Pathology 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Parenchyma/Storma
actinic
sunlight
ONCOGENES
P. 232
CPC
Clinicopathological conference
Dysplastic nevus
Malignant melanoma
5a-reductase deficiency
p. 227
Hallmark of inflammation
exudate
sialo-
salivary glands, saliva
Role of fibrinopeptides
vascular permeability
chemotaxin
...acid fast stain
mycobacterium, nocardia
subluxation
partial or incomplete dislocation
X-linked or AR:: Fabry's
X-linked
Types of Acute inflammation
-Fibrinous
-Phlegmonous
-Suppurative
macule
discolored flat spot <1 cm
definition of vasculitis
inflammation of bv's
HbF inc.inc.
262. Sickle Cell Anemia
Microscopic features of hyperplasia, atrophy, hypertrophy, fatty change, cloudy swelling, and pynosis
*
phantom limb
Perceived sensation, following amputation of a limb, that the limb still exists
anthracosis
form of pneumoconiosis involving carbon in the lung
NZ: mm phosphorylaseaccumulate glycogenpresent: painflul mm cramps and mm weakness following excercise
Galactosemia
Autosomal-dominant diseases: What is the cure for hereditary spherocytosis?
splenectomy
Prostatic acid phosphatase
CEA may indicate...
Characteristic lesion of minor apthae
ulcer
describe
Muscular Dystrophy - Histologic examination reveals loss of muscle fibers with fibrosis - 2ndray to deficiency in dystrophin (a cytoskeletal protein necessary for normal muscle function) located on the X chromosome.
Another name for Spur cell
Acanthocyte
Hypospadias
Congenital abnormality in which the amle urethral opening is on the undersurface of the penis, instead of its tip.
Name the chronic inflammatory dermatoses
psoriasis
lichen planus
SLE
breast, ovarian, and gastic carcinomas all have this oncogene mutation in common?
erb B2
Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
Inolved in Vision relay
LUNG
CYSTIC CAVITY IF MANY ADJECENT ALVEOLI ARE LOST-EMPHYSIMAIF IT HAPPENS IN THE BRONCHIOLES BOOP (BRONCHIOLITIS OBLITERANS OBSTRUCTIVE PNEUMONIA)
organic compounds essential for normal phsicologic and metabolic function
vitamins
Which lipid storage disease results from a deficiency of beta glucosidase? Tay Sachs, Gaucher's, Neimann Pick, Fabry's
Gaucher's
Gastroschisis
failure of development of anterior abdominal wall, gut NOT covered by peritoneal membrane.
What do corticosteroids affect?
Affect collagen formation
biliverdin
intermediary product in formation of bilirubin - a bile pigment
***progressive loss of body mass accompanied by weakness, anorexia, anemia
cachexia
if response chronic or granulomatous you will see
macrophages
Coarctation of aorta: What pulses should you check on physical exam?
Femoral
IF FAD puritic or non-pruritic?
very pruritic
Verrucous carcinoma are (red/white) lesions that expand _______
white, laterally
Papillary cystadenoma
Adenomatous papillary processes that extend into cystic spaces, as in cystadenoma of the ovary
hematoma
swelling of clotted blood trapped in tissues
Periodontal Disease
Inflammation and degeneration of gums, teeth and surrounding bone.
medium sized vessel vasculitis: Kawasaki disease (epidemiology, arteries involved, tx)
epidemiology
childhood and infants
far more common in Japan than in US
acute febrile illness

artery most frequently involved (affects everything from large to small arteries)
coronary A: cause coronary thrombosis, aneurysm, MI, sudden death
NO assoc. glomeruloneph. or pulm. disease

tx- IV Ig's
Endangerment Site: Eyes
Stucture Involved: Cornea, retina, optic nerve
inflammation of the mucosa of the stomach
Gastritis
Keratomalacia
292. Severe Vit A deficiency. See Bitot’s spots in the eyes = gray plaques = thickened, keratinized ET
Cells in acute inflammation
•Mast cells •Neutrophils •Endothelium
abnormally small head in relation to the body with associated underdevelopment of brain
microcephaly
Hypertrophic scar composed of type 3 collagen (result from defective remodeling of scar tissue.
Keloid
Chronic Lymphocytic LeukemiaSmallLymphoblastic LymphomaClinical presentation
- Often asymptomatic- Fatigue- Anemia, infections- Hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy- Hypo-gammaglobulinemia- WBC 10K – 300K
ankylosis
stiffening and immobility of a joint as a result of disease, trauma, surgery, or abnormal bone fusion
Define Resolution
Removal of tissue debris and inflammatory cells, drainage of fluid, and mild proliferation of intact parenchymal cells
What is atherosclerosis?
deposition of fatty plaques (artheroma)
the evolution, over time, of a phenotypically diverse population of neoplastic cells
progression
When released from lysosome these enzymes are damaging
neutrophil enzymes
Neural Tube Defects (NTD): Which NTD is involved with herniation of meninges through spinal canal defect?
Meningocele
ac-fast bacteria that exist widely in nature
Mycobacteria
Vasoactive amines
Histamine: mast cells basophils and platelets
-causes aretiolar dilation
-principle mediator of the immediate phase of increased vascular permeability
what type of tissue disruption results from a injury due to traumatic events
traumatic
3 oncogene-related nuclear proteins
myc, fos, and myb
Ectopic Prenancy
Implantation of the fertilized egg in any site other than the normal uterine location.
immediate changes after death
breathing cease
heart stop, no pulse
pallor (cessation of circulation)
muscles begin to relax
body fluids released
gastric conntents
urine, semen
feces

blood begins to coagulate
Assuring correct dx and classification of tumor requires evaluation of information from what sources?
clinical history
phy examination
radiological imaging
lab tests
examine tissue
Is there a Barr body in Turner's syndrome?
No
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis deposits
160. IgM & C3 deposits
Give a morphologic diagnosis & disease in dog.
Peyer's patch necrosisparvovirus
B12 deficiency leads to :
anemia, fatigue, weakness, constipation, loss of appetite, weight loss, neurological changes, difficulty maintaining balance, depression, confusion
Acute myeloid leukemia histological appearance
Hypercellular marrow, monomorphic blastsmyeloblasts have delicate chromatin prominent nuclei, fine granules in the pale cytoplasm auer rods
hypotonia
Loss of muscular tone or a diminishing resistance to passive stretching
What is another name for a blood clot?
Thrombus
What is the condition associated with a berry aneurysm?
subarachnoid hemorrhage
amniotic fluid emboli
escape of amnion into maternal circulation... activates DIC, can cause maternal death
Hodgkin's: What factors denote a good prognosis?
"Increased lymphocytes
Visceral malignancy, esp. stomach cancer
Acanthosis nigricans = Hyperpigmentation and epidermal thickening (stratum spinosum)
Subcellular responses to injury
Responses associated with distinctive alterations in cell organelles or cytoskeleton
any illness is one that lasts weeks, months, years, or even lifetime
chronic
Plummer-Vinson Syndrome
Fe deficiency is associated with a partially obstructing upper esophageal web and dysphagia
Name 4 RNA viruses
Murine and avian sarcoma, leukemia-mammary tumors, hep. C, and human T-cell leukemia virus.
Mechanism of organization of thrombus
infiltration by macrophages and fibroblasts
results in fibrosis
AL protein associated with what amyloidosis and what disease? chemical precursor
amyloidosis- immunocyte dyscrasias with amyloidosis aka primary amyloidosis
diseases- multiple myeloma and other monoclonal B cell prolif.
precursor- Ig light chain, mainly gamma
Which type of necrosis is when the cell undergoes extensive autolysis caused by the release of lysosomal hydrolases, proteinases, DNAses, lipases. etc.) It is classically seen in the spleen and brain following ifarctions?
Liquefecation Necrosis
Name 7 common congenital malformations
(1) Heart Defects (congenital rubella) (2) Hypospadias (3) Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (4) congenital hip dislocation (5) spina bifida (6)anencephaly (7) pyloric stenosis (associated with polyhydramnios & projectile vomiting)
Left Circumflex branch
236. Branch of the Left Coronary artery 237. Occlusion = MI of posterior/lateral wall of the LV
Name the lesion & the etiologic agent in dogs.
intestinal crypt necrosisparvovirus
Hypertrophic Gastropathy appearance
enlargement of rugal folds of gastric mucosa
hairline fracture
A minor fracture in which all portions of the bone are in perfect alignment
What type of collagen is thin, immature collagen?
Type III Collagen
Robertsonian translocation results when:
the long arms of two acrocentric
chromosomes (13, 14, 15, 21, 22) fuse at the centromere and the two short
arms are lost.
NHL: Which type is associated with a t(8;14) c-myc gene mutation?
"Burkitt's Lymphoma
Napthalene (aniline) dyes can cause...
Transitional cell carcinoma (bladder, ureters, renal pelvis)
How many flea bites does it take to incite the skin disease?
one
characteristics of turner syndrome
most common sex abnormality in females, females suffer from amenorrhea and streak ovaries,
broad chest widely spaced nipples, short stature
An invasive SCC that appears as a red patch
erythroplakia
Main cause of Neoplastic Cushing's Syndrome
Smalle cell lung carcinoma
Prognosis of medium sized PE
if normal CV function
usually no infarct due to blood supply from bronchial A.

compromised CV function
may infarct
Def. tumor markers and where detected
def.- biochemical indicators of presence of a tumor (ex: cell surface Ag's, hormones, proteins)
can be detected in plasma, serum, body fluids
What are the average cholesterol levels in heterozygotes and homozygotes with familial hypercholesterolemia (tyype IIA)?
"heterozygotes (1:500) - 300 mg/dL
Penicillin Resistant PID
314. PID is usually due to N. Gonorrhoeae, but if unresponsive to penicillin think of Bacteroides species
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma epidemiology
Most common lymphomaadults ~60, Mchildren possible, aggressive
What causes oxygen deprivation?
1. Ischemia (loss of blood supply).
2. Inadequate oxygenation (eg cardiorespiratory failure).
3. Loss of oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood (eg anemia, carbon monoxide poisoning)
List the major characteristics important to the recognition and function of Mast cells
Contain large blue granules with histamine, the release of which causes vasodilation, increased venule permeability and contraction of smooth muscles. Like basophils, but are in the tissue. Considered sentinel cells.
***what is the greatest risk factor for cancer and what are some causes of this risk factor?
Immunocompromised individuals

- AIDS, FeLV
- corticosteroids
- degenerative diseases
- age
"Lymphomas: Hodgkin's Versus NHL: Which one is localized to a single group of nodes
with contiguous spread and rare extranodal involvement?"
Examples of Type IV hypersensitivity:
Type I diabetes mellitus, contact sensitivity dermatitis, multiple sclerosis and transplant rejection
how are tumors formed?
they are formed by the clonal expansion of a single precursor cell that has incurred the genetic damage
warm ab autoimmune hemolytic anemia
IgG autoantibodies that are activated at 37C,spherocytosis, gives positive direct coomb's test, secondary to diseases like SLE, Hodgkin or non hodgkin.
What are the cellular changes in irreversible cell injury?
Plasma membrane blebs, increased intracellular volume, swelling and calcification of mitochondria, aggregation of cytoskeletal elements, disaggregation of ribosomes, dilation of ER cisternae, chromatin condensation (pyknosis), and progressive fragmentation of chromatin (karyorrhexis and karyolysis)
Epstein barr virus implicated in what cancers
African Burkitt lymphoma
B cell lymphoma in immunosup.
nasopharyngeal carcinoma
Name 4 characteristics of Turner's syndrome
(1) Short stature (2) Ovarian dysgenesis (streak ovary) (3) Webbing of next (4) Coarctation of the aorta
squamous cell carcinoma of esophagous gross appearance
3 types fungating exophytic massflat, diffuseulcerated, eroding mass (nearby vessels!)
What are the potential outcomes of acute inflammation
Complete resolution, healing by connective tissue replacement (fibrosis), or progression to chronic inflammation
which chromosomes can participate in robertsonian translocation?
13-15, 21, 22 (the acrosomal chromosomes)
mech: Ab's react w/ endogenous antigens -> direct damage --> complement mediated increased phagoyctosis or Ab'dep cytotoxicityex: warm Ab-autoimmune hemolytic anemia, hemolytic dx of NBs, goodpasture syn; graves dx
Type III hypersensitivity (immune complex)
in horse with reoccuring bouts of hemorrhage and anemia, what pigment would you expect to find accumulating in macrophages?
hemosiderin indicating previous bouts of hemorrhage
which type of tissue repair results in the original structure and function of the cell is not restored
fibrous connective tissue repair
Location of SVT, what it could cause
location- usually in saphenous system, especially when there are varicosities (dilation of veins)
may cause:
pain
tenderness
local congestion and edema distal to point of obstruction
predisposition of overlying skin to:
infections from slight trauma
development of ulcers
What do the sweat glands use a mixture of that inhibits many microbes on the skin?
salt and fatty acids
Which is not a main cause of edema? (Increased intravascular/hydorstatic pressure, increased permiability of vessel wall, increased oncotic pressure/increased albumin, decreased oncotic pressure/reduced albumin, sodium retention, obstruction of lymph flo
increased oncotic pressure/increased albumin
Edema is a result of what 2 things?
1) Increase Hydrostatic pressure
2) Decrease osmotic pressure
what is the ras/c-ras (proto)ongogene?
- ras is a normal protooncogene that regulates kinases that regulate GF production and DNA synthesis
- c-ras, the mutated form of ras, lacks a critical GTPase activity, and thus continually signals DNA synthesis and GF release
Hereditary Spherocytosis: How is it confirmed and tested?
"Will be Coombs' negative (unlike warm antibody hemolysis)
Most cases of verrucous carcinoma are found in patients who habitually
use smokeless tobacco ~ "spit tobacco"
What is the most common type of epithelial metaplasia?
columnar cells being replaced by squamous epithelium
List the major features of an anemic (white) infarct
Occurs with arterial occlusions in solid organs with end-arterial circulation (i.e.-heart, spleen, and kidney). The solidity of tissue limits the amount of hemorrhage that can seep into the area of ischemic necrosis from adjoining capillary beds.
What are the top 2 morbid cancers in men?
1) lung (33%)
2) prostate (13%)
Autosomal trisomies: What is the life expectancy in Patau's?
Death usually w/in 1 year of birth
Some/7 random carcinogens fo yo ass.
Aflatotoxin B1, hep. B and C, H. pylori, vinyl chloride, asbestos, chromium, nickel, and insecticides.
the principle fxn of the MHC molecules is
to bind antigens for presentation to select immune effector cells
Intrinsic pathway in a nut shell
XII (Hageman factor) --> XI --> IX --> Xa converts prothrombin to thrombin*PTT, measures II, V, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII and fibrinogen
what are the five basic steps in normal hemostasis?
1. damage to blood vessels leads to brief vasoconstriction
2. exposure of collagenous vessel valls causes adhesion and activation of platelets, which change shape and release mediators. This recruits more platelets to temporarily plug the hole. PRIMARY HEMOSTASIS
3. the release of tissue factors causes the release of thrombin, which polymerizes fibrinogen to fibrin at the clot site. SECONDARY HEMOSTASIS
4. Polymerized fibrin and platlets bind together to form a clot
5. clot is removed during healing
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