Ap History 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Mesopotamia's abundant resource
military juntas or governments
Southern Christian Leadership conference; aimed to mobilize the power of the black churches; 1st real activist in civil rights movement; march in Birmingham
Muslim slave warriors; established dynasty in Egypt; led by Baibars; defeated Mongols at Ain Jalut in 1260
The world's first civilization, founded in Mesopotamia, which existed for over 3,000 years.
serving as an essential component
Progressive Presidents
Theodore Roosevelt, William Taft, Woodrow Wilson
Executive committee of the Soviet Communist party; 20 members.
William Berkeley
Virginian governor who disliked wretched bachelors (poor, endebted, discontented, and armed); disliked by wretched bachelors for friendly relations with Indians
Sitting Bull
a chief of the Sioux
Mali Empire
model of Islamicized (reinforced kingship) Sudanic kingdoms, Malinke merchants traded throughout W Africa
OPEC embargo
Iranian fundamentalists were VERY against Western customs, and Iran stopped exporting oil; OPEC also seized to hike up oil prices, thus causing another oil crisis.
Empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the thirteenth to fifteenth century. It was famous for its role in the trans-Saharan gold trade. (See also Timbuktu.) (p. 375)
Infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constituting the elite of the Ottoman army from the fifteenth century until the corps was abolished in 1826. See also devshirme. (p. 526, 675)
Glorious Revolution
bloodless overthrow of James II
using an organized system or method
On December 13, 1862, General A.E. Burnsides launched a rash frontal attack on Lee's strong position at the city. Not smart. Lots of Northerners died. Burnsides' blunder led to the replacement by Hooker, who's ensuing failure led to the appointment of Meade to General. Meade won Gettysburg.
Jean Calvin
French Protestant (16th century) who stressed doctrine of predestination; established canter of his group at Swiss canton of Geneva; encouraged ideas of wider access to government, wider public education; Calvinism spread from Switzerland to northern Europe and North America.
interstate commerce act
Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices
612. Lecompton Constitution
The pro-slavery constitution suggested for Kansas' admission to the union. It was rejected.
Black people who live the southern area of Carolinas and Georgia.
Each section of the United States valued their needs more than the needs of a country as a whole.
an economic system based on open competition in a free market, in which individuals and companies own the means of production and operate for profit
Succeeded Mongol Yuan in 1360 lasted till 1644, characterized by great trade expeditions that were withdrawn
Schlieffen Plan
German General Staff's early 20th century overall strategic plan for victory in a possible future war where it might find itself fighting on two fronts: France to the west and Russia to the east.
famous Roman leader; to elected consul of Rome in 59 BC; genius with military strategy; governed as an absolute ruler; was assassinated in the senate chamber; son became the first emperor of Rome
Hebrew Bible
A collection of sacred books containing diverse materials concerning the origins, experiences, beliefs, and practices of the Israelites. Most of the extant text was compiled by members of the priestly class in the fifth century B.C.E. (99)
Congress of Vienna
(1814-1815) - Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon.
John Marshall
created the precedent of judicial review; ruled on many early decisions that gave the federal government more power, especially the supreme court
British strengths and weaknesses
British citizenship outnumbered colonies', large navy and professional army; exhausted resources (Hessians hired), national debt
people who leave their native country to settle in another country
27. Sir Edmond Andros
Governor of the Dominion of New England from 1686 until 1692, when the colonists rebelled and forced him to return to England.
The amount of the population which supported England
to make less dangerous, tense, or embarrassing:
Boston Tea Party
December 16, 1773 a) Boston's Sons of Liberty threw 342 chests of East India company tea into the Boston harbor rather than allow them to be landed and pay the tea duty i) Did this in response to the Tea Act and also because they felt that Parliament once again taxed them without their consent b) They disguised themselves as Mowhawks- dumped 10,000 pounds worth of tea
system set up by the London Company that gave 50 acres of land to colonists who paid their own way to Virginia
Magna Carta
"Great Charter" that King John of England was forced to sign. It affirmed that monarchs were subject to established law, confirmed the independence of the church and the city of London, and guaranteed the nobles' hereditary rights.
When did the Chinese begin an extensive use of writing?
Shang Dynasty
Bacon's Rebellion
In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon, a Virginia planter, led a group of 300 settlers in a war against the local Native Americans. When Virginia's royal governor questioned Bacon's actions, Bacon and his men looted and burned Jamestown. Bacon's Rebellion manifested the increasing hostility between the poor and wealthy in the Chesapeake region.
Charles Wilson Peale
portraits of George Washington, ran museum
the passing of land to the first son
susan b. anthony
social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation
Form of government in which power is centralized into a local city-state.
a political system in which the power of a ruler is unchecked and absolute
Note: In Europe (1600-1700) it is the more centralized form of government.
Great Depression
After the Wall street crash the country went into an unprecedented depression. Unemployment skyrocketed to 15 million and within 3 years 5,000 banks closed their doors. Prices fell, and the collapse of Public conference slowed purchases of industrial and farm products
Samuel Chase
supreme court justice of whom the Democratic-Republican Congress tried to remove in retaliation of the John Marshall's decision regarding Marbury; was not removed due to a lack of votes in the Senate.
Port Arthur
Japanese launched a surprise attack on a Russian fleet here in 1904
Uncle Tom's Cabin
An anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe. Published in 1852, the novel, "helped lay the groundwork for the Civil War", according to Will Kaufman.
Crystal Palace
Building erected in Hyde Park, London, for the Great Exhibition of 1851. Made of iron and glass, like a gigantic greenhouse, it was a symbol of the industrial age. (p. 606)
840. Hatch Act
1887 - Provided for agricultural experimentation stations in every state to improve farming techniques.
Demographic Transition Model
The demographic transition model seeks to explain the transformation of countries from having high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates. In developed countries this transition began in teh 18th century and continues today. Less-developed countries began the transition later and are still in the midst of earlier stages of the model.
Roe v. Wade
late 20th century, legalized abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy, based on residential right of privacy, struck down dozens of antiabortion statutes, also gave states the right to intervene in 2nd & 3rd trimester to protect woman and child
"Fighting Joe" Hooker
After Burnsides led the disaster at Fredericksburg, he was replaced by Hooker, who was an aggressive officer but a headstrong subordinate. Defeated at Chancellorsville, VA. Lee's victory over Hooker led to his decision to invade the North once again. This time Hooker was replaced by George G. Meade, who led the union to victory at Gettysburg.
Roman Senate
A council whose members were the heads of wealthy, landowning families. Originally an advisory body to the early kings, in the era of the Roman Republic the Senate effectively governed the Roman state and the growing empire. (148)
"Jubillee day"
Jan 1, 1863; emancipation is passed as a war measure.
Border States
The states between the North and the South that were divided over whether to stay in the Union or join the Confederacy
A people of this name is mentioned as early as the records of the Tang Empire, living as nomads in northern Eurasia. After 1206 they established an enormous empire under Genghis Khan, linking western and eastern Eurasia. >(p. 325)
Quebec Act
After the French and Indian War, the English had claim the Quebec Region, a French speaking colony. Because of the cultural difference, English had a dilemma on what to do with the region. The Quebec Act, passed in 1774, allow the French Colonist to go back freely to their own customs. The colonists have the right to have access to the Catholic religion freely. Also, it extended to Quebec Region north and south into the Ohio River Valley. This act created more tension between the colonists and the British which lead to the American Revolution.
Theravada Buddhism
'Way of the Elders' branch of Buddhism followed in Sri Lanka and much of Southeast Asia. It remains close to the original principles set forth by the Buddha; it downplays the importance of gods
Yi Kingdom
The Yi dynasty ruled Korea from the fall of the Koryo kingdom to the colonization of Korea by Japan. (p. 362)
Citizen Genet
French diplomat who in 1793 tried to draw the United States into the war between France and England (1763-1834)
roger williams
kicked out of MA by winthrop for questioning the church (no separation between state/land was taken from indians), created providence, RI
The Roosevelt Corollary
Germany was going to collect debts from Venezuela and many places in Latin America. Due to the Monroe Doctrine, the US couldn't protect their investments in Latin America, so Roosevelt basically rewrote the Monroe Doctrine saying that if Germany would do anything, then the US could interfere and be the one collecting money.
1503. "Flower Children"
Hippies who were unified by their rejection of traditional values and assumptions of Western society.
define representative democracy
where the people elect officials to make decisions for them
Mad Anthony Wayne
General during the Battle of Fallen Timbers, he chased the Indians out , was given the peace pipe, and the treaty of Greenville was formed
American Advantages in the 1770s
had great leaders (washington and b.franklin) had french aid(provided them with guns, supplies, gunpowder)
Hiram R. Revels
North Carolina free black, he became a senator in 1870.
Midnight Judges
(JA), 1801, , The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.
Election of 1832, Anti-Masonic Party
Andrew Jackson (Democrat) ran for re-election with V.P. Martin Van Buren. The main issue was his veto of the recharter of the U.S. Bank, which he said was a monopoly. Henry Clay (Whig), who was pro-Bank, ran against him The Anti-Masonic Party nominated William Wirt. This was the first election with a national nominating convention. Jackson won - 219 to Clay's 49 and Wirt's 1. The Masons were a semi-secret society devoted to libertarian principles to which most educated or upper-class men of the Revolutionary War era belonged. The Anti-Masons sprang up as a reaction to the perceived elitism of the Masons, and the new party took votes from the Whigs, helping Jackson to win the election.Andrew Jackson (Democrat) ran for re-election with V.P. Martin Van Buren. The main issue was his veto of the recharter of the U.S. Bank, which he said was a monopoly. Henry Clay (Whig), who was pro-Bank, ran against him The Anti-Masonic Party nominated William Wirt. This was the first election with a national nominating convention. Jackson won - 219 to Clay's 49 and Wirt's 1. The Masons were a semi-secret society devoted to libertarian principles to which most educated or upper-class men of the Revolutionary War era belonged. The Anti-Masons sprang up as a reaction to the perceived elitism of the Masons, and the new party took votes from the Whigs, helping Jackson to win the election.
The Bank of the U.S.
modeled on Bank of England
1) capitalized on $10 million-2 million would be public funds
2) charter would run for 20 years
3) government would name 1/5 of directors
4) bank notes=currency
5) act as collecting and distributing agent for Treasury and would lend money to government
Battle of Siffin
Fought in 657 between forces of Ali and Umayyads; settled by negotiation that led to fragmentation of Ali's party
Presidential Election of 1948
Thomas Dewey (G-NY), Truman faced two other parties: (1) the Progressive Party, which advocated friendly relationships w/the USSR, racial desegregation, and the nationalization of basic industries and ran Henry Wallace, a New Dealer who had been fired by Truman for criticizing US foreign policy and (2) the Dixiecrats, who ran Strom Thurmond of SC and consisted of anti-civil rights Southerners.
Judiciary Act of 1801
One of the last important laws passed by the expiring Federalist Congress. It created 16 new federal judgeships and other judicial offices. This was Adams's last attempt to keep Federalists power in the new Republican Congress. His goal was for federalists to dominate the judicial branch of government.
Secretary of State Hamilton Fish
A member of the Grant administration, he was an able diplomat who peacefully settled conflicts with Great Britain through the Treaty of Washington.
Mohammad's Night Journey
a vision Mohammad had in which he saw himself fly over the desert and ascend to God over the Dome of the Rock where he received the last part of the Qur'an
70. Navigation Acts of 1650, 1660, 1663, and 1696
British regulations designed to protect British shipping from competition. Said that British colonies could only import goods if they were shipped on British-owned vessels and at least 3/4 of the crew of the ship were British.
The middle colonies' broad, fertile river valleys enabled them to...
develop a richer arigultural economy than that of New England
established the principle of collective responsibility
In an effort to bring about effective government control, the Legalists
1214. Federal Housing Authorities (FHA)
1934 - Created by Congress to insure long-term, low-interest mortgages for home construction and repair.
how the first people came to america
came from northern china and siberia, earths wat froze and the sea level was lowered in the bering strait, then they could walk across from siberia to alaska - 56 miles
SPG - Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (in Foreign Parts)
A group which worked to spread Christianity to other parts of the world through missionaries in the late 1800s.
followers of Ali
A low earthen wall
the act of absorbing.
Watering land artificially, through canals, pipes, or other means.
Someone with interracial ancestry, especially found in Latin America
revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy. In 1870, he founded the Standard Oil Company and aggressively ran it until he officially retired in 1897.
Five Civilized Tribes
Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, and Seminoles; "civilized" due to their intermarriage with whites, forced out of their homelands by expansion
Indian chieftain; struggled to extend his power
United Nations
International orginization formed in the aftermath of WW2; included all of victorious Allies; its primary mission was to provide a forum for negotiating disputes.
French Treaty of Amity and Commerce
"Lighting war", typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland n 1939.
Wanting change. Wanting more control of the government, womens suffrage, economic intervention and conservationism, civili liberties and civil rights, etc. It arose as an alternative to the conservative response from the Industrial Revolution. Roosevelt hated Taft because he betrayed the Republican Progressive Ideals, which was the reason why he ended up wanting to run again for Presidency.
US writer, Last of the Mohicans
Benjamin Harrison
23rd President; Republican, poor leader, introduced the McKinley Tariff and increased federal spending to a billion dollars
- agricultural adjustment act: growers were paid to reduce their amount of crops
Protestant England's early colonial ambitions were fueled by its religious rivalry with ____ _____
Catholic Spain
Son and successor of Shah Jahan; pushed extent of Mughal control in India; reversed previous policies to purify Islam of Hindu influences; incessant warfare depleted the empire's resources; died in 1707.
any member of the warlike North American Indian peoples formerly living in New York state
Aroostook War
Boundary dispute between settlers in Maine and New Brunswick in 1838 to 1839. Involved the chartering of an American steam ship: The Caroline. British authorities in Canada seized the ship and burned it killing one American. Later the Creole ship was sailing with 100 slaves on board from Virginia to New Orleans when slaves took possession of the ship and sailed it to the Bahamas where British officials claimed them free and refused to overrule them. Issue settled by Ashburton treaty.
"guest workers"
individuals who migrate temporarily to take up jobs in other countries
Karl Marx
German socialist of the mid-19th century; blasted earlier socialist movements as utopian; saw history as defined by class struggle between groups out of power and those controlling the means of production; preached necessity of social revolution to create proletarian dictatorship.
(John W.) Davis
"Weak compromise Democratic candidate in 1924." He was a wealthy corporation lawyer, and was very conservative.
Albert Beveridge
champion of imperialism and the annexation of the Philippines
abdel nasser
First President of Egypt, advocated Arab nationalism.
Egyptian term for the concept of divinely created and maintained order in the universe. Reflecting the ancient Egyptians' belief in an essentially beneficent world, the divine ruler was the earthly guarantor of this order.
emperor in the Maurya dynasty; spread Buddhism and peace
Nasir al-Din Tusi
Persian mathematician and cosmologist whose academy near Tabriz provided the model for the movement of the planets that helped to inspire the Copernican model of the solar system. (p. 337)
bull moose
This animal came to symbolize Roosevelt's third-party Progressive Republican campaign.
Policy of 'openness' that was the centerpiece of Mikhail Gorbachev's efforts to liberalize communism in the Soviet Union. (See also Gorbachev, Mikhail.) (p. 863)
Quebec Acts
former French subjects in Canada allowed to keep Catholicism, while American colonists expected to participate in the Church of England
Berlin Conference
Conference that German chancellor Otto von Bismarck called to set rules for the partition of Africa. It led to the creation of the Congo Free State under King Leopold II of Belgium. (See also Bismarck, Otto von.) (p. 732)
206. Constitution: Logrolling
This refers to the practice of representatives or senators exchanging votes for each others' pet bills.
The Catholic aristrocrat who sought to build a sanctuary for his fellow believers
Lord Baltimore
the substitution of a mild, indirect, or vague expression for one thought to be offensive, harsh, or blunt.
Circuit courts
a. Court that meets at different places within a district b. Three circuit courts were established under the Judiciary Act of 1789
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Indian Muslim politician who founded the state of Pakistan. A lawyer by training, he joined the All-India Muslim League in 1913. As leader of the League from the 1920s on, he negotiated with the British/INC for Muslim Political Rights
having more than one spouse at a time
Suez Canal
a ship canal in northeastern Egypt linking the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea
Utopian societies
Socialists created an image of a perfect world with model communities.
Adams-Onis Treaty
Spain ceded Florida to the United States and gave up its claims to the Oregon Territory
22 Amendment
presidents could only serve 2 terms, ratified in 1951
A document whose purchase was said to grant the bearer the forgiveness of sins
Safavid Persia
Islamic society that ruled the area that is currently Iran during 1502-1736
Pearl Harbour
Naval base in Hawaii attacked by Japanese aircraft on December 7, 1941. The sinking of much of the U.S. Pacific Fleet brought the United States into World War II. (p. 793)
Person who owns or starts a business and takes the risks associated with it
Horatio Alger
Writer of novels stressing rags to riches stories of boys
Grandfather clause
Laws in southern states that exempted voters from taking literacy tests if their grandfathers have voted on January 1, 1867. Helped white southerners and disenfranchised African Americans
Frederick Jackson Turner
United States historian who stressed the role of the western frontier in American history (1861-1951)
540. Oregon Territory
The territory comprised what arenow the states of Oregon and Washington, and portions of what became British Columbia, Canada. This land was claimed by both the U.S. and Britain and was held jointly under the Convention of 1818.
Mumtaz Mahal
Shah Jahan's wife, involved in court politics, he loved her lots made pretty tomb in Taj Mahal
concentrated on attaining practical economic goals; went after the basics of higher wages and improved working conditions.
American Federation of Labor
Jacksonian democracy
killed bank, era of 'common man'; bad for women, slaves, Indians
Whig Party
the political party made up of the National Republicans such as Clay, Webster, and some Democrats such as Calhoun; all of whom did not like Andrew Jackson
763. Rebates
Developed in the 1880s, a practice by which railroads would give money back to its favored customers, rather than charging them lower prices, so that it could appear to be charging a flat rate for everyone.
Prophet of Islam; born c. 570 to Banu Hashin clan of Quryash tribe in Mecca; raised by father's family; received revelations from Allah in 610 C.E. and there after; died in 632
Second Great Awakening
A second religious fervor that swept the nation. It converted more than the first. It also had an effect on moral movements such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and moral reasoning against slavery.
Zheng He
Who was the main ambassador sent out by Han Wudi?
Colonial North America
America during the time that England ruled
Turks who had come to Anatolia in the same wave of migrations as the Seljuks. (344)
the monroe doctrine
Primarily the work of JQAdams, said the the USA would consider any foreign challenge to the sovereignty of existing American nations an unfriendly act. No European colonization in the Americas
bill of rights
a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution), The first ten amendments to the Constitution
336. Justice Samuel Chase
A Federalist judge appointed by Washington to the Supreme Court. Chase had been a Revolutionary War hero, and was a signer of the Declaration of Independence. Jefferson disagreed with his rulings and had him impeached for publicly criticizing the Jefferson administration to the Maryland grand jury. Chase was acquited by the Senate, and the impeachment failed. (This is the only attempt in history to impeach a U.S. Supreme Court Justice.)
Old Stone Age, a long period of human development before the development of agriculture.
Who led the community of Mormons to what is now Utah?
Brigham Young
alien and sedition act
passed by federalists making it harder to become citizens and to deport any immigrant deemed dangerous. the second one outlawed the writing, speaking, or publications of false, scandalous, or malicious statements against the government
National Prohibition party
Organized in 1869 in response to the increasing amount of liquor intake by Americans
Lame Duck
a person still in office after he or she has lost a the re election.
The Directory
a Five man group that was in power from 1785-1799; Passed a new constitution in 1795 that was much more conservative; Corrupt and did not help the poor, but remained in power because of military strength; By 1797 it was a dictatorship
Ghengis Khan
The title of Tem?jin when he ruled the Mongols (1206-1227). It means the 'oceanic' or 'universal' leader. Genghis Khan was the founder of the Mongol Empire. (p. 325)
Immigration Act of 1924
Replaced the Emergency Quota Act of 1921, cutting down to two percent using the 1890 census; in favor of Northern Europe
Dominion of New England
1686 - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). The Dominion ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
argued that states had the right to determine whether or not the laws passed by Congress were constitutional
Major developments in the neolithic revolution
spoken language, fire, and stone tools
Treaty of Fort Stanwix
1777. indians gave up most of their land
699. Ablemann v. Booth
1859 - Sherman Booth was sentenced to prison in a federal court for assisting in a fugitive slave's rescue in Milwaukee. He was released by the Wisconsin Supreme Court on the grounds that the Fugitive Slave Act was unconstitutional. The Supreme Court overturned this ruling. It upheld both the constitutionality of the Fugitive Slave Act and the supremacy of federal government over state government.
McCulloch v. Maryland
Ruled state has no right to control an agency of the federal government.
The New Jersey Plan
- plan in which each state had equal representation in US legislation
- led to the Senate
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti
1921, two Italian men (who were also atheists, anarchists, and draft dodgers) convicted and charged with murdering a paymaster on dodgy evidence -- scared the immigrant community
Malcom X and the Nation of Islam
a group of militant Black Americans who profess Islamic religious beliefs and advocate independence for Black Americans
Which of the following factors did NOT account for the economic stagnation in Latin America from 1820 to 1850?
Absence of foreign markets for raw materials
Black Codes
Seven Years' War
William Levitt
Created first suburbs
Head tax- levied on nonbelievers
admiralty courts
for extreme trade crimes
Nile River; good agriculture/soil; Nile floods predictably; three kingdoms (Old, Middle, New); polytheistic; women had many rights
Culture: Maya
mathematics astronomy medicine pyramids hieroglyphic writing
William Penn
inherited Pennslyvania & established refuge for quakers, was liberal and tolerant
Define Montagnards.
Radical political faction in France
"Deputy" Islamic leader after the death of Muhammad.
Neolithic Revolution
Involved the development of agriculture and development of agriculture and occurred in different times in different places.
a religious outlook that recognizes gods in many aspects of nature and propitiates them to help control and explain nature; typical mesopotamian religions.
Regional splinter dynasty of the mid-10th century; invaded and captured Baghdad; ruled Abbasid Empire under title of sultan; retained Abbasids as figureheads
Toltecs was a central-Mexican empire lasting from 900-1168 C.E. that influenced much of Mesoamerica and had Aztec claims made to it.
Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543)
Radical Calvinists who considered the Church of England so corrupt that they broke with it and formed their won independent churches
Robert La Follete
reform governor who established safety/sanitation commission; created first income tax
movable type
Type in which each individual character is cast on a separate piece of metal. It replaced woodblock printing, allowing for the arrangement of individual letters and other characters on a page. Invented in Korea 13th Century. (293)
cumberland gap
key passageway through lower central Appalachia
(books of kings) lengthy poem by firdawsi
relating to, carried out by, or behaving like a despot
Ex: Over time, Tome's emperors became more despotic.
a form of socialism that abolishes private ownership
Rosa Parks
NAACP member who initiated the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955 when she was arrested for violating Jim Crow rules on a bus; her action and the long boycott that followed became an icon of the quest for civil rights and focused national attention on boycott leader Martin Luther King, Jr.
pan-american conference
this was an international organization that dealt with trade; organized by james blaine; created to encourage cooperation and trust with the manufacturers
Fascist Party
Italian political party created by Benito Mussolini during World War I. It emphasized aggressive nationalism and was Mussolini's instrument for the creation of a dictatorship in Italy from 1922 to 1943.
Bronze age
(archeology) a period between the Stone and Iron ages, characterized by the manufacture and use of bronze tools and weapons
British general- tried to capture Fort Duquesne- failed because of slow, heavy equipment
Muhammad of Ghur
military commander of Persian extraction who ruled a small mountain kingdom in Afghanistan that brought much of the Indus river valley, Sind, and northwest India under his control
Acheh Sultanate
Muslim kingdom in northern Sumatra. Main center of Islamic expansion in Southeast Asia in the early seventeenth century, it declined after the Dutch seized Malacca from Portugal in 1641. (p. 541)
Also known as Yathrib; town located northeast of Mecca; grew date palms whose fruit was sold to bedouins; became refuge for Muhammad following flight from Mecca (hijra). (p. 281)

3/5 Compromise
which three-fifths of the population of slaves would be counted for purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the appointment of the members of the United States House of Representatives.
The short-lived colony conquered by the New Netherland Dutch in 1655 was...
New Sweden
a person having high position or considerable authority.
cultural imperialism
Domination of one culture over another by a deliberate policy or by economic or technological superiority. (p. 894)
William Taft
Appointed as the cochairman of the National War Labor Board
US captain of the U.S.S. Texas, who, at the battle in Santiago Harbor, admonished his troops, "Don't cheer men, the poor devils are dying" when the dilapidated Spanish fleet was destroyed and set on fire.
Emily Dickinson
United States poet noted for her mystical, countless poems
William Seward
US senator who negotiated purchase of Alaska
Dorothea Dix
Rights activist on behalf of mentally ill patients - created first wave of US mental asylums
Fidel Castro
Communist dictator of Cuba since 1959. Backed up by Soviet regime. The Cuban Revolution he led inspired others to attempt similar models in Latin America.
Northern Securities case
1902 Roosevelt attacked the Northern Securities Company, a railroad holding company organized by financial titan J. P. Morgan and empire builder James J. Hill (they had sought to achieve a virtual monopoly of the railroads in the Northwest); Court held up Roosevelt's antitrust suit and ordered the company to be dissolved; the decision jolted Wall Street and angered big business but greatly enhanced Roosevelt's reputation as a trust smasher
A form of energy used in telegraphy from the 1840s on and for lighting, industrial motors, and railroads beginning in the 1880s.
Renaissance (European)
A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a 'rebirth' of Greco-Roman culture. Usually divided into an Italian Renaissance, from roughly the mid-fourteenth to mid-fifteenth century, and a Northern trans-Alpine Renaissance (407,445)
Convention Peoples Party
Political party established by Kwame Nkrumah in opposition to British control of colonial legislature in Gold Coast
a ship that could sail more closely into the wind
title for the heads of the Eastern Orthodox Churches (in Istanbul and Alexandria and Moscow and Jerusalem)
First Continental Congress
Delagates from all colonies except Georgia met to discuss problems with Britain and to promote independence.
Direct Primary
an election in which party members select people to run in the general election
293. Revolution of 1800
Jefferson’s election changed the direction of the government from Federalist to Democratic- Republican, so it was called a "revolution."
Navigation Acts
Between late 1600s and the early 1700s, the British passed a series of laws to put pressure on the colonists(mostly tax laws). These laws are known as the Navigation Acts. Example: 1651- All goods must be shipped in colonial or English ships, and all imports to colonies must be on colonial or English ships or the ships of the producer. 1660- incorporation of law of 1651. it also enumerated articles, such as sugar, tobacco, and cotton, can only be exported to England from the colonies. 1663- a.k.a. the staple act of 1663- all imports to the colonies must go through England. 1673- an add-on to the Staple Act- collects tax from imports to the colonies for England. 1696- in theory, the last act of the Navigation Acts- Enforces all of the Navigation acts, and establish penalty for violators. Also, establish admiralty courts in the colonies for violation investments. Molasses Act of 1733- force mainland colonies to buy molasses from the British West Indies.
Loose Constructionism
If it wasn't forbidded in the Constitution, it was permitted
Agricultural Adjustment Act
New Deal program, gave subsidies to farmers to decrease production and thus increase prices
George M. Cohan
Wrote one of America's most popular songs about fighting in WWI
297. Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828)
American painter, most famous for painting the portrait of Washington which was copied for the one dollar bill.
Hundred Years War
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families. (p. 413)
A body of people living in a territory under the authority of a parent state.
Albany Congress
7 out of 13 colonies to unite colonists versus the French
Treaty of Versailles
The treaty imposed on Germany by France, Great Britain, the United States, and other Allied Powers after World War I. It demanded that Germany dismantle its military and give up some lands to Poland. It was resented by many Germans.
Yuan Empire
Empire created in China and Siberia by Khubilai Khan. (p. 349)
Hernando de Soto
massacred the Mobile Indians just as Hernando Cortes did to the Aztecs
1st Continental Congress
On September 1774, delegates from 12 colonies gathered in Philadelphia. After debating, the delegates passed a resolution backing Mass. in its struggle. Decided to boycott all British goods and to stop exporting goods to Britain until the Intolerance Act was canceled.
Shah Jahan
was the emperor of the Mughal Empire in South Asia from 1628 until 1658. The name Shah Jahan comes from Persian meaning "King of the World." He was the fifth Mughal emperor after Babur, Humayun, Akbar, and Jahangir. While young, he was favourite of his legendary grandfather Akbar the Great. He is also called Shahjahan the Magnificent. Even while very young, he was chosen as successor to the Mughal throne after the death of Emperor Jahangir. He succeeded to the throne upon his father's death in 1627. He is considered to be one of the greatest Mughals and his reign has been called the Golden Age of the Mughals and one of the most prosperous ages of the Indian civilization. Like Akbar, he too was eager to expand his vast empire. In 1658 he fell ill, and was confined by his son Emperor Aurangzeb in the Citadel of Agra until his death in 1666. On the eve of his death in 1666, he was one of the most powerful personalities on the earth and his Mughal Empire spanned almost 750,000,000 acres (3,000,000 km2) and he had in his empire the largest and most prosperous capital as well as some of the most delicate architectural masterpieces in the world.
1389. Alger Hiss
A former State Department official who was accused of being a Communist spy and was convicted of perjury. The case was prosecuted by Richard Nixon.
Lewis and Clark
Explored the US, sparked interest in the west
the right to vote, esp. in a political election.
The Oneida Community
Was established in 1848 by John Noyes. It was a community with residents who rejected traditions of family and marriage.
the fact that impoverished back country farmers, many of them Revolutionary War veterans
Shay's Rebellion was provoked by...
chiang kai shek
who was the leader of the nationalist party of china
Warsaw Pact
a pact signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain including the USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
laissez- faire capitalism
the idea that the economy could run itself w/o influence from the government.
In New England, the dominant form of local government was...
the Town Meeting
Haymarket Bombing of 1886
during a meeting at Haymarket Square in Chicago, someone threw a bomb as police attempted to break up the meeting. The bomb thrower was never found, but 8 anarchists were tried and 7 sentenced to death. Caused many Americans to think that labor unions were radical and violent
Battles during War of 1812*
Battle of Lake Erie (Oliver Perry), Battle of Tippecanoe (Harrison and Tecumseh), Fort McHenry (Francis Scott Key), Battle of New Orlean (Jackson)
New York City Draft Riots
July 1863. Occurred just after the Battle at Gettysburg. Mobs of Irish working-class men and women roamed the streets for four days until federal troops suppressed them. They loathed the idea of being drafted to fight a war on behalf of slaves who, once freed, would compete with them for jobs.
Land Ordinance (1785)
Land was to be surveyed before it was sold and settled; land was to be divided into townships 6mi square which was then to be split into 36 sections of one square mile each (640 acres); 16th section was reserved for public schools; Thomas Jefferson's idea
893. Barbed wire, Joseph Glidden
He marketed the first barbed wire, solving the problem of how to fence cattle in the vast open spaces of the Great Plains where lumber was scarce, thus changing the American West.
20th Amendment (lame duck)
this is known as the lame duck amendment; passed in February of 1933 and ratified in October,it shortened the period between presidential election and inauguration, setting the new date to begin office as January 20
Henry David Thoreau, Walden (-), "On Civil Disobedience"
A transcendentalist and friend of Emerson. He lived alone on Walden Pond with only $8 a year from 1845-1847 and wrote about it in Walden. In his essay, "On Civil Disobedience," he inspired social and political reformers because he had refused to pay a poll tax in protest of slavery and the Mexican-American War, and had spent a night in jail. He was an extreme individualist and advised people to protest by not obeying laws (passive resistance).
What was Britain doing to disrupt America during the Critical Period?
They continued to impose the navigation laws. They encouraged Native Americans to attack settlements. They were angry that America did not give property back to loyalist.
What was France's response to the 9th century invasions?
Local authorities dominated & pulled out of the central government; est. their own laws and encouraged a decentralized state
514. Annexation of Texas, Joint Resolution under President Tyler
U.S. made Texas a state in 1845. Joint resolution - both houses of Congress supported annexation under Tyler, and he signed the bill shortly before leaving office.
Khwarazm Shah
Pope Gregory VII
Moctezuma II
Lived in Mexico
Sir Francis Drake
raided spanish ships
Limitation and exploitation of colonial trade by an imperial power.
Political ideology that stressed people's membership in a nation ; community defined by a common culture and history as well as by territory
mixed europeans and native americans
Buddhist doctrine, exfoliation of the four noble truths
Later Persian empire (1501-1722) that was founded by Shah
Ismail and that became a center for Shiism; the empire reached its peak under Shah
Abbas the Great and was centered around capital of Isfahan.
Square Deal
President Theodore Roosevelt's plan for reform; all Americans are entitled to an equal opportinity to succeed
Republican, Capper Volstead Act, Dawes Plan of 1924
Mother goddess within Hinduism; widely spread following collapse of Guptas; encouraged new emotionalism in religious ritual
a philosopher who subscribes to nativism
Hernando Cortes
Conquistador who conquered the Aztecs.
Islamic law; defined among other things the patrilineal nature of Islamic inheritance. (p. 341)
262. Judiciary Act, 1789
Created the federal court system, allowed the president to create federal courts and to appoint judges.
arranged in the order of time:
Region of northeastern India. It was the first part of India to be conquered by the British in the eighteenth century and remained the political and economic center of British India throughout the nineteenth century.(812)
A policy of glorifying military power and keeping an army always ready for war.
Afonso I
the Christian manikongo (king) of Kongo who begged the king of Portugal to stop the slave trade because unauthorized Kongolese were kidnapping and selling people, even members of good families. He received no reply from the Portuguese.
William James
founder of functionalism; studied how humans use perception to function in our environment
A religion originating in ancient Iran with the prophet Zoroaster. It centered on a single benevolent deity-Ahuramazda, Emphasizing truth-telling, purity, and reverence for nature, the religion demanded that humans choose sides between good and evil (120)
Space Race
a competition of space exploration between the United States and Soviet Union
Also known as Mexica, the Aztecs created a powerful empire in central Mexico (1325-1521 C.E.). They forced defeated peoples to provide goods and labor as a tax. (p. 305)
the movement for, and period of, political unification in Italy beginning about 1750 and culminating in the occupation of Rome by Italian troops in 1870 (not in book, sounds right...)
King Menes
unified Nile river valley; built capital at Memphis; managed floodwaters; built drainage and irrigation systems
Members of a mainly Hindu warrior caste from northwest India. The Mughal emperors drew most of their Hindu officials from this caste, and Akbar I married a Rajput princess. (p. 537)
Process of ridding a nation of "undesirable elements;" particularly used to describe policy of murder and exile carried out by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union in the 1930s
humanitarian values
values that promote better conditions for people throughout the world.
Boston Associates
15 Boston families that dominated textile, railroad, insurance, and banking industries
Midway Island
WWII pacific battle, decisive U.S. victory over powerful Japanese carrier force
The nomadic mountain dwellers of North Africa, who served as trade intermediaries for the great trans Saharan commerce, were the
Forbidden City
Imperial precinct within the capital cities of China; only imperial family, advisors, and household were permitted to enter
George Washington
Military commander of the American Revolution. He was the first elected president of the United States (1789-1799). (p. 581)
Haiti DIlemma
(RR) 1990s, had 30 year dictatorship, soon ends, then Bertrand Aristide overthrows with military, and UN awith US use mandate to restore constituional rule and Aristide's presidency.
nat turner's rebellion
Rebellion of slaves through virginia in an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow and kill planter families
pickney treaty 1795
reaction to jay's treaty. spain allowed us navigation of the Mississippi
Checks and Balances
no branch should be too powerful.
National Banking Act
Was authorized by Congress to stimulate the sale of gov bonds and to establish uniform currency. Banks that joined it could issue reliable paper money and buy gov bonds was replaced by Federal Reserve System in 1913
National Housing Act #2
(FDR) 1937 , 1937-Wagner=Sponser. Rasied $500mill for urban slum clearance & public housing projects
Booker T. Washington
1865-1900, "the champion of black education," Washington began his life as an ex-slave, hiding under a board sidewalk for money to pay for his schooling. At a school in Tuskegee, he began to teach other black students that they could gain self respect and economic equality from a good education. Represented another effort like DuBois for black education. Focused on economics, not social
John Locke
Wrote Two Treatises on Government as justification of Glorious Revolution and end of absolutism in England. He argued that man is born good and has rights to life, liberty, and property. To protect these rights, people enter social contract to create government with limited powers. If a government did not protect these rights or exceeded its authority, Locke believed the people have the right to revolt. The ideas of consent of the governed, social contract, and right of revolution influenced the United States Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution. He also laid the foundations for criticism of absolute monarchy in France.
Norman MacLean
former english profesor wrote "A river runs throughs it"(1976) and Young Men an Fire(1992)
Victorian Age
Reign of Queen Victoria of Great Britain (1837-1901). The term is also used to describe late-nineteenth-century society, with its rigid moral standards and sharply differentiated roles for men and women and for middle-class and working-class people (711)
1. Shang Dynasty
Bronze Age; 1st recorded Chinese dynasty & Chinese cities; used wheels for chariots
Indian tribes that were helped by the French to defeat the Iroquois
john c calhoun
(1830s-40s) Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class.
James K. Polk
The Southern democratic candidate and winner of the 1844 election. He supported expansionism and the annexation of Texas. To further the expansion of America, Polk led the Mexican War to acquire California and New Mexico. In 1846, when Mexico refused to sell the disputed territories, Polk sent Zachary Taylor, a military leader into Mexico, and was allegedly attacked. Polk took this opportunity to declare war on Mexico, which he won and acquired the territories he had wanted and had the Rio Grande be the border for Texas. The United States also paid Mexico $15 million 4: 1825-1865
Mass riots took place here in response to the Immigration Act of 1924; a super-patriot committed suicide near the American embassy in his country
Lend-Lease Act
helped the British (and Soviets) by allowing them to borrow money to buy weapons, and the US Navy patrolled halfway to Britain to ensure delivery of the goods
Phenomena started by adolescent girls accusations that ended with the deaths of 20 people
Salem Witch Trials
placed in or belonging to a lower order or rank.
Bartolome de las Casas
Spanish Bishop who opposed the mistreatment of the natives by the spanish
1302. Stalingrad
Site of critical World War II Soviet victory that reversed Germany's advance to the East. In late 1942, Russian forces surrounded the Germans, and on Feb. 2, 1943, the German Sixth Army surrendered. First major defeat for the Germans in World War II.
Darius I
Third ruler of the Persian Empire (r. 521-486 B.C.E.). He crushed the widespread initial resistance to his rule and gave all major government posts to Persians rather than to Medes.
Klondike Gold Rush*
(WMc) occurred in the Yukon Territory in 1897 after gold was discovered there
He was born in a Florentine family. He was a sculpter, painter, and architect. His most famous works were the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel which portrayed Genesis. His other works were Creation and Flood.
Manifest Destiny
Phrase commonly used in the 1840's and 1850's. It expressed the inevitableness of continued expansion of the U.S. to the Pacific.
New Jersey Colony
Formed because New York forfitted some of their land to Berkely and Carteret
Protestant ethic
part of Puritanism in the Bay Colony; involved serious commitment to work and to engagement in worldly pursuits
American Colonization Society
It was the primary vehicle for proposals to return free African Americans to what was considered greater freedom in Africa. It helped to found the colony of Liberia in 1821-22, as a place for freedmen.
Declaration of Independence
A manufacturing that set forth the American colonists' reasons for separation from Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson, the principal author, incorporated Enlightenment ideas such as "social contract" into the declaration.
177. Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, Robert Livington
These men, along with John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, made up the committee which drafted the Declaration of Independence.
American colony that was home to the Newport slave market and many slave traders
Rhode Island
The Glorious Revolution
William and Mary kicked James II out of England (exiled into France), allowed more power to the legislatures
112. Francis Parkman (1823-1893)
An historian who wrote about the struggle between France and Britain for North America.
Rebellion in the 1950's
Beats, Elvis, Rock n Roll, Civil Rights Movement
The Quran and Women 4
Social customs were influenced by islamic beliefs: men were permitted to take up to four wives (polygamy), women were veiled in public
Clinton's Big Ditch
Erie Canal; Clinton was gov of NY; connects Buffalo with Albany
Dartmouth v Woodward
1816- A Supreme Court case, under John Marshall. The state of New Hampshire tried to turn private university Dartmouth into a public school. The Supreme Court decided that Dartmouth's charter was a contract between private parties, and could not be interfered with by the government.
1513. John Birch Society
Right-wing group named for an American missionary to China who had been executed by Communist troops. They opposed the liberal tendencies of the Great Society programs, and attempted to impeach Earl Warren for his liberal, "Communist" actions in the Supreme Court.
Judiciary Act of 1789
The Judiciary Act of 1789 organized the Supreme Court, originally with five justices and and a chief justice, along with several federal district and circuit courts. It also created the attorney general's office. This Act created the judiciary branch of the U.S. government and thus helped to shape the future of this country.
23. Harvard founded
1636 - Founded by a grant form the Massachusetts general court. Followed Puritan beliefs.
Taft Hartely Act
The Act was passed over the veto of Harry S. Truman on the 23rd June, 1947. When it was passed by Congress, Truman denounced it as a "slave-labor bill". The act declared the closed shop illegal and permitted the union shop only after a vote of a majority of the employees. It also forbade jurisdictional strikes and secondary boycotts. Other aspects of the legislation included the right of employers to be exempted from bargaining with unions unless they wished to. The act forbade unions from contributing to political campaigns and required union leaders to affirm they were not supporters of the Communist Party. This aspect of the act was upheld by the Supreme Court on 8th May, 1950.
Zarathustra viewed the material world
as a gift which should be enjoyed
487. Catherine Beecher (1800-1878)
A writer and lecturer, she worked on behalf of household arts and education of the young. She established two schools for women and emphasized better teacher training. She opposed women's suffrage.
303. XYZ Affair, Talleyrand
1798 - A commission had been sent to France in 1797 to discuss the disputes that had arisen out of the U.S.'s refusal to honor the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. President Adams had also criticized the French Revolution, so France began to break off relations with the U.S. Adams sent delegates to meet with French foreign minister Talleyrand in the hopes of working things out. Talleyrand's three agents told the American delegates that they could meet with Talleyrand only in exchange for a very large bribe. The Americans did not pay the bribe, and in 1798 Adams made the incident public, substituting the letters "X, Y and Z" for the names of the three French agents in his report to Congress.
When Rome split into two, what was the east and west called?
West - cathadge
East-Constantinople cause its founded Constantine
End ot the Cold War
(GB1) was between end of WWII (1945 to 1990), two major wars in between were Korean and Vietnam, Gorbachev destroy Brezhnev policy (use miltary to keep Communism), US and Russia stop missile on each other
What was the purpose of the human sacrifices practiced by the Aztecs?
To appease Huitzilopochtli, and thus delay the ultimate destruction of their world.
Changes in federal land laws and policies
The Land Acts of 1800 and 1820, and the Preemptive Acts of the 1830s and 1840s lowered the price of land and made it easier for prospective settlers to acquire it. This encouraged people to move west.
Little Rock
All 3 Empires
Were Islamic
Contact:Islam and Christianity
Crusades; war
Republican party faction
Led by Senator James G. Blaine (of Maine)
Paid lip service to government reform
Battled for patronage and spoils
consisting of hoops or rings.
Who: officials in Confucius style government. What: passed very difficult exams in order to hold leadership positions. They formed their own social class, called the Gentry. Many of them attended a university that had been built. Where: China, started in the state of Lu. When: 6th century BC on for 2000 years. Why: Led the Confucian government and were the only people, often, who could read and write.
Central Powers
The alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire
Ibn Battuta
N. African traveler/historian, wrote in detail about his journeys through Islamic Africa, traveled extensively (1300s)
Plebeian representatives in the Roman republic; elected in the Councilium Plebis Tributum on an annual basis.
The early Communists that overthrew the Czar in the Russian Revolution.
a believer or follower of Islam
William Pitt
British general- attacked Louisburg for 1st British victory- helped capture Quebec
Jonathan Edwards
Puritan minister, led revivals, stressed immediate repentance
ruler of New Babylonia
lavished babylon in wealth
Bantu language with Arabic loanwords spoken in coastal regions of East Africa. (p. 542)
William H. Taft
1909-1913, Republican, issue - conservation policies, antitrust laws, tariff, against Bryan
an Indo-European people who settled on the Greek mainland around 2000 B.C.
Galileo's discoveries would not have been possible without
the telescope.
life, system, condition having to do with monasteries.
Panic of 1873
Unbridled expansion of actories, railroads, and farms and contraction of money supply through the withdrawal of greenbacks helped trigger the Panic of 1873. There was bankruptcy, widespread unemployment, and slowdown in railroad and factory building.
civil society
society created when citizens are allowed to organize and express their views publicly as they engage in an open debate about public policy
hacienda system
large plantations owned by spanish, leaving Indians with poorer land
Northwest posts
British fur-trading posts in the Northwest Territory. Their presence in the U.S. led to continued British-American conflicts.
Webster-Ashburton Treaty
1842 Lord Ashburton wanted to negotiate a settlement with America. Terms established a firm northern boundary between Maine and Canada.
members society of friends, a radical religious group that arose in the mid seventeenth century. rejected formal thelogy, focusing instead on the holy spirit that dwelt within them
the body of mullahs (Muslim scholars trained in Islam and Islamic law) who are the interpreters of Islam's sciences and doctrines and laws and the chief guarantors of continuity in the spiritual and intellectual history of the Islamic community
national bank
Hamilton's big idea; fiercely opposed by Jefferson and Democratic-Rep. The bank would regulate money and draw investors; showed that the constitution could be construed in many a way.
Powhatan Confederacy
The organization of Powhatan Tribes led by Chief Powhatan. Jamestown colonists traded with these natives.
Dominant colonizing power to the New World in the 1500's
William H. Harrison General
Indian fighter-president--hero of Battle of Tippecanoe&Battle fo the Thames in the War of 1812--major asset to America by keeping Indians at bay, redcoats from massacre's,and gaining/clearing land in West
of, like, or pertaining to an empire.
GI Bill of Rights
government ensured readjustment rights to GIs after WWI unrest, loans to veterans for higher education and mortgages
Alexander Nevski
Prince of Novgorod (r. 1236-1263). He submitted to the invading Mongols in 1240 and received recognition as the leader of the Russian princes under the Golden Horde. (p. 339)
Gaspee Incident
The burning of the British naval cutter, the Gaspée by the citizens of Providence, Rhode Island in 1771. Example of colonial opposition to the enforcement of the Trade and Navigation Acts.
World Heath Organization
specialized agency of the united nations. serves as a center for all types of global health information.
Lucretia Mott
A Quaker who attended an anti-slavery convention in 1840 and her party of women was not recognized. She and Stanton called the first women's right convention in New York in 1848
a member of Manchuria who ruled China during the Qing dynasty
Samuel Gompers
United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)
Cyrillic alphabet
an alphabet derived from the Greek alphabet and used for writing Slavic languages
Phillis Wheatly
An African domestic in the colonies, and a well-known colonial poet. Her poetry was ornate and elaborate.
Peter Stolypin
Russian minister under Nicholas II who encouraged the growth of private farmers and improved education for enterprising peasants.
largest of the cities of the indus valley civilization. it was centrally located in the extensive flood plain of the indus river in contemporary pakistan. little is known about the political institutions of indus calley communities, but the large-scale of construction at mohenjo-daro, the orderly grid of streets, and the standardization of building materials are evidence of central plamning.
fine, light silt deposited by wind and water. It constitutes the fertile soil of the Yellow River Valley in northern China. Because loess soil is not compacted, easily worked, but it leaves the region vulnerable to earthquakes. (p.58)
Gregory VII
Pope during the 11th century who attempted to free Church from interference of feudal lords; quarreled with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV over practice of lay investiture. (p. 383)
Ferdinand Isabella
Unification of Spain under _____ and his wife _______.
Higher education / women
lagged from women
Oberlin College in Ohio admitted black and women in 1837
Emma Wilard est. Troy Female Seminary
Politically, Volaire believed...
reform could come only from enlightened rulers
The Philippines
Recieved these islands after S-A War. Although he considered giving them up after insurrections, McKinley ultimately kept them.
Tribute System
is wealth one party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance. It also incorporated certain aspects of regulated trade in goods and services between the parties under a contractual relationship formed upon duress, and based upon the potential for threats if specific performance did not occur.
Treaty of Paris
Treaty which granted the US several Spanish territories, and allowed the US to purchase the Philippines for $20 million. It caused much debate about imperialism, and what rights territories not in the contiguous US should be granted. It almost didn't pass in the Senate until Bryan stepped forth to support it, saying that the sooner it was signed the sooner the Filipinos could be granted independence.
ethnic cleansing
Effort to eradicate a people and its culture by means of mass killing and the destruction of historical buildings and cultural materials. Ethnic cleansing was used by both sides in the conflicts that accompanied the disintegration of Yugoslavia (883)
(Charles R.) Forbes
Colonel appointed by Harding, head of the Veterans' Bureau who in 1923 was caught embezzling and resigned. He and his accomplices took $200 million from the government in connection with building a veterans' hospital.
Baby Boom
the sharp increase in the US birthrate following WWII, led to Suburban Growth
Petition of Right,
A document drawn up by Parliament's House of Commons listing grievances against King Charles I and extending Parliament's powers while limiting the king's. It gave Parliament authority over taxation, declared that free citizens could not be arrested without cause, declared that soldiers could not be quartered in private homes without compensation, and said that martial law cannot be declared during peacetime.
City -States
ruled by a king who claimed divine authority; Sumerians state had carefully defined boundaries; the key to the early example of how civilization and a more formal political structure came together; the government regulated religion & enforced its duties; it provided a court system in the interest of Justice; kings were originally military leaders in war; began the tradition of slavery; but many slaves could earn their freedom by paying money; added to prosperity by using wheeled carts, fertilizers & exchanging silver as money; however the region was hard to defend & proved a constant temptation to invaders; later fell to the Akkadians and then the Babylonians;
to make modern; give a new or modern character or appearance to.
James Polk/ expansionist program
got oregon at 49th paralled
John Slidell to buy CA for $25, rejected
sent Taylor's forces to Rio Grande, war w/ Mexico
Native American Reservations
in 1851, govt. began assigning Native Americans to reservations. Most Plains tribes ignored the boundaries.
John Calvin
Calvin was a French scholar who was forced to flee from France because of his religious beliefs. He was welcomed in Geneva, Switzerland, where he developed a large following and became one of the most influential leaders in the Reformation. The Puritans and Huguenot settlers to the New World carried his doctrine.
mccullough v. maryland
federal gov't had the implied power to create a national bank
279. Washington's Farewell Address
He warned against the dangers of political parties and foreign alliances.
Mexican Cession
1848. Awarded as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo after the Mexican American War. U.S. paid $15 million for 525,000 square miles.
Voting granted to church members
The Massachusetts general court passed an act to limit voting rights to church members.
Missouri-Mississippi-Ohio River System
formed to drain the basins between the Appalachian and the Rockies
1121. Esch-Cummins Transportation Act
Provided for the return of railroads to private control, widened powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission.
Indus River valley
River sources in Himalayas to mouth in Arabian Sea; location of Harappan civilization
1453. Watts, Detroit race riots
Watts: August, 1965, the riot began due to the arrest of a Black by a White and resulted in 34 dead, 800 injured, 3500 arrested and $140,000,000 in damages. Detroit: July, 1967, the army was called in to restore order in race riots that resulted in 43 dead and $200,000,000 in damages.
Compromise of : provisions, impact
Called for the admission of California as a free state, organizing Utah and New Mexico with out restrictions on slavery, adjustment of the Texas/New Mexico border, abolition of slave trade in District of Columbia, and tougher fugitive slave laws. Its passage was hailed as a solution to the threat of national division.
reciprocal trade agreement act
(1934) The Act was designed to raise American exports and was aimed at both relief and recovery.Led by Cordell Hull, it helped reverse the high-tariff policy.
According to Diderot, the fundamental goals of the Encyclopedia was to...
change the general way of thinking
How the Other Half Lives
1890 work by Jacob A. Riis dealing with the conditions of the New York slums. It shocked the middle class, and deeply influenced Theodore Roosevelt in his formative years.
1571. Palestinian Liberation Front (PLO), Yassar Arafat
Led by Arafat, it was organized to liberate Palestine from Israelis in the late '70's and early '80's. Its guerilla warfare and terrorist tactics were not effective.
Students for a Democratic Society
Founded in 1962, the SDS was a popular college student organization that protested shortcomings in American life, notably racial injustice and the Vietnam War. It led thousands of campus protests before it split apart at the end of the 1960s.
577. Tredegar Iron Works, Richmond, Virginia
An iron mill in Richmond. It was run by skilled slave labor and was among the best iron foundry in the nation. It kept the Confederacy alive until 1863 as its only supplier of cannons. It was also the major munitions supplier of the South and was directly responsible for the capitol of the Confederacy being moved to Richmond.
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