the Declaration of Independence, these rights include "life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness."
new deal coalition
political coalition created by franklin roosevelt in the 1930s that included the south, organized labor, urban voters, and racial.ethnic minorities including catholics, jews, and african americans
mass media
media which reaches and influences both elites and the masses
caucuses
meetings of party leaders to determine party policy or to choose the party's candidates for public office
A political party organization that relies on patronage to win votes and to govern
Party Machine
Oversight
Legislative or executive review of a particular government program or organization. Can be in response to a crisis of some kind or part of routine review.
World Trade Organization (WTO)
International organization derived from the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) that promotes it free trade around the world.
A proposed law, drafted in precise legal language.
Bill
Majority rule
Governance according to the expressed preferences of the majority
Cluster sampling
a technique used by polling organizations in which several people from the same neighborhood are interviewed with the areas chosen at random
government corporations
A government organization that, like business corporations, provides a service that could be provided by the private sector and typically charges for its services. The Tennessee Valley Authority and the U.S. Postal Service are examples.
craig v. boren
gender discrimination must have legitimate state aim
watchdog
once the scorekeeper watches you, they then basically watch your every move.
Regional Primaries
proposal to replace electoral methods with series of primaries held in each geographic region
Independent regulatory agencies
agencies that are quasi legislative and quasi judicial in nature and operation. Examples include the Food and Drug Administration and Environmental Protection Agency.
U.S constitution
The document written in 1787 and ratified in 1788 that sets forth the institutional structure of the U.S. government and the tasks these institutions perform. It replaced the Articles of Confederation.
probable cause
The requirement that police must have sufficient proof of evidence or suspicion of criminal acts before searching a suspect's person property or possessions.
Block Grant
Money given to states for general programs within a broad category
direct democracy
Procedures by which voters have a direct impact on policymaking by means of a voting booth.
1. How much does the average taxpayer pay in income tax?
-21%
cost argument
political tactic of pointing out what people will lose
An electoral where new issues emerge, new coalitions replace old ones, and the majority party is displaced by the minority party.
Critical election
War Powers Resolution
Resolution that requires presidents to consult with Congress prior to using military force, and withdraw forces after 60 days if Congress does not move to keep them stationed.
organizational view
congress members vote to cues provided by colleagues
Collective good
something of value that cannot be withheld from a group member.
Monopoly
Domination of an industry by a single company that fixes prices and discourages competition; also, the company that dominates the industry by these means.
Single-Issue Groups
Groups that have a narrow interest, tend to dislike compromise, and often draw membership from people new to politics. These features distinguish them from traditional interest groups.
common-carrier role
The media's role as an intermediary between the people and the government.
Extradition
The legal process by which a fugitive from justice in one state is returned to that state
First amendment freedoms
Freedom of assembly, press, religion, speech
majority leader
The legislative leader selected by the majority party who helps plan party strategy, confers with other party leaders, and tries to keep members of the party in line.
Implied Powers
Powers of the federal government that go beyond those enumerated in the Constitution. The Constitution states that Congress has the power to "make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution" the powers enumerated in Article I.
Safe seat
Elected office that is predictably won by one party or the other, so the success of the party's candidate is almost taken for granted.
presiding officer
the legislator elected by the chamber members to be in control of the session
sampling error
Margin of error in public opinion poll. Most polls are accurate within a margin of +/-4%.
Unalienable rights
rights such as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, which are derived from the doctrine of natural rights.
responsible party model
a view favored by some political scientists about how parties should work. According to the model, parties should offer clear choices to the voters, who can then use those choices as cues to their own preferences of candidates. Once in office, parties would carry out their campaign promises.
Necessary-and-proper Clause
The phrase used by the Supreme Court to create the category of implied powers of the national government.
ex post facto
retroactive criminal laws that make an act a crime after it was committed or that increase the sentence of a crime after it was committed
As a means to avoid deciding some cases, the federal courts have developed a doctrine of
Political questions.
General Accounting Office (GAO)
performs routine financial audits of money spent by the executive departments and investigates agencies
democracy
rule by many with a view to the advantage of the poor
Popular Consent
The idea that a just government must derive its powers from the consent of the people it governs.
sociological representation
A type of representation in which the representative resembles the constituents in ethnic, religious, racial, social, or educational ways.
Congressional Budget Office
advises the congress on the likely economic effects of different spending programs and provides information on the costs of proposed policies
Original Intent
A view that the constitution should be interpreted according to the original intent of the framers. Many conservatives support this view.
texas v. johnson
flag burning is protected form of symbolic speech
1st amendment
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
all of the above
Commander in Chief
The role of the president as supreme commander of the military forces of the United States and of the state National Guard units when they are called into federal service
clear and present danger test
interpretation of the First Amendment that holds that the government cannot interfere with speech unless the speech presents a clear and present danger that it will lead to evil or illegal acts. To shout "Fire!" falsely in a crowded theater is Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes's famous example.
Favorable balance of trade
an economic situation in which a country sells more goods abroad than it buys from abroad
Political action committees (PACs)
Funding vehicles created by the 1974 campaign finance reforms. A corporation, union, or some other interest group can create a PAC and register it with the Federal Election Commission (FEC), which will meticulously monitor the PAC's expenditures.
stamp act congress
A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act. It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.
Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974
an act designed to reform the budgeting process by making Congress less dependent on the president's budget; established a fixed budget calendar and a budget committee in each house.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
1883 law that created a Civil Service Commission and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons
Divine right of kings
monarch owes his rule to the will of God, not to the will of his subjects, parliament, the aristocracy or any other competing authority.
Which of the following is true of independent regulatory agencies?
They tend to be freer from presidential control than are cabinet department.
/ 331
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