AP Government Vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
australian ballot
secret ballot
criminal case
violates a statute
Civil Rights
protections from discrimination
gov agency with regulatory power
Organized political community living under a government (Characteristics of a state: Population, Territory, Sovereignty, and Government)
Americans are preoccupied with their rights. They believe they should be free to do pretty much as they please, with some exceptions, so long as they don't hurt other people.
A large complex organization composed of appointed officials
affirmative action
program to remedy past discrimination
lowest level of party organization, where people vote on election day
Exclusionary rule
Evidence cannot be introduced into trial if it was not constitutionally obtained.
A major subdivision of the federal bureaucracy, the head of which is a member of the President's cabinet.
Broad interpretation of interstate commerce
Gibbons v. Ogden
Which of the following statements is true? Liberals believe that: A funding for programs to help the poor should be increased; B officials should get tougher on the subject of crime and law and order; C Supreme Court justices should not take activist roles in the political process; D textbooks containing disparaging remarks regarding government offices should be censored
American government is viewed most positively by the
pluralist theory
policy that everyone pays for and everyone benefits from (EX: National Defense)
Article 1
Article of the Constitution that established the Legislative Branch
Article 7
Article of the Constitution that defined the Ratification process
Classical Liberal
believe that the government that governs least governs best
Almond and Verba
In 1959-1960, Gabriel Almond and Sidney Verba did study of political culture in five nations. Found that Americans have a greater sense of civic duty and civic competence than did other nations.
Establishment Clause
Part of the 1st Amendment Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion.
Plessy v. Ferguson
A Supreme Court decision upholding state-enforced racial segregation.
Majority Leader
What is the most important leadership position in the United States Senate?
Commerce Clause
Other than the "elastic clause," which clause in the Constitution has been used most to expand the power of the national government?
The right to petition the government for a redress of grievances
1st Amendment
Many elite and class believe that this percent of americans controls government policy
applying the Bill of Rights to the states
Classical Conservative
believe that the government should be large, protective
a hiring and promotion system based on political reasons rather than on merit or competence
Line Veto
strikes out wasteful spending from a bill; given to President Clinton; found unconstitutional in Clinton v. New York
The Federal Trade Commission
Commercial speech on radio and television is regulated by
14th Amendment
Where in the Constitution can we find reference to "equal protection of the laws?"
categorical grant
federal government to the sates, for a specific category
the ability to examine and decide of a program continues
Dual Federalism
a system of government in which both the states and the national government remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some politics
the authority of a court to hear a case
political ideology
A more or less consistent set of views as to the policies government ought to pursue
Griswold v. Connecticut
Landmark case in which the court first found a "right to privacy" in the Constitution.
They have more discretion
Why do state and local governments usually prefer block grants to categorical grants or project grants?
US v. Etchman
Case ruling that flag burning is free expression, freedom of speech
Slaves were not, and could not become citizens
Dred Scott v. Sandford
Social Contract Theory
theory of the origin of state by Locke that says that people allowed themselves to be governed for protecting private property and that the state can be abolished when it no longer goes against the will of the people
National and state and local government sharing funding
To what do the terms "fiscal federalism" and "cooperative federalism" refer? [Note that they both refer to the same thing.]
John Marshall, Marbury v. Madison, for every violation of a vested legal right, there must be a legal remedy
Identify the speaker, the case, and the legal principle: "An act of the legislature repugnant to the Constitution is void ... it is emphatically the province of the judicial department to say what the law is."
Church of the Lukumi Babalu Aye v. Hialeah
Case ruling in favor of the animal sacrificing church
rule of four
Article 6
Debts, Supremacy, Oaths
National party leaders who automatically get delegate slots at the national party convention.
Thousands of federal government agencies and institutions that execute federal laws
Legislative oversight
congress' monitoring of the bureaucracy and its administration of policy, performed mainly through hearings
The official endorsement of a candidate for office by a political party. Generally, success in this game requires momentum, money, and media attention.
Sixth amendment
the constitutional amendment designed to protect individuals accused of crimes. It includes the right to counsel, the right to confront witnesses, and the right to a speedy and public trial.
Iron triangle
Alliance- agencies, interest groups, &congressional committees/subcommittees (also known as sub-governments)
division of powers between national, state and local government
According to Lester Milbrath, a "communication, by someone other than a citizen acting on his own behalf, directed to a governmental decisionmaker with the hope of influencing his decision."
An official count of the population.
Aid to Families with Dependent Children. Government program that offered support to lower income, unmarried mothers and their children.
Persons who possess a disproportionate share of some valued resource, like money or power.
Level of support for an elected official as perceived through election results.
probable cause
The situation occurring when the police have reason to believe that a person should be arrested. In making the arrest, people are allowed legally to search for and seize incriminating evidence.
tax expenditures
Revenue losses that result from special exemptions, exclusions, or deductions on federal tax law.
Party leader who is the liaison between the leadership and the rank-and-file in the legislature.
A legal concept establishing who is entitled to bring a lawsuit to court.
Example: An individual must ordinarily show personal harm in order to acquire standing and be heard into court.
Dissenting Opinion
An opinion disagreeing with the majority in a Supreme Court ruling.
policy implementation
Carrying out a policy through government agencies and courts.
Majority Rule
A fundamental principal of traditional democratic theory. In a democracy, choosing among alternatives require that the majority's desire be respected.
The process of the national government giving responsibilities and powers to state, local, or regional governments.
A policy that emphasizes a united front and cooperation between the major political parties, especially on sensitive foreign policy issues
Delegated Powers
Powers specifically granted to the national govt by the Constitution
Civil Rights Act
Intended to prevent discrimination based on race, religion, color, and national origin. The law goes on disciplinary actions in employment, use of public facilities, schools, and voting. Authorized prosecution of violators.
To change from government or public ownership or control to private ownership or control.
Party leaders who work with the majority leader or minority leader to count votes beforehand and lean on waverers whose votes are crucial to a bill favored by the party.
15th amendment
provides right to vote for blacks
Loose construction
the view by Alexander Hamilton that the constitution should be broadly interpreted. The national government created by the government represented the supreme law of the land and its powers should be broadly defined and liberally construed
Progressive (social)
People who believe that moral rules are derived in part from an individual's beliefs and the circumstances of modern life.
mandatory spending
Budget items that Congress is required to fund. Most noted is Social Security because these funds are based on previous contributions from the public that are owed back.
(Iron Triangles)
A term used to describe the relationship between interest group leaders interested in a particular policy, the government agency in charge of administrating that policy, and the members of congressional committees and subcommittees handling that policy.
melting pot
The mixing of cultures, ideas, and peoples that has changed the American nation. The United States, with its history of immigration, has often been called this.
random sample
In this type of sample, every individual has a known and random chance of being selected.
Sound Bites
Short video clips of approximately 10 seconds. Typically, they are all that is shown from a politician's speech on the nightly television news.
initiative petition
a process permitted in some states whereby voters may put proposed changes in the state constitution to a vote if sufficient signatures are obtained on petitions calling for such a referendum
Federal Reserve System
The country's central banking system, which is responsible for the nation's monetary policy by regulating the supply of money and interest rates
judicial review
power of the courts to determine whether acts of Congress and the executive are in accord with the US Const.
Shay's Rebellion
Rebellion led by Daniel Shays of farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out.
an autocracy governed by a monarch who usually inherits the authority
Pluralist Theory
A theory of government and politics emphasizing that politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policies.
central bank
The institution with the power to implement monetary policy.
civil liberties
freedoms to think and act without government interference or fear of unfair legal treatment
The doctrine that a state can declare null and void a federal law that, in the state's opinion, violates the Constitution.
Standing Committee
A permanent committee established in a legislature, usually focusing on a policy area
Block Grants
Federal grants given more or less automatically to states or communities to support broad programs in areas such as community development and social services
david souter
President Bush nominated him as an Associate Justice and he took his seat October 9, 1990
deflamatory speech
protected if by public official in course of official business or if by citizen/press against someone in public eye
unprotected if libel/slander
voting-age population
citizens who are eligible to vote after reaching the minimum age requirement
the candidate or party that wins more than half the votes cast in an election
Speech Censorship
there are restrictions as to what you can/cant do in public
direct democracy
a form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives
Unitary System
a government that gives all key powers to the national or central government
Miranda v. Arizona
1966 Supreme Court decision that sets guidelines for police questioning of accused persons to protect them against self-incrimination and to protect their right to counsel.
Seven Years War
French and Indian War, fought between Great Britain and France, often considered to be the first world war because it involved most of the globe.
Declaration of Independence
Document approved in 1776 that stated the grievances with Britain.
Adversary System
A judicial system in which the court of law is a neutral arena where two parties argue their differences.
Justiciable dispute
A dispute growing out of an actual case or controversy and that is capable of settlement by legal methods.
political equality
Treating everyone the same way in the realm of politics.
Privileges and Immunities clause
no State can draw unreasonable distinctions between its own residents and those persons who happen to live in other States
Faithless Elector
a member of the electoral college that votes differently than the majority in their district
Cooperative Federalism
A system of government in which powers and policy assignments are shared between states and the national government. They may also share costs, administration, and even blame for programs that work poorly.
Appellate jurisdiction
The authority of a court to review decisions made by lower courts.
attitudinal view of representation
The theory of congressional voting behavior which assumes that members vote on the basis of their own beliefs because the array of conflicting pressures on members cancel out one another.
Popular vote
vote of the people of a nation or group. In the United States, this contrasts with an electoral vote, which is done by a small group of electors, rather than the general public.
progressive income tax
type of tax that increases rates for people with higher incomes
electoral mandate
A concept based on the idea that "the people have spoken." It is a powerful symbol in American electoral politics, according legitimacy and credibility to a newly elected president's proposals.
GS (General Service) rating
assigned to each job in federal agencies, this rating helps to determine the salary associated with the position.
Securities and Exchange Commission
The federal agency created during the New Deal that regulates stock fraud.
Total and Partial Preemption
A technique of Congress to establish federal regulations. Total preemption rests on the national governments power under the supremacy and commerce clauses to preempt conflicting state and local activity. Building on this constitutional authority, federal law in certain areas entirely preempts state and local governments from the field. Sometimes federal law provides for partial preemption in establishing basic policies but requires states to administer them. Some programs give states an option not to participate, but if a state chooses not to do so, the national government steps in and runs the program. Even worse from the state's point of view is mandatory partial preemption, in which the national government requires states to act on peril of losing other funds but provides no funds to support state action.
gibbons v. odgen
monopoly of ferries by new york on ferries traveling the hudson between ny and nj and got mad about congressional intervention.

s.c. upheld that congress had the power by the commerce clause --> broad interpretation
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
Claimed to be truly be the first written constitution in the Western tradition which created a government, written in Hartford by a Puritan colony in 1638, more than a century before the Articles of Confederation
writ of certiorari
A formal writ used to bring a case before the Supreme Court.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
policy designed to reduce barriers to voting for those suffering discrimination
Since the late 1950s there has been a more or less steady decline in the proportion of Americans who say ________________
they trust the government
Who are the players in the budgetary process?
interest groups, agencies, OMB, pres., Tax committes in Congress, Budget Committees and BCO, subject matter committees, appropriations committees, Congress as a whole, GAO
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