AP history Vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Muhammad
...
Marae
Polynesian temple structure.
celibacy
abstention from sexual relations
Spanish Armada
"The Invincible Armada"
Archaeologist
an anthropologist who studies prehistoric people and their culture
Nativism
referred to white, native-born, Protestant Americans' hostility to European immigrants. Since many of those immigrants prior to the Civil War were Roman Catholics, ethnic prejudice against immigrants was usually accompanied by visceral hatred of Catholics as well. Indeed, because Americans had overtly identified themselves as a Protestant, anti-Catholic nation since the seventeenth century and because prominent Protestant clergymen had warned since the early nineteenth century of a Papal plot to subvert American liberty and seize control of the United States politically through the use of slavish Catholic immigrant minions, waves of new European immigration which spawned outbursts of nativist sentiment also provoked anti-Catholicism.
Martel
Charles,Carolingian monarch of Franks; responsible for defeating Muslims in battle of Tours in 732; ended Muslim threat to western Europe. (p. 377)
Jeremiads
Puritan preachers Taking their cue from the doom-saying Old Testament prophet Jeremiah, earnest preachers scolded parishioners for their waning piety.Scared people off, decline of puritanism
daoism
philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
Colonies in Order
Jamestown, plymouth, massachusetts bay, pennsylvania
conversion
change from one religion to another
Emperor Xuanzong
(reigned 713-755) Leading Chinese emperor of the Tang dynasty; encouraged overexpansion
pyramid
Huge, triangular shaped burial tombs of Egyptian pharaohs built during the Old Kingdom
Levellers
Pokitical party formed furing English Civil War that believed in democracy
New Imperialism
Historians' term for the late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century wave of conquests by European powers, the United States, and Japan, which were followed by the development and exploitation of the newly conquered territories for the benefit of the col
secular
worldly; not pertaining to church matters or religion; temporal
MORAL MAJORITY
evangelical Christian group that supported the “New Right” movement (liked Ronald Reagan)
"Slavocracy"
A term for southern democracy by anti-slavery Union people. The term suggested that slavery dominated all southern politics, and Northerners believed that adding Texas to the United States was the attempts of the south to add one more slave state.
Zheng He
emperors sent out seven seagoing expeditions, their purpose was to glorify Chinese arms in the remote regions and showing off the wealth and power of the Middle Kingdom; brought back trade goods and tribute from many lands, animals; Chinese merchants settled in Southeast Asia and India and spread Chinese culture; emperor's officials saw no great benefit in exploring expeditions and halted them, the government discouraged trade with foreign countries and forbade construction of seagoing vessels
rosetta stone
Stone that contained carved messages in hieroglyphics, Greek and demotic. Led to deciphering of hieroglyphics.
Democratic Republicans
political party which favored states rights and weaker national government
pacifism
no violence for the resolution of conflict
Peloponnesian War
war between Sparta and Athens; resulted after years of increasing tensions between the two powerhouses; Athens was never the same again
vassal
In medieval Europe, a sworn supporter of a king or lord committed to rendering specified military service to that king or lord.
moundsbuilders
in Mississippi region of N. America, civilizations found that created moundlike temples of dirt
Druids
The class of religious experts who conducted rituals and preserved sacred lore among some ancient Celtic peoples. They provided education, mediated disputes between kinship groups, and were suppressed by the Romans as potential resistance.
passive resistance
nonviolent action or opposition to authority, often in accord with religious or moral beliefs often taking the form of fasting or other forms of noncompliance
theater-state
state that acquires prestige and power by developing attractive cultural forms and staging elaborate public ceremonies (as well as redistributing valuable resources) to attract and bind subjects to the center. (186)
Byzantine Empire
Historians' name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onward, taken from 'Byzantion,' an early name for Constantinople, the Byzantine capital city. The empire fell to the Ottomans in 1453. (see also Ottoman Empire) (p.250)
sugar cane
plant grown throughout the caribean during the colonial period, whose sweet sap is used to make sugar and malasses
Wang Mang
carried out reforms so revolutionary that he is known as the "Socialist Emperor"
Gorbachev
Mikhail Sergeyevic (born 2 March 1931) is a former Soviet statesman, having served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991, and as the last head of state of the USSR, having served from 1988 until its dissolution in 1991.
49. Patron system
Patronships were offered to individuals who managed to build a settlement of at least 50 people within 4 years. Few people were able to accomplish this.
TET OFFENSIVE
north Vietnamese order a massive attack during the Tet holiday (they start bringing in supplies throughout the day and held the biggest single attack ended up beinga huge loss for north Vietcong
absolutism
the principle or the exercise of complete and unrestricted power in government.
Lydians
came up with concept to use coined money
Confederation of 1867
Negotiated union of the formerly separate colonial governments of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. This new Dominion of Canada with a central government in Ottawa is seen as the beginning of the Canadian nation.(p. 627)
Johann Gutenberg
published the Gutenberg Bible of 1454, the first book in the West printed from movable type, which exhibited a beauty and craftsmanship that bore witness to the printer's years of experimentation.
Who was the last aztec ruler?
Montezuma the second
Iliad and Odyssey
Two extremely well-known tales written by the poet Homer in the eighth century B.C.E.
New Left
label for the political radicals of the 1960s; influenced by "old left" of the 1930s which had criticized capitalism and supporetd successes of Communism. the New Left supported civil rights and opposed American foreign policy, especially in vietnam
Sand Creek, Colorado
Site where Colonel J.M. Chivington massacred 400 Indians in 1864
Memphis
The capital of Old Kingdom Egypt, near the head of the Nile Delta. Early rulers were interred in the nearby pyramids.
Pendleton Act
placed federal employees on a merit system and marked the end of the spoils system; Chester A. Arthur
Mahayana
one of two great schools of Buddhist doctrine emphasizing a common search for universal salvation especially through faith alone
Vargas Getulio
Elected president of Brazil in 1929; launched centralized political program by imposing federal administrators over state governments; held off coups by communists in 1935 and fascists in 1937; imposed a new constitution based on Mussolini's Italy; leaned to communists after 1949; committed suicide in 1954.
Insular Cases
These were court cases dealing with islands/countries that had been recently annexed and demanded the rights of a citizen. These Supreme Court cases decided that the Constitution did not always follow the flag, thus denying the rights of a citizen to Puerto Ricans and Filipinos.
Lucretia Mott
A Quaker who attended an anti-slavery convention in 1840 and her party of women was not recognized. She and Stanton called the first women's right convention in New York in 1848
Qing Dynasty
the last imperial dynasty of China (from 1644 to 1912) which was overthrown by revolutionaries
1335. Marshall Plan
Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.
Gilgamesh
5th ruler of the kingdom of Urukruled 2750 B.C.E
Karma
The sum of merits accumulated by a soul at any given point in time; determined the caste to which the soul would be assigned in the next life
Revolution of 1800
Jefferson's view of his election to presidency. Jefferson claimed that the election of 1800 represented a return to what he considered the original spirit of the Revolution. Jefferson's goals for his revolution were to restore the republican experiment, check the growth of government power, and to halt the decay of virtue that had set in under Federalist rule.
Thebes
Capital city of Egypt and home of the ruling dynasties during the Middle and New Kingdoms. Amon, patron deity of Thebes, became one of the chief gods of Egypt. Monarchs were buried across the river in the Valley of the Kings. (p. 43)
Name of the human species alive today
homo sapiens sapiens
Muhammad ibn Qasim...
Arab general; conquered Sind in India; declared the region and the Indus valley to be part of Umayyad Empire
The "forty-niners"
The men that rushed to California in 1849 in search of gold. Few found enough gold to pay their expenses.
Theodosius
(11 January 347 - 17 January 395), was Roman Emperor from 378 to 395. He was the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. During his reign, the Goths secured control of Illyricum after the Gothic War - establishing their homeland south of the Danube within the empire's borders. He is known for making Nicene Christianity the official state religion of the Roman Empire, issuing decrees that effectively worked towards melding the Roman state and the Christian Church into a single de facto church-state entity. He is recognized by the Eastern Orthodox Church as a saint. He defeated the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius and fostered the destruction of some prominent pagan temples: the Serapeum in Alexandria, the Temple of Apollo in Delphi, and the Vestal Virgins in Rome. After his death, his sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the East and West halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united.
Massive Retaliation
The "new look" defense policy of the Eisenhower administration of the 1950's was to threaten "massive retaliation" with nuclear weapons in response to any act of aggression by a potential enemy.
Suez Canal
Ship canal dug across the isthmus of Suez in Egypt, designed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. It opened to shipping in 1869 and shortened the sea voyage between Europe and Asia. Its strategic importance led to the British conquest of Egypt in 1882. (p. 726)
Sepoy Rebellion
the revolt of Indian soldiers in 1857 against certain practices that violated religious customs, also known as the Sepoy mutiny.
slash and burn agriculture
Another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris., Another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris.
Lusitania (May 1915)
British luxury liner was torpedoed by a German submarine. 1,198 people died, including 124 Americans. Inncident caused great anti-german sentiment in the U.S and almost led to U.S. involvment in WW1
852. Hamlin Garland
His best-known work is Middle Board, an autobiographical story of the frustrations of life. One of the first authors to write accurately and sympathetically about Native Americans.
Who did JQA negotiate out of Oregon?
Russia and Spain
Franklin D Roosevelt
formerly the governor of New York, this man was nominated by the Democratic party, he pledged a "new deal" for the American people, the repeal of prohibition, aid for the unemployed, and cuts into government spending
Standard Oil Company
Formed in Ohio in 1870 by Rockefeller, monopolized the world petroleum market
Tea Act of 1773
Allowed East India Company to avoid navigation taxes when exporting tea to colonies and gave them power to monopolize tea trade; this angered colonists and threatened merchants and the colonial economy.
National Service Trust Act
(WJC) college = everyone, high school graduates volunteer to earn minimum wage, affordable student loans directly by govt.
what did the 1cc do?
created committees of observation and safety
Coronado
"7 cities of gold" in N. Amer.?; SW of Amer.; Texas, Arizona, N. Mexico; dry, desert, no wealth; empires in south; Incas, developed societies and conquerers
Massachusetts Bay Colony
1629 - King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a colony in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony established political freedom and a representative government.
Ku Klux Klan
the new KKK in the 1920s was anti-foreign, anti-Catholic, anti-black, anti-Jewish, anti-pacifist, anti-Communist, anti-internationalist, anti-revolutionist, anti-bootlegger, anti-gambling, anti-adultery, and anti-birth control they were pro White Anglo-Saxon Protestant (WASP) but anti everything else
Tupac Amaru II
Member of Inca aristocracy who led a rebellion against Spanish authorities in Peru in 1780-1781. He was captured and executed with his wife and other members of his family. (p. 493)
422. Foote Resolution, Webster-Hayne debate
The Webster-Hayne debate in 1830 was over an 1830 bill by Samuel A. Foote to limit the sale of public lands in the west to new settlers. Daniel Webster, in a dramatic speech, showed the danger of the states' rights doctrine, which permitted each state to decide for itself which laws were unconstitutional, claiming it would lead to civil war. States' rights (South) vs. nationalism (North).
Women's movement, like others, overshadowed by anti-slavery movement
In the 1800's, the women's movement was often overshadowed by the anti-slavery movement. Many men who had been working on behalf of the women's movement worked for the abolition of slavery once it became a major issue.
Adena, Mississippian and Hopewell Indians
Mound building cultures evolved in the Mississippi and Ohio River Valleys, supported by hunting, fishing, and agriculture.
Paleolithic Era - Society
- Lived in small nomadic tribes- Men were usually the hunters- Women probably stayed at home and took care of the family as well as gathered plants and prepared food- downfall caused by Neolithic Revolution
Voting Rights Act of 1965
invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap.
1126. Harding scandals: Harry Sinclair
He leased government land to the oil companies and was forced to resign due to the investigation. He was acquitted on the bribery charges.
for southerners, one of the worst surprises of the civil war was
the eagerness of their trusted house slaves to flee
Supreme Court: Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
1831 - Supreme Court refused to hear a suit filed by the Cherokee Nation against a Georgia law abolishing tribal legislature. Court said Indians were not foreign nations, and U.S. had broad powers over tribes but a responsibility for their welfare.
Monroe Administration
...
Hordes
nomadic Mongol tribes
Manufacturing
making products to sell
postmodernism
Post-World War II intellectual movement and cultural attitude focusing on cultural pluralism and release from the confines and ideology of Western high culture. (p. 900)
polytheistic
worshipping more than one god
paramount
greatest in importance or significance
Ex: The triangular trade system was paramount in the growth of European wealth. (B.208)
Mosque
an Islamic place of worship
Pericles
Aristocratic leader who guided the Athenian state through the transformation to full participatory democracy for all male citizens. (130)
Harappa
along with Mohenjo-daro major urban complex of the Harappan civilization
Manorialism
manorialism was an economic system that involved fiefs. It was between noblemen and serfs.
1200s
nobility formed a Parliament in England
Nara
This was an agricultural society inspired by Tang China, instituted a series of reforms to centralize power. It was built as a replica of Chang'an
Aztec
a civilization that ruled through force and conquest in the Basin of Mexico between 1427 and 1519
balboa
smuggled himself away from creditors and on a ship to panama, married an indian chiefs daughter, claimed the south sea for spain
Sumerian
the people who dominated southern Mesopotamia; the invented irrigation, cuneiform, semitic religious conceptions
mulligan letters
Corrsepondence that linked James Blaine to a corrupt deal involving federal favors that lost him the election
Treaty of Portsmouth
Ended Russo-Japanese War. (1905)
Proclamation of 1763
prohibited settlements west of Appalachian, restriction on colonial growth
electric telegraph
A device for rapid, long-distance transmission of information over an electric wire. It was introduced in England and North America in the 1830s and 1840s and replaced telegraph systems that utilized visual signals such as semaphores. (609)
What type of government did many African nations have by the 1960s?
Dictatorship
Australopithecus
oldest known ancestor of humans, lived from around 40 million down to around one million years ago, walked on two legs
b
During both the Washington and the Jefferson administrations, the Western settlers' most urgent and consistent demand on the federal government was for the
A) repeal of the whiskey tax.
B) guaranty of an outlet to the sea for their produce.
C) establishment of a national banking system.
D) reduction of the tariff.
E) removal of Native Americans to reservations.
Antoine Cadillac
Frenchman who founded Detroit to thwart the English in 1701
Marco Polo
Italian adventurer who returned to Europe in 1295 and told tales of his 20 year trip to China; spurred others to look for a route to the East
Chandragupta Maurya
founder of Mauryan dynasty; developed first empire in India
John Locke
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
Hittites
A people from central Anatolia who established an empire in Anatolia and Syria in the Late Bronze Age. With wealth from the trade in metals and military power based on chariot forces, the hittites vied with New Kingdom Egypt over Syria (p.64)
Richard Henry Lee
Urged for complete independence, included a list of grievences. july 2nd 1776
hammurabi
Amorite ruler of Babylon (r. 1792-1750 B.C.E.). He conquered many city-states in southern and northern Mesopotamia and is best known for a code of laws, inscribed on a black stone pillar, illustrating the principles to be used in legal cases. (p. 34)
Revolutions of 1848
Democratic and nationalist revolutions that swept across Europe. The monarchy in France was overthrown. In Germany, Austria, Italy, and Hungary the revolutions failed. (p. 595)
Volstead Act
The enabling legislation for the Eighteenth Amendment which established prohibition in the United States.
Divine Faith
Akbar's failed attempt to combine Muslim, Hindu, Zoroastrian, Christian, and Sikh beliefs
Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.
Sugar Act
Part of Prime Minister Grenville’s revenue program, the act replaced the Molasses Act of 1733, and actually lowered the tax on sugar and molasses (which the New England colonies imported to make rum as part of the triangular trade) from 6 cents to 3 cents a barrel, but for the first time adopted provisions that would insure that the tax was strictly enforced; created the vice-admiralty courts; and made it illegal for the colonies to buy goods from non-British Caribbean colonies.
Augustus
Honorific name of Octavian, founder of the Roman Principate, the military dictatorship that replaced the failing rule of the Roman Senate. (151)
Korean War
Conflict that began with North Korea's invasion of South Korea and came to involve the United Nations (primarily the United States) allying with South Korea and the People's Republic of China allying with North Korea. (p. 836)
John Smith
organized the colony of Jamestown in order to find gold, christianize the natives, and secure passage to india; saved settlers with strong leadership
Gallipoli
World War I battle in which the British lead a disastrous attack on the Ottomans; the number
of Allied casualties weakens loyalty between Britain and Canada, Australia, and New Zealand
Medieval
relating to or belonging to the Middle Ages
plantocracy
In the West Indian colonies, the rich men who owned most of the slaves and most of the land, especially in the eighteenth century. (p. 502)
White House Tapes
Recordings of conversations in the White House that helped lead to revealing Nixon's involvement in the Watergate Scandal
John Powell
Geologist and explorer of the Colorado River's Grand Canyon and director of the US Geological Survey, warned in 1874 that west of the 100th meridian, agriculture was impossible because of lack of rain unless there were large irrigation projects
eunuchs
these kind of people (sterile men who could not produce a family to challenge the dynasty) were used to increase the power of central government during the Ming Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
dynasty often referred to as China's Golden age that reigned during 618 - 907 AD; China expands from Vietnam to Manchuria
Anasazi
Important culture of what is now the southwest (1000-1300 C.E.). Centered on Chaco Canyon in New Mexico and Mesa Verde in Colorado, the Anasazi culture built multistory residences and worshipped in subterranean buildings called kivas. (pg 308)
features of a civilization
Sumerians in Mesopotamia- first irrigation civilization, drainage from the Tigris and Euphrates, first, large cities, writing, buildings, wheel, bricks, plow, bronze. Theocracy changes to monarchy, different classes= different treatment. Egyptians- No middle class, no cities, lived in huts along Nile, mainly farming, slaves, not many problems with them. Chinese- many records with writing, monarchy, Warring states starts when Zhou lose control, live in small villages with few large towns, agriculture no rice, no trade, maybe matriarchy. Emperor is high priest (confuciasism). Greeks- difference between slave and free men, Sparta fights Athens in Peloponesian War, leads to Barbarians Mesodonian takeover, small farms, maritime trade, no large fertile areas, over population causes emigration, religion is civic duty, disrespect Gods. Romans- Etruscan and Greeks effected early Roman civilization, Roman laws, started out with mainly peasants then slaves and unfree immigrants from Africa, Italy becomes dependent on food imports,plantations and estates replace farms
Confiscation Act
declared that all slaves used for insurrectionary purpses (in other words, in support of the COnfederate military effort) would be considered freed
Spanish-American War
1898 - America wanted Spain to peacefully resolve the Cuaban's fight for independence - the start of the war was due in large part to yellow journalism
writ
(law) a legal document issued by a court or judicial officer
Nicholaus Copernicus
Polish astronomer who wrote "On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres" proposing a heliocentric system; laid foundations for modern astronomy
 
 
 
 
45. Liberal land laws in Pennsylvania
 
 
 
William Penn allowed anyone to emigrate to Pennsylvania, in order to provide a haven for persecuted religions.
starving time
_______ was a period of deprivation suffered by the early settlers of Jamestown colony in 1609-1610. Most of the first settlers died from disease and exposure, and the colony grew very slowly.
angra mainyu
the evil spirit who contends against Spenta Mainyu.
Hundred Years War
war between England and France over the English occupation of French-speaking lands
Repressive Act
Closed harbor in boston. to punish the colonies. 1774
1233. Revenue Act
1935 - Increased income taxes on higher incomes and also increased inheritance, large gft, and capital gains taxes.
Unlikely founding fathers
Daniel Shays; Dey of Algiers; Lord Sheffield the British Prime Minister; and the 56th chair: fear
Edward Kennedy
He is a Senator from Massachusetts and the last of the Kennedy brothers. In 1979, he said that he was going to challenge Carter for the Presidency, but an incident back in '69 with a car crash, handicapped his decision.
Malay sailors a lot
traded and interacted with other Southeast Asian societies a lot
Silk Road
land trade route from China to the Roman Empire
Embargo Act
forbidding export of goods from US. US hurt more than foreign land
Union Party
a broad coalition of all the groups that supported the war. Essentially another form of the Republican Party.
Alien and Sedition Acts
meant to keep government unquestioned by critics, particularly of the Federalists
european imperialism did not touch
east asia, russia, middle east
1022. Conservation Conference, 1908
An environmental conference to study the nation's natural resources and how to conserve them.
Judicial Review
Until 1803, the case of Marbury vs. Madison took place this year, there was controversy over who had the final say in determining the meaning of the Constituion, whether loose or strict interpretation should be used and who would decide. Jefferson tried to give the rights to the states in the Kentucky resolutions, but his cousin, John Marshall of the Supreme Court, proposed "judicial review," which gave the Supreme Court the power to decide if a law is or is not constitutional. "Judicial review" was accepted as a result of the famous case of Marbury vs. Madison, and John Marshall succeeded in giving increased power to the Supreme Court officials.
clipper ship
a sailing ship built and rigged for speed, esp. a type of three-masted ship with a fast hull form and a lofty rig, built in the U.S. from c1845, and in Great Britain from a later date, until c1870, and used in trades in which speed was more important than
Declaration of Rights and Grievances
At First Continental Congress, it promised obedience to the king, but denied parliament's right to tax the colonies.
Fall of Richmond
As its name states, Richmond fell on April 9, 1865, thus signifying an end to the Civil War
safety valve theory
Theory that when hard times came, the unemployed who cluttered the city would move west, take up farming, and prosper
Temijun "Ghengis Khan" second part
Brings Mongols together, Ghengis Khan = Universal Ruler. - Breaks up tribes + organizes new military power.
navigation acts 3 laws
1)all goods traded within empire had to be transported on english ships, 2)certain enumerated goods had to be sold in england, 3)goods coming into colony had to come into an english port where they would be taxed
federalists & democratic republicans
first two poltical parties, many of teh democratic republicans had earlier been memebers of the antifederalsit, never organized formal party.
battle of thames
american forces go to canada after the victory on the lake bristish is forced to withdraw with the amerixan force following they catch up with the british and indians and techh=mesh is killed R.I.P
Phillis Wheatley
a slave girl who became a poet. At age eight, she was brought to Boston. published a book of poetry at age 20
London Economic Conference
were going to set the value of the world's major currencies, lower trade barriers, and discuss reducing the annual payments of the war debts owed the U.S.. It ended abruptly when Roosevelt announced that he opposed any mandated currency stabilization unit. Did this b/c wanted to be isolationists and didn't want congress's power taken away
Judiciary Act of 1801
a law that increased the number of federal judges, allowing President John Adams to fill most of the new posts with Federalists
831. Rerum Novarum
1891 - Pope Leo XII's call to the Catholic Church to work to alleviate social problems such as poverty.
They were entirely dependent on rainfall
How did the Greeks water their crops?
The Battle of Lexington and Concord
The first battle of the American Revolution in which British general Thomas Gage went after the stockpiled weapons of the colonists in Concord, Massachusetts
What 3 things can Local Gov't provide?
1. Tax incentives to corporations
2. aid in building, or outright building, the plant and infrastructure
3. sewage extension, lighting, power lines and sources
1597. Supreme Court: Reynolds v. Sims, 1964
Supreme Court created the one person, one vote grounded in the Equal Protection Clause.
What two things make up Monetary Policy?
1. regulation of the amount of money in circulation.
2. controlled by the federal reserve board
French support
...
Andrew Mellon
introduced trickle-down
Elkins Act
-Taft
-1903
-America. and oversees.
-It gave the ICC power to suspend Railroad Rates and oversee telephones, etc.
-Imposed fines on railroads that gave special rates to favored shippers.
-stop rebates.
dred scott case
slaves are property
Hittites/iron weapons
first to produce iron
Luzon
Northern island of Philippines; conquered by Spain during the 1560s; site of major Catholic missionary effort.
Columbian Exchange
When?  1492
What?  Christopher Columbus traded with the Native Americans.  Europeans exchanged new crops and animals.  But also the Old World diseases and bacteria.  These diseases led to the death of 90% of the Native American population.
investiture
controversy Dispute between the popes and the Holy Roman Emperors over who held ultimate authority over bishops in imperial lands. (p. 261)
monsoon
seasonal winds crossing India and southeast Asia; brings rains during summer
immunity
Freedom or exemption from some imposition
Bourgeoisie
educated, middle class of france; provided force behind the revolution
sectionalism
excessive or narrow-minded concern for local or regional interests as opposed to the interests of the whole
supplement
to increase, extend, or improve something by adding something to it
The Ottoman sultans supplemented the traditional cavalry with elite soldiers called janissaries. (B.190)
Heian
Japanese city later called Kyoto; built to escape influence of Buddhist monks
Naval Stores
products used to build ships
overt acts
..., Germany openly attacking Americans
This “bloodless revolution” of 1688 against the British monarchy inspired American colonists to rebel, too.
Glorious Revolution
Vertical integration
controlling every aspect of production (control quality, eliminate middlemen, Rockefeller)
Loyalists (Tories)
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence
Shinto
The native religion and former ethnic cult of Japan that whorships nature. It coexists with Buddhism in Japan
Monopolism
the belief that one controls the many
caliphate
the office of a caliph, Office established in succession to the Prophet Muhammad, to rule the Islamic empire; also the name of that empire. (See also Abbasid Caliphate; Sokoto Caliphate; Umayyad Caliphate.) (p. 232)
Virginia Resolution
less extreme statement (than the Kentucky Resolution) written by James Madison and adopted by the legislature of Virginia in 1798; compact theory; written to nullify Alien and Sedition Acts; later used by southerners to support secession
Army
What did Ghengis Khan valued theeee most
Ptolemy
Subordinate to Alexander who took over Egypt after his death
Iroquois Confederacy
An alliance of five northeastern Amerindian peoples (after 1722 six) that made decisions on military and diplomatic issues through a council of representatives. Allied first with the Dutch and later with the English, it dominated W. New England. (488)
Continuity
the property of a continuous and connected period of time
Specie Circular
Required that purchases of federal lands be made in gold or silver and not in paper banknotes.
Cossaks
Peoples of the Russian Empire who lived outside the farming villages, often as herders, mercenaries, or outlaws. Cossacks led the conquest of Siberia in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. (p. 552)
Horace Mann
United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education (1796-1859)
mestizo
a person of mixed racial ancestry (especially mixed European and Native American ancestry)
Connecticut
first colony to have a written constitution
Trent Affair
Union siezing of confederates upon British ship angered British almost to the point that they supported Confederacy.
Malay Peoples
A designation for peoples originating in south China and Southeast Asia who settled the Malay Peninsula, Indonesia, and the Philippines, then spread eastward across the islands of the Pacific Ocean and west to Madagascar. (p. 190)
damascus
syrian city that was the capital of the umayyad caliphate
Francis Scott Key
Composer of The Star Spangled Banner
No
Was the "Right of all Citizens to Vote" guarenteed by the Bill of Rights?
Mikhail Romanov
Russian tsar (r. 1613-1645) A member of the Russian aristocracy, he became tsar after the old line of Muscovite rulers was deposed. (p. 551)
monopoly
a product or service who is controlled by a single company
Eli Whitney
an American inventor who developed the cotton gin. Also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged
Tippecanoe
It was fought on November 7, 1811, between United States forces led by Governor William Henry Harrison of the Indiana Territory and forces of Tecumseh's growing American Indian confederation led by his younger brother Tenskwatawa.
Constantinople
city built by Constantine at the site of the Greek city of Byzantium; part of eastern Rome (which thrived)
umma
The community of all Muslims. A major innovation against the background of seventh-century Arabia, where traditionally kinship rather than faith had determined membership in a community. (p. 231)
sage kings
Legendary rulers of China c. 2800-c. 2200. Of the three sovereigns and five emperors based in the Huang He (Yellow River) region, Huang-tu (reigned c. 2697 BC) is credited with defeating the barbarians. The era has been associated with the domestication of animals, agricultural development, the gradual replacement of stone implements with bronze, and the formation of larger tribal confederacies.
george whitefield
succeeded John Wesley as leader of Calvinist Methodists in Oxford, England, major force in revivalism in England and America, journey to colonies sparked Great Awakening. also a leader of the "New Lights."
James Madison
The fourth President of the United States (1809-1817). A member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787), he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787-1788), which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution. His presidency was marked by the War of 1812.
China ( which dynastys are from)
Xia, Shang, Zhou
Gupta Empire
Powerful Indian state based, like its Mauryan predecessor, on a capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley. It controlled most of the Indian subcontinent through a combination of military force and its prestige as a center of sophisticated culture (186). India's "Golden Age"
 
 
 
 
224. Constitution: Ratification
 
 
 
The Constitution had to be ratified (approved) by at least 9 of the 13 original states in order to be put into effect.
BRADY BILL
signed by Clinton; gun control laws calls for waiting period and an assault weapons ban
factor
one of the elements contributing to a particular result or situation:
Virginia Constitution
June 1776; became the first state to adopt a permanent, republican constitution i) Legislature chose the governor, the governor's council and all judges ii) The governor had no veto and hardly any patronage iii) Lower house faced annual elections but the upper house served 4-year terms iv) George Mason- drafted declaration of rights that the VA delegates passed before constitution- people should define their rights before empowering the government, affirmed human equality (except slaves), condemned hereditary privilege, called for rotation in office, trial by jury and extolled religious liberty
steel
A form of iron that is both durable and flexible. It was first mass-produced in the 1860s and quickly became the most widely used metal in construction, machinery, and railroad equipment. (p. 701)
1358. Preemptive Strike
The doctrine of attacking an enemy force before they can attack you.
Massachusetts textile mills
Lowell. Girls worked in the factories eventually replaced by lower waged immigrants started strikes
Robert Di Nobli
Italian Jesuit active in India during the early 1600s; failed in a policy of first converting indigenous elites
USS Maine
Sent to Cuba to protect US interests but was mysteriously blown up, started US war with Spain
mauryan empire
185 BCE, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty, was the largest and most powerful political and military empire of ancient India
Cash Crop
a readily salable crop that is grown and gathered for the market (as vegetables or cotton or tobacco)
Revenue Act of 1789
Placed an 8% tariff on imports.
Macon's Bill No.2
opened trade with britain and france, said if either nation repealed its restrictions on neutral shipping the US would halt trade with the other, didn't work
Triangle shirtwaist fire
a terrible fire swept through the factory
1153. Billy Sunday (1863-1935)
Baseball player and preacher, his baseball background helped him become the most popular evangelist minister of the time. Part of the Fundamentalist revival of the 1920's.
Homo Sapiens
- "wise man" or "knowing man"- family Hominidae (the great apes)- the transition from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens occurred approximately 300,000 to 400,000 years ago.
Suleiman the Magnificent
The most illustrious sultan of the Ottoman Empire (r. 1520-1566); also known as Suleiman Kanuni, 'The Lawgiver.' He significantly expanded the empire in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean. (p. 526)
Cult of True Womanhood
prevailing view among middle and upper class white women during the nineteenth century in which women were supposed to embody perfect virtue in all senses
Seneca Falls Convention
Took place in upperstate New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women. There, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which among other things, tried to get women the right to vote.
Caracalla and Roman Citizenship
In 212 C.E. Caracalla named everyone that was a free male under Roman control a citizen.
stock exchange
A place where shares in a company or business enterprise are bought and sold. (p. 460)
The Cult of Domesticity
Another term for the concept of Republican Motherhood, a concept which said women should only be concerned with domestic, family, and religious affairs.
House of Burgesses
The House of Burgesses was a political entity in which the basic requirements were ownership of property and race (meaning white). Established in 1619 in Virginia. 1619 also marked the start of slavery in the English Colonies.
Which area of the country was for the high protective tariff?
New England
Explain what factor convinced the Europeans that they could make little headway against the kingdoms of Asia.
They quickly realized that however feisty and well-armed they might be, they were far too few in numbers to make much headway
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Arrested in the Summer of 1950 and executed in 1953, they were convicted of conspiring to commit espionage by passing plans for the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.
Second Continental Congress
It met in 1776 and drafted and signed the Declaration of Independence, which justified the Revolutionary War and declared that the colonies should be independent of Britain.
365. Hartford Convention, resolution
December 1814 - A convention of New England merchants who opposed the Embargo and other trade restriction, and the War of 1812. They proposed some Amendments to the Constitution and advocated the right of states to nullify federal laws. They also discussed the idea of seceding from the U.S. if their desires were ignored. The Hartford Convention turned public sentiment against the Federalists and led to the demise of the party.
Tariff of 1833*
(AJ) set up by henry clay, it was a way to prevent jackson from victory. clay aptly deserves his title as the great comprimiser. it allowed for the tariff of 1832, with a 10 percent decrease every year for 10 years, when the tariff rate would be back to where it was in 1816. it was squezed through congress.
United Provinces of La Plata
the united state created by Jose de San Martin, depite the fact that the provinces were far from united
French and Indian War
Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.
1070. Mexican Revolution, Diaz, Huerta, Carranza
Diaz was ruler of Mexico for 34 years, and caused much terror and bloodshed. Many people fled to the U.S. to plan a revolution. Huerta, in 1913, overthrew Diaz as dictator and had him murdered. Carranza was the leader of the forces against Huerta. The Mexican Revolution was an unstable situation that led to distrust between the U.S. and Mexico.
What was the House of Burgesses and when did it first meet?
A legislative body in Jamestown that first met in 1619. It had the power to make laws and levy taxes, although the governor could veto its legislative acts.
Allied forces
dd
Camp David Accords
1979
Augustine
influential church father and theologian born in Africa
Omaha Platform
-Populist's
-1892
-Omaha, Nebraska
-A platform for the Populist Party's views.
-It warned about the dangers of political corruption an inadequate monetary supply, and an unresponsive government.
-They proposed remedies such as fight low prices with the coinage of silver "free silver", government ownership of the railroads.
Metternich
Austrian foreign minister who basically controlled the Congress of Vienna. Wanted to promote peace, conservatism, and the repression of libaral nationalism throughout Europe.
NSC-68
The National Security Council Memorandum #68 said the that US should quadruple defense spending. This marked a major step in the militarization of America's foreign policy and reflected a sense of almost limitless possibility that pervaded postwar American society.
Karl Marx
German journalist and philosopher, founder of the Marxist branch of socialism. He is known for two books: The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (Vols. I-III, 1867-1894). (p. 709)
Indians
Misnomer created by Columbus referring to the indigenous people of the New World; implies social and ethnic commonality among the Native Americans that did not exist; still used to apply to Native Americans
Ethiopia
East African highland nation lying east of the Nile River. (See also Menelik II; Selassie, Haile.) (p. 221)
Globalization
The process of developing economic, social, cultural, and political interdependence across international borders.
Seperate Spheres
Nineteenth-century idea in Western societies that men and women, especially of the middle class, should have different roles in society: women as wives, mothers, and homemakers; men as breadwinners and participants in business and politics (711)
Crittenden Compromise
Called for several constitutional amendments that would guarentee the permanent existence of slavery in slave state, Southern demands on issues such as fugitive slaves and slavery, and most importantly a proposal to reestablish the Missouri Compromise line
sedition
an illegal action inciting resistance to lawful authority and tending to cause the disruption or overthrow of the government
disarmament
-Washington Conference of 1921. Resulted in the 5 Power Treaty and The Four Power Treaty and the Nine Power Treaty.
-ratios with regards to warships, respecting territory in the Pacific, respecting Open Door Policy in China
cosmopolitan
free from local, provincial, or national ideas, prejudices, or attachments; at home all over the world.
Tanzimat Reforms
included education based on western math and science, postal service, telegraphs, railroads, constitution (improved position of religious minority groups), treaty with the British that improved trade by removed taxes
Electoral College
Under the Constitution, the president of hte United States was to be elected by a majority vote of the
Balfour Declaration
Statement issued by Britain's Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour in 1917 favoring the establishment of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine. (p. 761)
Of those people going to California during the gold rush
a. The majority came from foreign nations
b. Slaves constituted a sizeable minority
c. The majority gained considerable financial rewards
d. Most were interested in free-siol farming
e. A distressin
e
Vivaldis
Two Genoese brothers who attempted to find a Western route to the "Indies"; disappeared in 1291; precursors of thrust into southern Atlantic.
Charlie Chaplin
a funny Englishman working in Hollywood that was unquestionably the king of the "silver screen" in the 1920's. He symbolized the "gay spirit of laughter in a cruel and crazy world." He also demonstrated that in the hands of a genius, the new medium could combine mass entertainment and artistic accomplishment.
hinduism
A religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms
tsar
From Latin caesar, this Russian title for a monarch was first used in reference to a Russian ruler by Ivan III (r. 1462-1505). (pp. 340, 551)
Evolution
the process by which species gradually change over time User-contributed
virginia company
Joint stock company received charter from King James I; Promises of Gold-passage through Americas to Indies/ Guaranteed English would have same rights in New world as in England.
First Continental Congress
The First Continental Congress convened on September 5, 1774, to protest the Intolerable Acts. The congress endorsed the Suffolk Resolves, voted for a boycott of British imports, and sent a petition to King George III, conceding to Parliament the power of regulation of commerce but stringently objecting to its arbitrary taxation and unfair judicial system.
Lenin's approach was adopted by the groups of Russian Marxists known as
Bolsheviks
Muhammad Ali
Leader of Egyptian modernization in the early nineteenth century. He ruled Egypt as an Ottoman governor, but had imperial ambitions. His descendants ruled Egypt until overthrown in 1952.
Assumption
State debts would become a national obligation
"Father Abraham"
What freed blacks called Abe Lincoln, in a sort of religious, god-like manner. Abe told them not to kneel to him but to God, which would be more appropriate considering he did not make the Civil War about slavery until he realized that a he could not reunite the Union under the conflict of slavery. Represents the unfair credit given to Lincoln by the slaves and many other people. Although Lincoln played a large role in the abolition of slavery and led the Union in the Civil War (not over slavery until later) he still believed that blacks were an inferior people.
charles 5th
was from ghent(flanders at the time) he never spoke spanish well
534. Webster-Ashburton Treaty
1842 - Established Maine's northern border and the boundaries of the Great Lake states.
Empire
A political unit made up of several territories or nations but ruled by one supreme authority.
cash crops
any crop that is considered easily marketable.
St. Augustine, FL; Southwest America; California
Spain's first colonies
Trade
What did the invasions of the nomadic Turkish and Mongol tribes facilitate between the 11-15 centuries?
speculation
a hypothesis that has been formed by speculating or conjecturing (usually with little hard evidence)
Mexican Cession
Some of Mexico's territory was added to the U.S. after the Mexican War: Arizona, New Mexico, California, Utah, Nevada & Colorado.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
A United States Navy officer, geostrategist, and educator. His ideas on the importance of sea power influenced navies around the world, and helped prompt naval buildups before World War I. Several ships were named USS Mahan, including the lead vessel of a class of destroyers. His research into naval History led to his most important work, The Influence of Seapower Upon History,1660-1783, published in 1890
salutary neglect
a term coined by British statesman Edmund Burke regarding the English colonies; idea that the colonies benefited by being left alone, without too much British interference
Betty Friedan
Author of The Feminine Mystique and the first president of the National Organization for Women.
Trickle Down Theory
Hoover's idea that the government should help the businesses (at the top) and the economic effects would eventually "Tickle down" and reach those at the bottom (workers)
Constitutional Convention
Meeting in Philadelphia in 1787 that produced a new constitution.
William McKinley
won the election of 1896 against Democratic William Jennings Bryan.-enacted a higher tariff-made gold the official standard of US currency.-during Spanish-American War he helped US become a world power.
Whig Party
Group stemmed from the old Federalist Party, the old National Republican Party, and others who opposed Jackson’s policies
- Cultivated commercial and industrial development
- Encouraged banks and corporations
- Cautious approach to westward expansion
- Support cam largely from Northern business and manufacturing interests and from large Southern planters
- Included Calhoun, Clay, and Webster
monarchy
supreme power or sovereignty held by a single person.
Moon Landing
(RN) 1957, Sputnik by Russia, US had Explorer I, and Neil Armstrong had Apollo 11
know-nothing party
the new immigrants in the U.S. began to pose a threat to the "natives" because of their unknown languages and cultures. Some feared that the foreigners would outnumber them and eventually overrun the country. This hostility rekindled the spirit of European religious wars, resulting in clashes between the Protestants and Catholics. Some nativities formed this party in New York called the "Order of the Star Spangled Banner". The members refused to indentify themselves and would say they know nothing. They were an anti-Catholic group, until it subsided and slavery became the focal issue. Immigrants were helping to form the U.S. into one of the most ethnically and racially diverse societies in the history of the world.
Economic coercion
cut off all trade with England and everyone else. Jefferson hoped this would force the English to come to his terms and stop stealing American sailors. This, however, did not work and greatly hurt American trade.
John Maynard Keynes
economic theory that FDR employed who argued that in a recession government should use deficit spending and expect to make up the lossesin good times through increased tax revenues.
Elizabeth Eckford
is one of the African American who first integrated Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, despite intense racist pressure to keep the school segregated.
30 Years' War
a) began w/ Defenestration of Prague, Bohemian Phase, Ferdinand II (HRE) makes Bohemia fully Catholic. B) Danish Phase- Albert of WSallenstein defeats Christain IV of Denmark, begins feuding w/ Catholic League, divided into factions now. C) Swedish Phase- Gustavus Adolphus (Protestant), ened Habsburg ambition of uniting all German states under Catholic Rule. D) French/International Phase- Richelieu helps Swedes, war drags on, ends in Peace of Westphalia.
Factory system
a system of mass production of goods in which production and workers are concentrated in one building making production more efficient and cheaper but also produced a lot of pollution
What was special about Homo Erectus people?
they walked upright
Great Western Schism
A division in the Latin (Western) Christian Church between 1378 and 1417, when rival claimants to the papacy existed in Rome and Avignon. (p. 411)
causes of the great depression
stock markets crashed, unemployment rising, the dust bowl, overproduction of everything, layoffs,buying on margin
foraging socities
composed of small groups of peole who traveled from point to point as the climate and availability of plants and animals dictated.
American Federation of Labor
Replaced Knight's grand visions with practical tactics aimed at bread-and-butter issues.
Warren G. Harding
August 2, 1923 - President Harding died and Vice President Calvin Coolidge took over.
Treaty Of Grenville
After their defeat at the Battle of the Fallen Timbers in 1794, 12 Native American tribes signed the Treaty of Grenville, which cleared the Ohio territory of tribes and opened it up to U.S. settlement
484. Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A pioneer in the women's suffrage movement, she helped organize the first women's rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. She later helped edit the militant feminist magazine Revolution from 1868 - 1870.
Republican Party (Democratic Republicans)
Emphasized state rights, and had a "strict" interpretation of the Constitution. This party preferred agriculture and rural life, being strong in the South and West. The stressed civil liberties and trust in the people, and sympathized with France in foreign policy.
Gamal Abdel Nassar
led a military coup in Egypt, made himself a Arab force
Gumpei wars
wages for 5 years from 1180 on Honshu between the Taira and Minamoto families; ended in destruction of Taira.
Compromise of 1833
Henry Clay reduces Tariff of 1832 by 10% over 8 years, Saving SC Statehood
1241. Second New Deal
Some thought the first New Deal (legislation passed in 1933) did too much and created a big deficit, while others, mostly the elderly, thought it did not do enough. Most of the 1933 legislation was ineffective in stopping the Depression, which led F. D. R. to propose a second series of initiatives in 1935, referred to the Second New Deal.
American Protective Association
A Nativist group of the 1890s which opposed all immigration to the U.S.
691. Compromise of 1877 provisions
Hayes promised to show concern for Southern interests and end Reconstruction in exchange for the Democrats accepting the fraudulent election results. He took Union troops out of the South.
lochner vs. new york (1905)
Supreme Court ruled that states could not restrict ordinary workers' hours
"Spirit of St. Louis"
was a custom airplane used by Charles Lindbergh to make the first solo, non-stop trans-Atlantic flight on May 20 and May 21, 1927. Charles Lindbergh took off from Roosevelt Airfield in Long Island, New York and made a successful touchdown at the Le Bourget Aerodrome in Paris, France. The flight lasted for 33 hours, 30 minutes and 29.8 seconds. 7: 1934-1941
Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria
The three ships Columbus used during his exploration
500. Supreme Court: Worchester v. Georgia
1832 - Expanded tribal authority by declaring tribes sovereign entities, like states, with exclusive authority within their own boundaries. President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling.
Tariff of Abominations (Or Tariff of 1828)
This tariff, passed during the presidency of John Quincy Adams, angered the South because it taxed them in order to help Northern industry.
1212. Works Progress Administration (WPA), Harold Hopkins, Federal Arts Project
The WPA started in May 1935 and was headed by Harold Hopkins. It employed people for 30 hours a week (so it could hire all the unemployed). The Federal Arts Project had unemployed artists painting murals in public buildings; actors, musicians, and dancers performing in poor neighborhood; and writers compiling guide books and local histories.
FDR's banking acts, the gold standard, and the SEC
Emergency banking relief act was the 1st act of fdr's 100 days, it provided funds 2 open sum banks and it combined/ liquidated others
Glass seagull banking act insured deposits in commercial banks, created the FDIC, % split commercial & investment bankin
The primary value of the New England Confederation lay in...
providing the first small step on the rd to intercolonial cooperation.
unremitting
nonstop
Zimmerman Note
1917
World War I
1914-1918
SCLC
-Southern Christian Leadership Conference
-churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr.
-urged followers not to fight authorities at any time
city state
city and surrounding farmland
1300-1200 BCE
Hebrews became Egyptian slaves
Toussaint L'Overture
Led Haiti slave rebellion
Hannibal
Carthaginian general during second punic war
Grimke sisters
were 19th-century American Quakers, educators and writers who were early advocates of abolitionism and women's rights.
Great Compromise
At the Constitutional Convention, larger states wanted to follow the Virginia Plan, which based each state's representation in Congress on state population. Smaller states wanted to follow the New Jersey Plan, which gave every state the same number of representatives. The convention compromised by creating the House and the Senate, and using both of the two separate plans as the method for electing members of each.
Continental
associated to two congresses. The first is in 1774 and the second is in 1775. They both take place in Philadelphia. the Continental Congress brought the leaders of the thirteen colonies together. This was the beginning of our national union.
Common Man
Was favored, and eventually enfranchised by Jackson and the Democrats
chinampas
Raised fields constructed along lake shores in Mesoamerica to increase agricultural yields.
The Portuguese viewed the Atlantic Ocean islands as the perfect location for the cultivation of
sugarcane
Manioc
cassava with long tuberous edible roots and soft brittle stems
Anne Hutchinson
after preaching antinomianism (if people are predestined, they should be able to commit any sin they want) he/she was charged with heresy and banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony.Fled to Rhode Island and then New York where she was killed by rebellious Native Americans
Zapotec:
society is oriented around central villages or towns and has an agricultural base
Chaldiran
Site of battle between Safavids and Ottomans in 1514; Safavids severely defeated by Ottomans; checked western advance of Safavid Empire.
Most SubSaharan African religions
monotheistic with lesser gods
Edict of Nantes
document that granted religious freedom to the Huguenots
Marshal Tito
Person who pursued the independence and rise of communism in Yugoslavia
Tecumseh
Shawnee chief who tried to united Native American tribes in Ohio and Indiana against encroaching white rule. Failed.
Natural law
general principles of law applicable to all societies; became a fundamental concept of the Roman empire's legal system, related to Stoic ethical theory.
Edward Bellamy
Wrote Looking Backwards, which helped nationalism
Liberal Democratic Party
Conservative political party that monopolized Japanese governments from 1955 into the 1990s.
Octavius
Part of the second triumvirate whom the power eventually shifted to. Assumed the name Augustus Caesar, and became emperor. Was the end of the Roman Republic and the start of the Pax Romana.
stamp act
legislation passed in 1765 but repealed the next year, after colonial resistance made it impossible to enforce
Stone Age
The historical period characterized by the production of tools from stone and other nonmetallic substances.
African americans made up ____ percent of the colonial population
20
heresies
1. religous practices that do not conform to the traditional chirch doctrine.
2. the church deemed them a threat.
Adolph Hitler
leader of the fascist National Socialist German Workers' Party (known as Nazis) in Germany called Der Fuhrer...the leader
Clinton Team
(WJC) first pres giving power position to women (H. Clinton = healthcare) and Gore = environment
lunar cycle
One of the principal means of establishing a calendar; based on cycles of moon; differed from solar cycles and failed to provide accurate guide to round of the seasons; required constant revision or intercalation.
Middle Ages-
was the period in western European history from the decline and fall of the Roman Empire until the 15th century.
Covenant Chain
A series of treaties between the Iroquois and the colonists. Under these treaties, the Iroquois helped the colonies subjugate Indians whose lands the English wanted.
Supreme Soviet:
Parliament under the U.S.S.R. that had many of the trappings but few of the powers of its Western counterparts.
Whiskey Rebellion
A small rebellion, that began in Southwestern Pennsylvania in 1794 that was a challenge to the National Governments unjust use of an excise tax on an "economic medium of exchange". Washington crushed the rebellion with excessive force, proving the strength of the national governments power in its military, but was condemned for using a "sledge hammer to crush a gnat."
Matthew Parry
American commodore who visited Edo Bay with American fleet in 1853; insisted on opening ports to American trade on threat of naval bombaradment; won rights for AMerican trade with Japan in 1854
Alliance for Progress
Economic cooperation between North and South America to stop Communism
Protective Traiff
first protective tariff - slow flood of cheap manufacturers to US market
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor who had little control over the hundreds of princes who elected him. It lasted from 962 to 1806.
resilient
able to return to an original form, recover quickly
Kansas-Nebraska Act
created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands, repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and allowed the settlers to decide whether or not to have slavery within those territories
Ibn Battuta
was a Moroccan scholar and traveller who is known for the account of his travels and excursions called the Rihla (Voyage). His journeys lasted for a period of nearly thirty years and covered almost the entirety of the known Islamic world and beyond, extending from North Africa, West Africa, Southern Europe and Eastern Europe in the West, to the Middle East, Indian subcontinent, Central Asia, Southeast Asia and China in the East, a distance readily surpassing that of his predecessors and his near-contemporary Marco Polo.
Germanic Tribes
From the beginning of the roman Empire, Germanic tribes settled on their northern borders. From 476 CE these tribes invaded Rome repeatedly, with little success. Only one Germanic tribe, the Franks, succeeded in occupying any Roman territory.
Macao
One of the 2 port cities where Europeans were permitted to trade with China during the Ming Dynasty.
Immigration Act of 1965
(LBJ) Established new immigration system that allowed more immigrants into the U.S.
Foraker Act of 1900
(WMc) Congress accorded the Puerto Ricans a limited degree of popular gov't and in 1917, granted then US citizenship. worked wonders in education, sanitation, transportation, + more
David G. Phillips
"The Treason of the Senate:; charged that 75 of the 90 senators did not represent the people but they rather represented railroads and trusts
which of the following weapons was NOT part of the arsenal of the mongol army under chingiss khan
chain mail
Vietnamese Declaration of Independence
Document drafted by Vietnamese after gaining independence from France and Japan
Virginia Dynasty
The last four of the Presidents from Virginia. (Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe) The people wondered if all of the presidents were going to be from Virginia. This "dynasty" ended in 1824.
Platt Amendment
Cuba was required to provide land for American bases, to pay back debts to the United States, to sign no treaty that would go against American interests, and to acknowledge the right of Americans to intervene at any time in Cuba to protect its interests.
Frederick Barbarossa
Ruler of the Holy Roman Empire; went on the third crusade but failed when he fell into a river and died.
Committees of Correspondence
organizations in each of the American colonies created to keep colonists abreast of developments with the British; served as powerful molders of public opinion against the British
Queen Anne's War
(1702-1713), second of the four North American wars waged by the British and French between 1689 and 1763. The wars were the result of the worldwide maritime and colonial rivalry between Great Britain and France and their struggle for predominance on the European and North American continents; each of the wars fought in North America corresponded more or less to a war fought between the same powers in Europe.
54th Massachusetts
first African American unit to fight a battle, to show the other soldiers that they could fight
Red Scare 1919
period of panic over communist threat. Inspired by Bolshevik revolution in Russia
Mesolithic (Middle Stone) Age
imrovement in tool and weapon making; domestication of animals (cows, pigs, sheep, goats); advances in sailing and fishing
The Jazz Singer
1927 - The first movie with sound; this "talkie" was about the life of famous jazz singer; Al Jolson.
6.6 League of Nations, 1919
After Paris Peace Conference is createed. Pre- United Nations. Prevent war through collective security and disarmment.
post classical trade networks
indian ocean trade: persians and arabs trade from persian gulf to w. india, bigger and safer ships led to bi-racial families
silk road: "east met west", china to med. sea, traded everything even religion
Hanseatic league: 100 city states established a trade monopoly equaling the middle class in europe
Us bank controversy
• Second recharter of us bank where political opponents of Andrew Jackson (henry clay) introduced bill to recharter the bank
• Country was divided on bank: south was against it
• Jackson killed bank, vetoed recharter, killed it by withdrawing all federal money and put it into pet banks
george washingtons sec of state
sec of state was thomas jefferson
The Toltec state collapsed by around 1175 because
civil conflict and nomadic incursion
Immigration and Nationality Act
(1965) This law made it easier for entire families to migrate and established "special categories" for political refugees. This act increased the amount of immigration.
international atomic energy agency (IAEA)
1. an organization that promotes the peaceful use of nuclear energy and discourages military use of nuclear energy for any purpose.
Battle of Bunker Hill (Breed's Hill)
At the beginning of the Revolutionary War, the British troops were based in Boston. The British army had begun to fortify the Dorchester Heights near Boston, and so the Continental Army fortified Breed's Hill, north of Boston, to counter the British plan. British general Gage led two unsuccessful attempts to take this hill, before he finally seized it with the third assault. The British suffered heavy losses and lost any hope for a quick victory against the colonies. Although the battle centered around Breed's Hill, it was mistakenly named for nearby Bunker Hill.
what made the construction of skyscrapers possible
invention of safe elevators and the discovery of a cheaper method of producing steel
: features, rationale, impact on Great Britain, impact on the colonies
The economic policy of Europe in the 1500s through 1700s. The government exercised control over industry and trade with the idea that national strength and economic security comes from exporting more than is imported. Possession of colonies provided countries both with sources of raw materials and markets for their manufactured goods. Great Britain exported goods and forced the colonies to buy them.
/ 392
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online