Pathology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
􀂾Staphylococcal infection (staph is everywhere)􀂾Originates in the bronchi or the bronchiolar mucosa and spreads to adjacent alveoli􀂾Bronchial inflammation causing airway obstruction leading to atelectasis with loss of lungVolume
􀂙“Black Lung” or “Miner’s Lung”􀂙From inhalation of coal dust or anthracite􀂙Collects in the walls of the respiratory bronchioles causing weakened musculature anddilatation.􀂙Deposits of anthracite cau
􀂾Left-sided = classic cardiomegaly = redistribution of pulmonary venous blood flow,interstitial edema, alveolar edema, and pleural effusions
Radiographic appearance• Harder to penetrate• Plate-like streaks• Elevation of ipsilateral (on the same side) hemidiaphragm• Displacement of the heart, mediastinum, and hilum toward the atelectatic segment
Viral infection in young childrenô€‚¾Inflammatory obstructive swelling localized to the subglottic portion of the tracheaô€‚¾Edema causes inspiratory stridor or a “barking cough”ô€‚¾Whistling or wheezing in inspiration and expirationô€
Chronic bronchitis, Emphysema, Asthma, and Bronchiectasis
Branch off respiratory bronchioles
alveolar ducts
􀂾Most commonly produced by viral and mycoplasmal infections (mycoplasma is a minuteorganism like a bacterium. microorganism of a genus considered to be the smallest knownliving cells. Some species cause respiratory diseases in animals and human
Interstitial pneumonia
• Thick-walled bronchi containing mucous and trapped air• Irregular thickening of the linear markings throughout the lungs• Hyperinflation of the lungs• Resembles severe chronic lung disease in adults
cystic fibrosis
Attacks lower respiratory tract and caused necrosis of respiratory epithelium of the bronchiand bronchioles = necrotic material and edema causes bronchial obstruction = interstitialPN
pressure in lungs decreases, volume increases, external intercostalmuscles cause ribs to elevate and the size of the chest cavity increases, and diaphragmgoes down when contracted
􀂾Late fall, winter, early spring (October-February)
a passive movement, ribs fall down, and diaphragm goes up
Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) Patients that have a variety of medical and surgical disorders but ______
no major underlying lungdisease.
Provides an alternative injection site and used for infusion of massive fluids
The ____ is located at the base of the tongue.
AsthmanDifficulty in expiration due to spasmodic constriction of the ______• Chronic, but treatable• Can be fatal with no treatment during attack• Sensitive to _____and ____
bronchi; emotional stress and allergens
respiratory system is controlled by the____
Controlled by a center in the medulla at the base of the brain
p. 227
Lactic Dehydrogenase
Cigarette smoke
Lungs, larynx,
Autosomal trisomies
p. 226
RBC's stack up
C1 esterase deficiency
types of hypothermia
trench foot

...Ab probes
viruses and rickettsia
Chronic metabolic disorder characterized by a gradual, marked enlargement and thickening of the bones of the face and jaw
Malignancies associated w/Down synrome
Too Numerous To Count
clear interstitial fluid containing less protein and overall fewer cells
CA-125 associated with what?
ovarian tumors
Mitral Insufficiency
232. Ruptured papillary muscle
multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown orgin; usually affects women more then men;
Excision of a synovial membrane
chromosomal problems. Variation in chromosome number involving one or a small number of chromosomes; commonly involves the gain or loss of a single chromosome
Ab-mediated; w/in minutes
acute transplant rejection;
"True Hermaphrodite (46
XX or 47
Angiosarcoma of the liver
"Vinyl vessel"
irregular, isolated, light colored elevated lesions that may appear "bubbly" or "shaggy"
congenital syphilis -notched incisors (Hutchinson teeth, also shows "snuffles", skin rash, anogenital plaques, periosteal inflammation with bony deformities (saber shins), corneal vascularization (interstitial keratitis), deafness, and meningit
melasma mask of pregnancy. brownish spots on face
Placenta Previa
Placental implantation over the cervical os (opening) or in the lower region of the uterine wall.
lichen planus: gross characteristics
erythematous to violaceous flat topped papules
lesions can have linear distribution
hypertrophic lichen planus has hyperpigmentation and hyperkeratotic lesions
Wickham's striae (visible white lines in lacy pattern) may be vissible in some papules
squamous _________ occurs in the trachea and bronchi of smokers
G6PDH Deficiency
260. Sex-linked chronic hemolytic anemia w/o challenge or after eating fava beans 261. Heinz Bodies appear in RBCs
•Most common kind of malignancy –Usually has cytologic features of malignancy •Nuclear enlargement and anisocytosis (different cells look different) •Abundant and abnormal (sometimes) mitotic figures •High nuclear : cytoplasmic ratio –These are general features. The specific rules vary with site and situation. –Most often metastasizes to regional lymph nodes; can metastasize hematogenously • –MOST IMPORTANT FEATURE IS INVASION!
Excessive water soluble vitamins in the body are eliminated from the ___
Abnormality in AA metabolism, deficiency of phenylalanine deaminase --> blocks conversion of phe to tyr. Can lead to mental & neurologic deterioration.
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
CD7 lymphoma type
earliest T cell specific
What is Hematoma
Blood in mm tissue
congregating together (areas of dense vs nondense cells)
Cluster C personalities
avoidant, obsessive compulsive, dependent
early stages of inflammation initiated by WHAT mediators
CHEMICAL CARCINOGENS: nitrosamines cause cancer in what organs?
esophagus or stomach
Purpura hemorrhagica antigen`
streptococcus equi m protein
"parakeratosis, saw-tooth rete ridges, chronic inflammation 'hugging' the overlying epithelium"
lichen planus
ECM proteins in angiogenesis
-MATRIX: thrombospondin
scaly solid raised area of closely spaced papules
define embolism
detached intravascular mass carried by blood away from origin
hypercalcemia: underlying cancer, mechanism
underlying cancer
squamous cell carcinoma of lung
breast carcinoma
renal carcinoma
adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma
ovarian carcinoma

TGF alpha
1. Abnormality in body function. Lack of homeostasis. A morbid process which threatens the well-being of an organism
2. A diseas is a physical event on the cellular level that produces injury, inflamation and repair.
The trachea is anterior or posterior to the esophagus?
319. Tabes Dorsalis = dec. joint position sensation, dec. pain sensation, ataxia, Argyl Robertson pupils 320. Syphilitic meningitis 321. Paretic neurosyphilis
Free Radicals
•Unpaired electron in outer orbital (such as •OH) •Major cause of cellular damage •Causes: –radiation –ischemia (and reperfusion) –toxins –inflammatory mediators (NO, HOCl in neutrophil respiratory burst via myeloperoxidase) –Iron can propagate free radicals •Degraded by glutathione, catalase, vitamins A, C, & E
elongation and thinning of tubular bones, most prominent in hands and feet
marfan syndrom
An immune complex vasculitis causing fibrinoid necrosis and thrombi in small to medium arteries more common in men:
polyarteritis nodosa
Chronic Lymphocytic LeukemiaSmallLymphoblastic Lymphomahistological appearance
- Lymphocytosis (>10K), anemia, thrombocytopenia.- Hypogammaglobulinemia- Peripheral: Small lymphocytes (slightly larger than normal resting lymphocytes) & smudge cells.- BM: diffuse or nodular inf. Small lymphocytes- LN: proliferation centers, randomly arranged
surgical breaking of an akylosed joint to provide movement
What phase is the presynthetic phase?
G1 phase
What is takayasu arteritis?
Pulseless disease. Granulomatous inflammation of the aortic arch.
gradual decrease in cognition with no change in level of consciousness, loss of abstract though, and impaired judgment; no psychotic symptoms
Bleeding Disorders: What is the deficiency in Hemophilia B?
Factor IX
Blood Dyscrasias-Beta-Thalassemia: Patient Presentation of Beta-Thalassemia major?
severe anemia requiring blood transfusion. Cardiac failure is often due to secondary hemochromatosis.
systemic delivery of antigen to sensitized mast cells
systemic anaphylaxis
Types of Plasma Proteases (3)
-Clotting system
-Kinin system
what type of tissue disruption results from a disease process
Usually occurs in 4th ventricle, peak incidence in childhood and adolescence.
Accumulation of fluid in the spaces of the brain.
pathology of trench foot
slow chilling causing vasoconstriction and increased vascular permeability
leads to edema and eventually tissue necrosis
WT-1 gene mutation associated with what cancers
Wilms tumor
breast cancer
What are the genotypic possibilities for a true hermaphrodite?
46,XX or 47,XXY
Mobitz II
119. BBB association. Often goes to 3rd degree AV block. Usually due to anterior MI.
Name the disease and etiologic agent in cattle.
Edema diseaseE. coli
What is the most reliable sign of malignancy?
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia epidemiology
85% of childhood leukemias15% adultsmostly b cells
A general term for many joint diseases that cause inflammation of the joint, usually accompanied by pain, swelling and, commonly, changes in structure
The coagulation cascade is a series of?
enzymatic conversions
HTLV-1 is associated with what cancer?
adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma
XlinkedNZ def: alpha-galactosidase Aaccum: ceramide trihexosidepresent: skin lesions (angiokeratomas) over lower trunk, febrile episodes, bruning pain, death early adult by renal failure
Calssic hemophilia (heomphilia A)
"Primary Brain Tumors-Adult peak incidence: Third most common tumor
often localized to CN8?"
MHC gene mutation
causes negative selection process for self-reactive T cells to fail
Characteristics of Acute inflammation
-Fluid and plasma protein exudation
-polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils)
what system controls the rythmic contractions of the heart
autonomic nervous system
Myelophthisic anemia
bone marrow failure due to marrow replacement (most often by malignant neoplasm)breast or prostate most common profound anemia, tumor cells in bone marrow aspirates, nucleated rbc and immature wbc seen in circulation.
2 alpha-synuclein positive degenerative diseases
Lewy body dementia and Parkinsons
Important morphological feature of mural thrombi
closely adherent to underlying wall
AA protein associated with what amyloidosis? with what disorder? chem. precursor protein?
reactive systemic amyloidosis (secondary amyloidosis) OR familial mediterranian fever
disease- chronic inflammatory conditions (only in secondary amyloidosis)
precursor- SAA 
Might there be a loss of function in metaplasia?
What kind of shunts cause late cyanosis?
L-to-R "blue kids"
Duret Hemorrhages
315. Severe inc. in ICP w/ downward diplacement of cerebellar tonsils into Foramen Magnum causing a compression on the brainstem w/ hemorrhaging into the pons & midbrain 316. Nearly always associated w/ death due to damage to the vital centers in these areas
Give the etiologic agent and resulting pathology in pigs.
Salmonella typhimurium, S. cholerasuisrectal stricture
Bladder carcinoma grade and stage
Grade based on polarity, crowding/overlapping, cytological atypia, pleomorphism, mitosis.Stage based on depth of invasion (muscularis propria) +/- mets
carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
A painful condition resulting from compression of the medial nerve within the wrist canal
What is Angiogenesis?
The process by which new capillaries are formed
how do steroids affect edema?
SSS - "steroids save sodium"; steroids such as aldosterone increase fluid retention by retaining sodium, which can lead to edema.
Paraneoplastic effects of tumors: Lambert-Eaton Syndrome
"Antibodies against presynaptic Ca2+ channels at NMJ
Characterized by persistent destruction and repair
May feature granulomas = Nodular collections of epithelioid MACROPHAGES and GIANT CELLS
agents that cause DTH reaction
mycobacteria, fungal infections and protozoans
function of vitamin D
maintains normal plasma levels of calcium and phosphate
a benign tumor arising from nerve sheaths that usually occurs on the tongue
granular cell tumor
4 cancer types associated with gonadotropin production
Adenocarcinoma of stomach, adenocarcinoma of pancreas, hepatocellular carcinoma, and malignant islet cell tumor of pancreas.
White infarcts occur under what conditions?
arterial occlusions
tissues with NO dual blood supply (ex: kidney)
in solid organs (firmness limit amount of hemorrhage into infarcted area)
ex: heart, spleen, kidney
Mechanism of proto-oncogenes being converted to oncogenes
mutation (usually somatic), but if in germ line, you get hereditary forms of cancer
chromosomal translocation- transfer of a portion of one chromosome to another chromosome, ex:
Burkitt's Lymphoma
follicular lymphoma trans. 14,18
mantle cell lymphoma trans. 11,14

gene amplification (increase in number of copiies of genes)- seen in neuroblastoma
What genitalia are present in testicular feminization syndrome?
female genitalia with rudimentary vagina; uterus and uterine tubes generally absent; develop testes (often found in labia majora; surgically removed to prevent malignancy)
Acute Cold Agglutinaiton
324. Abs to I blood group Ag. Mediated by IgM Abs 325. Complication of EBV or Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections
T cell lymphoma surface antigens that may be lost
CD2, CD3, or CD7
Cell injury results from abnormalities in one or more of these five cellular components:
1. Aerobic respiration, involving mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production
2.Integrity of the genetic apparatus
3. Protein synthesis
4.Intracellular cytoskeleton
5.Maintenace of cell membrane integrity
IS Hyperemia and (active/Inactive) process?
Active process from increased input into a tissue resulting in local increase in blood volume in a tissue
what are five major steps in pathogenesis caused by mediators released during septic shock?
1. myocardial dysfunction
2. vasodilation/hypotension
3. endothelial injury of microcirculation and lekuocyte aggregation
4. activation of the clotting system
5. lung, liver, kidney, and CNS failure
Blood Dyscrasias-Sickle Cell Anemia: What is the HbS mutation?
"Glutamate-->Valine in a Beta chain. Heterozygotes are usually malaria-resistant. *% of Af-Ams carry the HbS trait
Cytokines produced by TH2
IL-4: promotes IgE class swicth in B-cells and development of more Th2 cells; IL-5 promotes recruits and activates eosionophils while IL-13 causes mucus secretion by epithelial cells to enhance igE production
what are mitochondrial disorders?
a relative small number of diseases caused by alterations in the small cytoplasmic mitochondrial chromosome
describe the differences in differentiation btw the 2 neoplasms shown below
2 malignant neoplasms arising from glandular epithelial cells (adenocarcinoma) with the neoplasm on the left showing considerably more differentiation
histological changes in brain when infarction
ischemic injury cause liquefactive necrosis
complete digestion of necrotic cells
Mechanism of apoptosis proteins in oncogenes: example of role of BCL-2
BCL-2 on chromosome 18 brought to chromosome 14 (translocation)
this brings it under control of Ig heavy chain gene promotor on chrom. 14
causes overexpression of anti-apoptotic protein BCL-2
this will result in follicular B cell lymphoma
Name 5 congenital abnormalities in FAS?
(1) pre and postnatal developmental retardation (2) microcephaly (3) facial abnormalities (4) limb dislocation (5) heart and lung fistulas
Diffuse large B cell lymphoms clinical presentation
Rapidly enlarging massnode based, w/ 40% extranodal (GI, CNS, Bone)
What cells are involved in acute inflammation
PMNs, mast cells, platelets, macrophages, endothelial cells
median vs mean lifespan
Median life span is the midpoint at which half the studied population has died.
Mean lifespan is the average of the total of the life spans of the study group.
causes for decreased oncotic pressure = transudative edema
1) nephrotic syndrome (protein loss)2) cirrhosis of the liver (decreased protein syn)
How do retroviral infections cause immune suppression?
infect macrophages and CD4+ T lymphocytes to cause their death by direct cytotoxicity and apoptosis and bone marrow suppression for loss of B lymphocytes, PMNs and monocytes and thymic atrophy occurs for progressive infections and loss of CD4+ T cells causing immune exhaustion
what is a break in the bone that causes no disruption of the bone alignment
non displaced fracture
Role of stasis in developing thrombosis
w/o turbulence, major factor in venous thrombi
ex: aneurysms, mural thrombi
What are glycocalyx, fibronectins, and lecithins used for?
They're glue like secretions that aid in bacterial adherence.
Teratoma teratoma of the balls epid
Any age, pure forms common in infants, rare in adults, common in NSGCT
What are the 2 functions of the allosteric protein receptor?
Bind to ligand
Activate membrane cascade effect
what are the seven major things that protooncogenes (may) code for?
1. growth factors
2. competence factors (get cells in G0 and G1 for DNA synthesis)
3. progression factors (stimulate DNA synthesis in competent cells)
4. signal transduction proteins
5. second messenger/intracellular signalling proteins
6. transcription factors
7. cell cyclins

(take home message: these genes control cell growth and division)
Cri-du-chat syndrome: What is the mutation in Cri-du-chat syndrome?
"Congenital deletion of short arm of chromosome 5 (46
Prognosis of Oral SCC depends on
TNM: side of Tumor, whether lymph Nodes were involved, and whether Metastasis has occurred
What does the period of convalesence refer to in the clinical course of infection?
The patient being sick for a while
Outline the normal distribution of body water indicating: body compartments, consequences of fluid shifts, and normal mechanisms of homeostasis
Sixty percent of lean body weight is water; 2/3 is intracellular with the remainder being located in the extracellular space, mostly as interstitial fluid (only about 5% of total body water is in blood plasma). The opposing effects of vascular hydrostatic pressure and plasma colloid osmotic pressure are the major factors that govern fluid movement between the vascular and interstitial spaces. Either increased capillary pressure or diminished colloid osmotic pressure can lead to increased interstitial fluid (aka edema). Edema may also be caused by lymphatic obstruction and primary retention of sodium in renal disease
What is the paraneoplastic affect of leukemias and lymphomas?
can cause hyperuricemia due to excess nucleic acid turnover (cytotoxic therapy) - tumor lysis syndrome - can get gout and urate nephropathy
"PRIMARY BONE TUMORS: this is the most common benign bone tumor
usually in men younger than 25
Infarction is considered to be rCBF of what?
Less than 15-12mL/100G/min for more than a few minutes.
Deaths from cancer have does what in males and females?
plateaued in males but continue to increase in females
Genetic gender disorders: What is a Barr body and is it found kin Klinefelter's syndrome?
It is the inactivated X chromosome. Yes.
what is the appearance of and pathway to generate chronic congestive lesions in the lung, liver, or spleen?
- stasis of blood leads to chronic hypoxia
- this leads to degeneration/death of cells and rupture of blood vessels
- old hemorrhage may be present as hemosiderin-laden scars
Chemical/Physical damage
Caspases mediate...
P. 233
spitting of blood
Within Normal Limits
17q. Neurofibromatosis type 1
a wave
121. LA contraction
helps make DNA
vit B12
NZ: pnehylalanine hydroxylaseaccumulate phenylalanine and degradation productspresent: progressive MR, seizures, hpyeractivity, decreased pigmentation of hair (bonde, blue eyed), eyes and skin, mousy or musty body odor (phyenylacetic acid in urine and
Necrosis in blood vessels
Rb gene location
Chromosome 13
two types of cell injury
cancer of the stomach
Gastric carcinoma
enlargement in response to stimulus.Hormonal, chemical signaling, stress
seminoma gross
Gross: lobulated, circumscribed, gray-white, w/o necrosis/hemorrhage, replacing most/all of the testes (not penetrating tunica albuginea).
development of new blood vessels
restlessness, increased diuresis, muscle twitching
caffeine intoxication
X-linked or AR:: Cystic fibrosis
When a bomb goes off...
what is anaplasia
lack of differentiation
an apoptosis-promoting gene involved with p53
Swollen, twisted, varicose veins in the rectal region.
define bulla
large blister appearing as circumscribed area of separation of epidermis from subepidermal structure (subepidermal bulla) or 
circumscribed area of separation of epidermal cells (intraepidermal bulla) caused by presence of serum, and sometimes an injected substance
name given  to an individual's condition implies that the illness will follow a prescribed course
Cor Pulmonale
241. Right ventricular strain, associated w/ right ventricular hypertrophy
Philadelphia chromosome
translocation that causes genetic damage, characteristic of chronic myeloid leukemia; chromosomes 9 and 22; the hybrid has potent tyrosine kinase activity
____is essential during rapid cell division and growth; needed to make DNA and RNA and normal RBCs to prevent anemia
Vitamin ___ deficiency results in Pellegra (3 D's: dementia, diarrhea, dermatitis
Tubular Adenoma epid
75% of polyps, 60yoNeoplasticRectosigmoid colon.
An fluid containing unusually high level of protein and often contains blood and immune cells commonly caused by tumors, infections, and inflammation
chronic inflammation is characterized by tissue infiltration with
mononuclear cells
a greyish to black surface discoloration of the liver, kidney, abdominal or intestinal walls. In patches over extensive areas. Due to postmortem bacterial action on blood in the involved organs with the formation of hydrogen sulfides
iron-containing pigment - golden brown amorphous aggregates seen as a blue rxn on Prussian blue dye (small amounts normal in macs, marrow, liver and spleen)
Primary Brain Tumors-Adult peak incidence: Most common forms are prolactin-secreting?
"Pituitary Adenoma
Hypercalcemia due to PTHrP, TGF-beta, TNF, or IL-1
sperm production begins at what age
Heinz body
Haemolytic anaemia (surface bleb). Always pathological
Diabetes Insipidus
Inadwquate secretion or reistance of the kidney to the action of antidiuretic hormone. Watery urine and extreme thirst.
CGD (pathophysiology, genetics, clinical presentation, treatment)
pathophysiology- deficient NADPH oxidase, so no respiratory burst for WBC's
genetics- X linked recessive (also autosomal recessive)
clinical presentation
early childhood in most
widespread granulomatous lesion of skin, lung, lymph nodtes
IgG high, anemia, leukocytosis
defective killing of certain bacteria or fungi

intermitent continous antibiotic use
bone marrow transplant
possibly IFN therapy (under study)
What bacteria produces coagulase and is hemolytic?
Staphylococcus Aureus
what has more prognostic value? Grade or stage?
Caseation necrosis
179. Combination of both coagulation & liquefaction necrosis 180. Seen w/ M. tuberculosis & Histoplasma capsulatum infection
an excessive but focal overgrowth of cells native to the organ in which it occurs
is found in fortified breakfast cereals fish meats bananas beans and PB
Vit B6
Viscous, protein rich, seen in pus (high protein; spec. gravity > 1.02)
Gardners Syn.
Aut Dom.Have soft tissue tumors (fibromatosis, osteomas, lipomas) + adenomatous polyps. Similar to above in morph and prog.
Effusion of blood into a joint cavity
What is involved primarily in the fibrinolytic cascade?
is usually the result of impaired lymphatic drainage
chromosomal deletion syndromes, 4 examples
Prader-Willi, Smith-Magenis, Velocardiofacial, Williams
dx of lipid metabolism; Gaucher cells - enlarged histocytes w/ 'wrinkled tissue paper' cytoplasmic appearance*hepatosplenomegaly, erosion of femoral head of long bones, mild anemia, Goucher cells in liver, spleen, LN's an dmarrow; normal life span
Autosomal-dominant diseases: What are the clinical findings in Von-Hippel-Lindau disease?
hemiangioblastomas of retina/cerebellum/medulla; about half of affected individuals develop multiple bilateral renal cell carcinomas and other tumors.
Mets to liver
Mets >> Primary liver tumors
Leptospires and flarid worms migrate to eye=
accidently autoimmunity
any abnormal change that may take place in the body
T or F: pemphigus can be fatal.
Xeroderma pigmentosum, albinism
Melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and SCC of skin
Role of C3a,b and C5a
C5a- chemotactic
C3b- opsonin
Both increase vasodilation and permeability
small vessel vasculitis: microscopic polyangiitis (clinical signs/symptoms, prognosis)
remember, affects capillaries, arterioles, venules

clinical signs/symptoms

skin- leukocytoclastic vasculitis (purpuric rash: aka palpable purpura)
purpuric rash is distinguishing factor from Wegners and Churg-Strauss

kidney- glomerulonephritis (proteinuria, hematuria)
lung- pulm. capillaries hemoptysis
alveolar hemorrhage
inflam. of alveolar septal capillaries (capillaritis)

abdominal pain
muscle pain, weakness

prognosis- respond to steroids and cyclophosphamide
Endangerment site: Popliteal Fossa
Location: Posterior knee bodered Gastroc/Hamstrings
Sructures Involved: Tibial nerve, Popliteal Artery and Vien
What are subtractive diseases?
Early lung abcess, emphysema, pnemothorax
Secondary Sjorgen ‘s
287. Rheumatoid arthritis, SLE, or systemic sclerosis association 288. RA association shows HLA-DR4
anti-HBc IgM
present before onset of symp.; slowly replaced w/ anti-HBc IgG prioir to convalescence
causes brain atrophy as a result of the impaired conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine
essential thrombcythemia bone marrow appearance
BM- hypercellular, enlarged, dysplastic megakaryocytes
Lymphocyte rich hodgkins clinical presentation
peripheral adenopathyno b symptoms
What is hyperemia
an active process resulting from augmented tissue inflow because of arteriolar dilation, as in skeletal muscle during exercise or at sites of inflammation. The affected tissue is redder because of the engorgement of vessels with oxygenated blood
the reed-sternberg cell is
found in only hodgkin lymphomas
an abnormal mass of tissue, the growth of which exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of normal tissues and persists in the same excessive manner after cessation of the stimuli which evoked the change
Plasma proteins leak in or out after injury
Adult T-cell leukemia can be caused by what virus?
antibodies in circulation complex with glomerular self-antigens
Immune complex glomerulonephritis
this disease is characterized by bone deformity especially in long bones of the lower limbs, pelvis, lumbar vertebrae, and the skull
paget's disease
An SCC that is fixed to tissue
indurated ulcer
Wilm's tumor is what type of tumor?
Germinal cell
Oral Leukoplakia
White plaques or patches on the mucosa of the mouth.
pathophys. of carbon monoxide
binds Hb with much higher affinity than oxygen
this compromises O2 delivery to tissues, leading to hypoxia
called cherry red cyanosis (blood is still red, but you are hypoxic)
TF oncogenes: transcription activators (protooncogene, mode of activation, associated tumor
c myc
mode of activation- translocation
associated human tumor- Burkitt lymphoma

n myc
mode of activation- amplification
associated human tumor
small cell carcinoma of lung

l myc
mode of activation- amplification
associated human tumor
small cell carcinoma of lung
What are the clinical findings in Von-Hippel-Lindau disease?
hemiangioblastomas of retina/cerebellum/medulla; about half of affected individuals develop multiple bilateral renal cell carcinomas and other tumors.
If it is a hyperstehnic patient where will the kidneys be? Astehnic?
Higher, lower
Abnormal Storage Products
•Fatty change of liver –Common & nonspecific –See with: alcoholism, obesity, starvation, toxins •Glycogen accumulation –In liver in diabetes –In glycogen storage disease –In certain tumors •Lipid storage –Lipid storage disease - Fabry's - Gaucher's –In vessels in atherosclerosis
The 2 best known tumor suppressor genes are ___ & ___. Loss or mutation of these genes can lead to cancer.
p53, Rb-1 (retinoblastoma)
Leukamoid Reaction vs. CMLWBC countToxic PMNsBasophiliaNucleus RBCPlatelets
Leukemoid Reaction vs. CMLWBC: < 30K >30KToxic PMNs: Present AbsentBasophilia: Absent PresentNucleus RBC: Absent PresentPlatelets: Variable Increased
What activates antithrombin III
Binding to Heprin on endothelial cells
What are the two main causes of Emphysema?

More in the upper lobe suggest which?
Lower lobe?
a1-antitrypsin deficiency.

centrilobular type: the one more common in smokers
panlobular type: more common in late cigarette smokers or those with a1-antitrypsin def.
NZ: homogentisic oxidaseaccumulate homogentisic acidpresent: urine that turns dark and finally black on standing; ochronosis, dark pigment of fibrous tissue and cartialge
symptoms of CF (transmembrane conductance regular gene muation on chrom 7)
Cystic Fibrosis (CF): What is the molecular defect in CF?
Defective Cl- channel
antibody types that can induce type III reactions
IgG and IgM
what is klinefelter
it is male hypogonadism that occurs when there are two or more X chromosomes and one or more Y chromosomes
what is a small, round shadow seen in xrays of the lungs that may indicate TB, cancer or other diseases
tumor specific antigens (only on tumor cells) and tumor associated antigens (present on tumor and normal cells).
Spina Bifida Cystica with Meningocele
External protruding sac has CSF fluid.
small vessel vasculitis: prediliction for what vessles? clinical consequences
prediliction for small vessles like arterioles, capillaries, venules
leads to involvement of alveoli and glomeruli
Endangerment site: Posterior Triangel of the neck
Location: Bordered by SCM, Trapezius, Clavicle
Structures involved: Brachial Plexus, Subclavican Artery Brachiocephelic & External Juglar veins; Lymph nodes
The 2 ureters convey urine from where to where?
kidneys to bladder
3 Mediators involved w/ chemotaxis. (C5a, C3b leukotriene B4, interleukins)
C5a, leukotriene B4, interleukins (C3b - tags the cells for phagocytosis)
CD19, CD20 lymphoma type
marrow pre B; mature B (not plasma)
Origin and chief function of Vasoactive amines
Originate in cells (histamine-mast cells, serotonin-platelets) and cause vasodilatation of arterioles, increased venular permeability and contraction of smooth muscles.
mortality rate
ratio of the number of deaths to the population in which they occur. The mortality rate expresses the number of deaths in a unit of population within a prescribed time (death rate)
HLA A, HLA B, HLA C antigens - responsible for tissue graft regjection (A & B predict long term graft survival)
HLA-B27 assoc
Primary (AL)*L = Light chain (Bence-Jones)*Light chains derived from IgG*Seen w/multiple myeloma (bone)
Alzheimer's disease (APP)*APP= Amyloid precursor protiein*Derived from B-amyloid
what tumor means
term applied to the swelling causes by inflamation.
T or F: the area of the mouth with highest incidence of Oral SCC is the tongue
Paraneoplastic effect of Squamous cell lung carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, and breast carcinoma
-> PTH-related peptide, TGF-B, TNF, IL-1 -> Hypercalcemia
What determines internal injuries caused by firearms
the more kinetic energy lost, the greater the damage
due to tumbling action
Name 3 diagnostic characteristics of Duchenne MD.
(1) Pseduohypertrophy of calf muscles due to fibrofatty replacement of muscle (2) Cardiac myopathy (3) Use of Gowers' maneuver, requiring assistance of upper extremities to stand up - indicates proximal lower limb weakness
Which is NOT part of the Tetrology of Fallot? Ventricular septal defects, Atrial septal defects, Pulmonary artery stenosis, Right ventricular hypertrophy, Dextroposition of the aorta
Atrial septal defects
What are the possible fates of a thrombus
1. Propagation-complete vessel obstruction
2. Embolization-particularly lungs with venous emboli
3. Dissolution- by finrinolytic activity
4. Organization and recanalization- reestablishing vascular flow with thrombus as part of the vessel
What are psammoma bodies? What are the see in?
Laminated, concentric, calcific spherules seen in PSaMMoma
Papillary cancer of the thyroid
Serous cancer of the ovary
A young man on a date demands that he be seated at the best table in the restaurant, and consistently antagonizes the wait staff. When his date points out his poor manners, he becomes enraged and storms out of the restaurant.
Narcissistic [B]
Autosomal trisomies: What is the type and cause of the most common congenital heart malformation in Down syndrome?
Septum-primum-type ASD due to endocardial cushion defects
what is lysosomal storage disease?
is a deficiency of lysosomal enzyme that affects the breakdown of substrate leading to accumulation of in soluble metabolites within the lysosome
Clinical use of tumor markers
Since they are tumor associated and not tumor-specific they are useful for monitoring response to therapy (rather than for cancer screening).
What ar ethe characteristics of necrosis?
Fragmentation of the cell membrane and nucleus
TypeII Membrano Proliferative GN deposits
158. Only C3 deposits 159. Aka Dense deposit disease
Origins and chief functions of the complement system
Present as inactive plasma forms; activated to become proteases. Functions include MAC-induced cell lysis and changes in vascular permeability, chemotaxis, and opsonization. C3a and C5a stimulate histamine release. C5a is a powerful chemoattractant.
grossly, what is a common appearance of congested tissue and what is the term used to describe this appearance?
- it may appear red/blue/purple
- called cyanotic
Cystic Fibrosis (CF): What are the consequences of the defect in CF?
"The defective chloride channel causes secretion of abnormally thick mucus that plugs lungs
what determines rate of tumor growth
the doubling time of tumor cels
the fraction of tumor cells that are in the replicative pool
the rate at which cells are shed and lost in the growing lesion
Effect of elec. impulses pass through brain? thrugh heart?
if through brain, impulses from vital centers may be interrupted (resp., cardiac arrest)
through heart, cardiac arrest may cause death
T cell mycosis fungoides and sezary syndrome histological appearance
small t cells; initially forming mild perivascular infiltrates (pautrier's microabscess)Sezary cell (nucleus looks like a labyrinth)at transformation cells become large-CD4 subset
Once Thrombin is formed because of the enzymatic conversions what happens?
Thrombin converts the soluble plasma protein fibrinogen precursor into the insoluble fibrous protein fibrin
what is the surgical margin of a malignancy?
the perimeter of encompassing the entirety of malignant cells that must be removed to prevent recurrence of that malignancy
describe the condition demonstrated by the child
Fragile X syndrome - results from a trinucleotide (CGG) repeat expansion within the X chromosome (Xq27), which causes chromosomal breakage (size of repeat increases with new generation = anticipation = more severe) --> mental retardation, etc
What are the major determinants of the consequences of a vascular occlusion
1. The nature of the vascular supply
2. The rate of development of the occlusion
3. The vulmerability of a given tissue to hypoxia
4. The blood oxygen content
what is the major reason that injured or denuded vascular endothelium is prothrombotic?
it exposes the collagen on the basement membrane
What is the genetic defect in this disease?
deletion on chromosome 5 - 5 letters in polyp
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