Pathology Quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
albinism
AR
N-myc
Neuroblastoma. Oncogene
Factitious disease
*
reticulo-
network, net-like
ADR of aspirin
gastritis
hemorrhage
Characteristics of neoplasia
excessivepurposelesspersistentirreversibleautonomous
Coagulative
Necrosis in liver
PT
Extrinsic + common
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
p. 229
promoters
non-carcinogenic chemicals that augment the actions of chemical carcinogens
a transudate
contains little protein
Free radical neutralization
Enzymes:CatalaseSuperoxide disumtaseGlutathione peroxidase
Koilonychia
spooning of the nails
Apoptosis
Cell shrinkage, nuclear shrinkage, pyknosis (basophilia), membrane blebbing, pyknotic nuclear fragmentation (karyorrhexis), nuclear fading (karyolysis), and formation of apoptotic bodies, which are then phagocytosed. No significant inflammation.
TUMOR STAGE VS. GRADE
P. 231
...giemsa stain
campylobacter, leishmania, malaria plasmodium
Intermittent attacks of chest pain
Angina
Congestion is and (active/passive) process from decreased outflow from a tissue resulting in local increase in blood volume in a tissue
Passive
aplasia
rudimentary nodule of tissue representing organ, but it never developed into functioning organ
Transposition of great vessels: Transposition of the great vessels is a common congenital heart disease in offspring of mothers with what disease?
Diabetes
Malignancies associated w/postsurgical gastric remnants
Gastric adenocarcinoma
body attacks self antigens
autoimmune disease
describe
urticaria pigmentosa, a condition characterized by increased numbers of mast cells in the skin.
BRCA1
17q. Breast and ovarian cancer. Suppressor
Most common predisposing factor for arterial thrombi
atherosclerosis
Lymph system (9)
edema, lymphangitis, lymphoma, mononucleosis, allergic reactions, chronic fatigue syndrome, fever, lupus, HIV/AIDS
large number or out-pouching in weakened area of bowels
Diverticulosis
cellulitis
spreading inflamm. of subcut. or CT
Sequence in the formation of adhesion
*
________ Necrosis - Small vessels; Systemic Lupus
Fibrinoid
COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease), Chronic lung disease (cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, interstitial fibrosis), & recurrent thromboemboli can cause _____ ______ (a condition of the hear)
Cor pulmonale
Ewing sarcoma
Malignancies that develop from primitive nerve cells in the bone marrow and usually affects the shaft of long bones
warthin's tumor is seen almost exclusively in the _______ gland
parotid
caspases
family of cysteine proteases. Have specificity for asparate residues. Present as proenzymes and are activated by proteolytic cleavage. Autoactivation via aggregation, creating a cascade of activation. Act on a variety of substrates (regulatory & structureal proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, nuclear lamins). Activate CAD by cleaving CAD-ICAD complex leading to the cleavage of DNA
CNS depression, nausea, vomiting, constipation, pinpoint pupils, seizures
Opioid intoxication
TUMOR SUPRESSOR GENES: osteosarcoma is associated with what tumor supressor gene mutation
Rb
Mechanisms of chronic inflammation
Mononuclear cell mediated
TH2 role
stimulate IgE and promote inflammation
Thrombophlebitis
Inflammation of veins with thrombus formation
Where would clear cells carcinoma be?
kidney
Tuberous sclerosis (facial angiofibroma, seizures, mental retardation)
Astrocytoma, angiomyolipoma, cardiac rhabdomyoma
histopath of 3rd degree burn
coagulative necrosis
collagen hyalinization
carbon often deposited on surface
Define vesicle
small circumscribed elevation of skin containing fluid
Most common cause of obstruction in child < 1 yr
Rare in adults
US: Sausage shaped
Intussusecption
Cleft Lip
418. Incomplete fusion of maxillary prominence w/ median nasal prominence
Marble Bone Disease 3
57. Osteoporosis: Albers-Schonberd Disease = inspite of inc.d bone density, many fractures = dec. osteoclasts
Give a morphologic diagnosis and etiologic agent in pigs.
polyserositisE. coli
Which one does NOT belong in Virchow's triad? Endothelial injury, Alteration of flow (stasis or turbulance), Hypocoagulability, Hypercoagulability
Hypocoagulability
carcinoid pathogenesis, histo appearance
Enterochromaffin cells produce increased tryptophan metabolites --> serotonin, bradykinin, histamine, prostaglandins. Cells are in nests, of glandular appearance.
pneumonia
Any inflammatory disease of the lungs that may be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, or even chemicals commonly characterized by chest pain, mucopurulent sputum, and spitting of blood.
the most colonic _____ are small, flasklike or spherical outpouchings, usually .5-1cm in diameter. 95% of these pouches are in the _____ colon
diverticuli
sigmoid
autolysis
breakdown of tissues after the death of animal
fever, rash, hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice (principle target organs include: liver, skin and GI mucosa)
X-linked agammagloculinemia of Bruton
"HEMATOLOGIC PATHOLOGY: Patient with normal TIBC
increased serum iron
Types:*Coagulative (Heart, liver, kidney)--tons of blood in all of these organs
*Liquifactive (Brain)*Caseous (TB)*Fat (pancreas)*Fibrinoid (blood vessels)*Gangrenous (limbs, GI)
with transfusion reaction massive destruction or RBCs occurs leading to
hemoglobinemia and hemoglobinuria
Causes of cell injury
_lack of oxygen
-physical agents
-chemical agents and drugs
-infectious agents
-immunologic reactions
-genetic derangements
-Nutritional imbalances
Commonly arise after tooth extraction - caused by bone fragment or calculus left in socket
epulis granulomatosum
Streptolysin O
Lyses RBCs, WBC’s; highly antigenic (basis for ASO titer)
Esophageal varices
Swollen, varicose veins at the lower end of the esophagus.
Chemicals that cause local necrosis and their nature and mechanism of action (hint: based on pH)
 
corrosives
strong acidswithdrawal water
char the mucosa

alkalisliquify tissue penetrating deeply
leads to:
hemorrhage
ulcerations
perforations
pemphigus foliaceus: microscopic features
acanthlysis of granular layer or subcorneal, but can be subtle (subcorneal sep.)
neutrophils, some eosinophils cmay accumulate in blister cavity
mild to moderate eosinophilc exocytosis
immunofluorescence shows intercellular IgG and C3 deposits through full thickness of epidermis in majority of cases
what is a benign tumor of skeletal muscle called?
rhabdomyoma
Autosomal Recessive Diseases
391. Tay-Sachs 392. Gaucher’s 393. Niemann-Pick 394. Hurler’s 395. Von Gierke’s 396. Pompe’s 397. Cori’s 398. McArdle’s 399. Galactosemia 400. PKU 401. Alcaptonuria
which diseases replicate efficiently and lyse host cells
rhinovirus, influenzavirus, yellow fever, polio, rabies
What type of necrosis would an abcess produce?
*
Abrupt onset of right ventricular dilatation due to a massive pulmonary embolism
Acute cor pulmonale
ulcerative colitis micro appearance
Micro: crypt abscesses -> ulcerations, mucosa only, never transmural (toxic megacolon – ulceration destroys the muscle layer, and no peristalsis occurs). Walls might be fibrotic, pseudopolyps, higher carcinoma risk, decreased mucus production
Cystic Fibrosis
A hereditary disorder of the exocrine glands that causes the body to secrete extremely thick (viscous) mucus. This mucus clogs ducts of the pancreas and digestive tract.
What are the Ascites (hydroperitoneum)
Fluid in the abdomen
choristoma
tissue growing @ same rate as other similar tissue but is in location that it doesn't belong.
T-cell mediated; w/in days to weeks
chronic transplant rejection:
Autosomal-dominant diseases: What is the genetic defect in achondroplasia?
Autosomal dominant cell-signaling defect of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor 3.
IFA for which Ig is strongly positive in SLE indicating that deposit is an immune complex
IgG
example of x linked disorders
duchenne muscular dystrophy,
hemophilia A and B,
Agammaglobulinemia
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
Fragile X syndrome
Leukedema is particular prominent in what ethnic group?
African Americans
describe liver histology
Cirrhosis - nodules of regenerating hepatocytes surrounded by bands of collagen fibrosis.
Chronic renal insufficiency
Burr cells, low platelets, low lymphocytes
Chromattin pattern: apoptosis vs. necrosis
apoptosis- peripheral crescent like chromatin condesation
necrosis- peripheral chromatin clumping
Clinical use of tumor markers
confirm dx
aid in tumor staging
determine response to therapy or presence of recurrent disease
What do you call a normal flora organism that is not pathogenic but becomes pathogenic after it is innoculated in the wrong place or the host becomes weakened and immunocompromised?
oppurtunistic infection
Why do an upright post void?
nephroptosis, retention, fallen trigone
diagnosis of HBV by Ab response
antiHBs(detectable late in convalesc.,indicates immunity), antiHBe(detectable as replication falls, indicates low infectivity), core IgM(rises early in infection, indicates recent infect.), core IgG(rises soon after IgM, present for life
Which one is NOT a Multiple polyposis syndrome (very high malignant potential): Entamoeba histolytica, Gardner syndrome, Familial polyposis, Turcot syndrome
Entamoeba histolytica
Extranodal MALT B cell lymphoma surface antigens
CD5-; CD10-; CD23-CD19+; CD20+
What is septic shock
Peripheral vasodilation and pooling of blood; endothelial activation/injury; leukocyte-induced damage; disseminated intravascular coagulation; activation of cytokine cascades. With a 25% to 50% mortality rate, ranks first among the causes of mortality in intensive care units and is estimated to account for over 200,000 deaths annually in the United States. Most cases of septic shock (approximately 70%) are caused by endotoxin-producing gram-negative bacilli. Endotoxins are bacterial wall lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) that are released when the cell walls are degraded (e.g., in an inflammatory response)
hypoxic death of cells in the central nervous system produces
liqeufactive necrosis
young woman prefers to date older men because they tend to take care of her and serve as a father figure that she can be submissive to; she has very low self esteem
dependent [C]
DIC: What are the lab findings in DIC?
"Increased PT
name of the cell characteristic in TB:
Langhans giant cell
Outcomes of Acute inflammation
-Complete resolution in tissue capable of regeneration
-Incomplete resolution (fibrosis or scarring)
-Progression to chronic inflammation
what is the most important cause of cancer of the lung
smoking tobacco
Clinical findings of megaloblastic anemia
insidious onset,lemon yellow skin, stomatitis and glossitis, spinal cord degeneration and neurological abnormalities.
Dermoid cyst
A dermoid cyst is a cystic teratoma that contains developmentally mature skin complete with hair follicles and sweat glands, sometimes luxuriant clumps of long hair, and often pockets of sebum, blood, fat, bone, nails, teeth, eyes, cartilage, and thyroid
pathophys. of third degree burns
neurogenic shock, loss of plasma, leading to hypovolemic shock, infection
causes endotoxic shock
hemolysis leading to nephrosis and stress ulcers (Curling ulcers)
Psoariasis: where in body commmonly seen
extensor surfaces of the:
extremities
knees
elblows
scalp
lumbosacral areas
sacral area

nails (cause nail pitting, onycholysis)
when it involves flexural, intertriginous areas = inverse psoriasis
What disease is responsible for a colon that ecomes covered with adenomatous polyps after puberty?
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)
Name the disease & lesion in pigs.
Porcine intestinal adenomatosis complexNecrotic enteritis
Chronic Peptic Ulcer Disease pathogenesis
Associated with chronic gastritis and H.pylori.Duodenum – ant/post wall 1st seg, 2nd segStomach – antrum, lesser curvature.Meckels, lower esophagus, anastomatotic ulcers.Duodenal Ulcers: hypersecretion of acid & pepsin (~parietal # ↑, or hypersensitivity of parietal cells), rapid gastric emptying.Gastric Ulcers: NOT associated with increased acidity, mucosal damage via billiary reflux, H ions implicated, + shunting of mucosal blood flow.
State the role of hyaluronic acid
Helps provide resilience and lubrication to many types of CT, notably for the cartilage in joints.
What type of collagen is Strong mature collagen?
Type I Collagen
Is opioid overdose life-threatening?
Yes. It can cause respiratory depression and seizures.
Autosomal-dominant diseases: What sequelae are associated with adult polycystic kidney disease?
(1) polycystic liver disease (2) berry aneurysms (3) mitral valve prolapse
clonal deletion by activation-induced cell death
CD4 T cells that recognize self-antigens receive signals to undergo apoptosis via Fas ligand system
persons exposed to asbestos have how many times the risk of developing lung cancer as unexposed persons
10 times the risk
Kaposi sarcoma general characteristics
Ashkenazi elderdly Jews, lack of DNA aneuploidy, over 95% of lesions contain KS herpes virus 8, and spindle shaped endothelial cells. (hyaline globules also)
Describe the path of paradoxal emboli
arise in venous circulation
go to right heart
go through heart defect (ex: patent foramen ovale)
enter left heart
go into systemic circulation
What are two characteristics of reversible cell injury?
swelling of mitochondria and ER clumping of chromatin
diagnosis of HBV by viral Ag
HBsAg(means virus is replicating in liver), HBeAg (high levels of rep. occurring), HBcAg(not found in blood)
cml histology and genetics, chronic vs. accelerated phase
Chronic Phase:- BM – hypercellular, blasts <10%- Peripheral – myeloblasts <2%- Absolute basophilia- 9:22Accelerated Phase:- BM/Peripheral – myeloblasts <20%- Peripheral basophilia >20%- Leukocytosis, splenomegaly- more cytogenic abnormalitiesBlast Phase:- BM – blasts >20%- 70% myeloid blast crisis - AML- 30% lymphoid blast crisis - ALL
How does secondary intention differ from primary intention?
Differs from healing between first intention quantitatively but not qualitatively
Ex: same process occurs but with excessive scarring
what are the four major pathological conditions that cause edema?
1. increased intravascular hydrostatic pressure
2. fall in plasma oncotic pressure
3. impairment of lymphatic drainage/flow
4. retention of salt and water
Cystic Fibrosis (CF): What is the genetic defect in cystic fibrosis?
Autosomal-recessive defect in CFTR gene on chromosome 7
in type III hypersentitiivity ewhat are the threemost common sites of ag ab complex depostion?
renal glomerulus, joints and small blood vessels
describe the histologic changes shown in the lung
acute inflammation - infiltration of the alveolar spaces by neutrophils, which are the predominant cell of the acute inflammatory response, containing among other things granules with myeloperoxidase (catalyzes the conversion of hydrogen peroxide (in the
organic Hg: source, main target
main target: CNS
but can effect the kidney
especially hurts fetus (cerebral, cerebllar hypoplasia)

sources
predatory fish
fungacides
ingest fungicide treated grain or animal that ingested grain treated with fungicide
Who is at greatest risk of FAS?
Newborns of mothers who consumed significant amounts of alcohol (teratogen) during pregnancy (highest risk at 3-8 weeks).
What is the etiology and consequence of air embolism
gas bubbles obstruct vascular flow (causing distal ischemic injury). Air may enter circulation during obstetric procedures or as a consequence of chest wall injury. One form, decompression sickness, occurs when individuals are exposed to sudden changes in atmospheric pressure; consequences include the bends, the chokes, and caisson disease.
What organ does cigarette smoke affect?
larynx - can cause squamous cell carcnioma
lung - can cause squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma
kidney - can cause renal cell carcinoma
bladder - can cause transitional cell carcinoma
What are the treatment options for nicotine withdrawal?
Nicotine patch, gum, or lozenges; buproprion/varenicline
NK cells are identified by what on the surface?
CD16 and CD56 molecles
Ras oncogene encodes for what proteins?
P21, which are functionally similar to G proteins, membrane-signaling proteins acitvated by GTP binding, which mediate signal transduciton from the cell surface.
What is the type and cause of the most common congenital heart malformation in Down syndrome?
Septum-primum-type ASD due to endocardial cushion defects
Discuss the role of growth factors in the repair reaction
signals may be autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine, but no matter what they are critical to affecting the cellular and tissue changes that are necessary for the repair process. They serve to promote wound contraction and epithelial migration (fibronectin), act as growth factor for fibroblasts and chemotactic for fibroblasts and macrophages (PDGF), inhibit cell growth and promote differentiation of fibroblasts and epithelium (TGF), and give rise to marked increase in CT and endothelial growth
how does gene amplification, such as in c-myc, cause neoplasia?
Multiple duplications of the myc gene occur on the chromosome. This will lead to many more sites of expression of growth factor genes.
Most common cause of acquired immunosuppression
FPT( IgG levels are less than 5 mg/mL)
What are three cell mediated factors?
1. K and NK cells2. Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes3. Activated macrophages
in what two ways does a tumor cell degrade the ECM
1. secretes proteases
2. indices host cells (fibroblasts, macrophages) to secrete proteases
Describe what is taking place in the kidney(s) shown?
right kidney (on L) - atrophy (decrease in the size of the cells within an organ) ....left kidney may also show hypertrophy due to increase in functional demand
3 other skin conditions of Vitamin A deficiency
Xerophthalmia (dry eyes due to loss of differentiation of mucus cells of cornea),
Bitot's spots (due to keratin on cornea), and
keratomalacia (softening of the cornea with danger of ulceration).
hyperplasia
*
Cryptorchism
Undecended testicles.
claudication
Lameness, limping
!http://i61.photobucket.com/albums/h41/KJCollins1/benignkera.jpg!
benign keratosis
Increased capillary premeablity
Etiology
causes of disease
Occurs during apoptosis
Karyorrhexis
B-hCG
Hydatiform moles, Choriocarcinomas, and Gestational trophoblastic tumors
TUMOR SUPRESSOR GENES
P. 233
Neutrophil activity
Phagocytose bacteria-degranulation can cause tissue damage.In accute inflamation-permanent damage can occur, scaring can occur. If inciting agent can't be removed infiltration continues causing abscess.Granulomatos form if inciting agent is phagocytosed but not killed.
collagen is synthesized by
fibroblasts
Malignancies associated w/radiation exposure
Sarcoma
CCl4
Liver centrilobular necrosis, fatty change
Kaposi's sarcoma and aggressive malignant lymphomas are associated with what disease
AIDS
benign neoplasms
well differentiated; usually progressive and slow growth; mitotic figures are rare and normal; do not invade surrounding tissue; no metastases
Hypoperfusion of body tissues w/
Shock
Chemical substances, usually polypeptides, that stimulate cellular growth
Growth Factors
malignant neoplasm of lymphoid tissue
lymphoma
Leukemias: Common organs of infiltration
"Liver
Blood vessel neoplasms
Benign = Hemangioma
Cytokine that stimulates macrophage for inflammation and tissue injury
IFN-gamma
Acanthosis nigricans
Visceral malignancy (stomach, lung, breast, uterus)
Describe abscess
localized liquifactive necrosis of tissue within an organ or body cavity, surrounded by normal body tissue
will see suppurative exudate (pus) entrapped within necrotic focus (will see neutrophils)
Endangerment site: Axilla
Location: Armpit
Structure involved: Axillary, Median, Ulnar and
Musculoctataneous nerves; Axillary arrery and lymph nodes
Ochronosis
209. Alkaptonuria 210. Error in tyrosine metabolism due to Homogentisic acid (oxidizes tyrosine) 211. Involving intervertebral disks = Ankylosing Spondilitis = Poker spine 212. See dark urine; dark coloration of sclera, tendons, cartilage
histopathological response to candida
acute pyogenic abscess
What is gradulation tissue composed of?
*
normal genes that can become oncogenes
proto-oncogenes
kyphosis
Abnormal curvature of the upper portion of the spine; also known as humpback or hunchback
T-lymphocytes are mediators of
type 4 reactions
pleomorphic
Occurring in various distinct forms. In terms of cells, having variation in the size and shape of cells or their nuclei.
Hypersomnia, hyperphagia, and extreme sensitivity to rejection
atypical depression
ONCOGENIC VIRUSES: hpv is responsible for what cancers?
"cervical
Reversible cell injuries
Cellular swellingNuclear chromatin CLUMPINGDecreased ATP synthesisRibosomal detachmentGlycogen depletionFatty change
Fat Necrosis
Focal areas of fat destruction
-mediated by release of enzymes leading to saponification of fat cells
preservation of tissue architecture with loss of cellular detail,
coagulative necrosis
5 chemical carcinogens
Alkylating agents, polycyclic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, nitrosamines, and nitrosamides.
Describe dysplasia
Alteration in size, shape, and organization of the cellular components of a tissueIt occurs most commonly in hyperplastic squamous epithelium (skin, cervix, and bronchus) and reflects persistent injury to the tissueDysplasia shares many cytologic features with in situ cancer and it may be a problem to the pathologist. It is established that dysplasia is a pre-neoplastic lesion.
predisposing factors to hyperthermia
very young, elderly
dehyd.
high level of humidity
CV, NS disease
drugs that impair sweating (antidep., antihis.) or increase body heat prod. (crack, ephedrine)
panniculitis: lobular erythema induratum (gross appearance, common location, group that tends to get them)
gross appearance
recurrent, often bilateral
tender
may evolve into blue-red plaques, often ulcerate
after ulcerate, eventually heal with atrophic scars
chronic and may persist months or yrs

common location- calf
usually in young and middle aged women
Name 3 common L-to-R shunts.
VSD, ASD, PDA
Anaphylotoxins
360. C3a & C5a (mediate Histamine release from Basophils & Mast cells)
adenocarcinoma
carcinoma in which the lesion begins to grow in gland patterns
Name this condition in a calf.
atresia coli
Rheumatic fever can lead to abnomalities of the heart _____ which are prone to ________ & infections
valves, calcification
2 Mediators that cause vasodialation. (prostaglandins, histamine, bradykinin, platlet activating factor, NO, leukotrines)
prostaglandins, NO
squamous cell carcinoma histo appearance
well--> poorly differentiated(keratinization and intracellular bridges)
Discuss DIC, itis etiology, pathogenesis, and complications
Disseminated intravascular coagulation-sudden or insidious onset of widespread fibrin thrombi in the microcirculation-can cause diffuse circulatory insufficiency, particularly in the brain, lungs, heart and kidneys. The development of multiple thrombi leads to rapid concurrent consumption of platelets and coagulation proteins, but at the same time, fibrinolytic mechanisms are activated and, as a result, the initially thrombotic disorder can evolve into a serious bleeding disorder
an autoimmune disease of the salivary and lacrimal glands that produces xerostomia and keratoconjunctivitis sicca is ______ syndrome
sjogren's
polyps
benign masses that project above the surface of a tissue
CREST! (commonly in young women)calcinosis, raynaud phenomenon, esoph dysfunciton, sclerodactyly, telangictasia*centromeric proteins
Sjogren synd presentation
TUMOR MARKERS: what tumor marker is elevated in hyatidiform moles
beta-HCG
Primary (AL)*L = Light chain (Bence-Jones)*Light chains derived from IgG*Seen w/multiple myeloma
B-amyloid amyloidosis
microbe or infectious agents express antigens with the same amino acid sequences as self-antigens
molecular mimicry
what us abrasion
scarping/ rubbin remove epidermis only
a mucous escape phenomenon occuring in the floor of the mouth where it may resemble a frog's belly
ranula
What antigen is associated with MAGE-1?
Melanoma antigen-1.
Morphological appearance of red infarcts
never become pale
over time:
firmer
more brown
less red
What agents can induce local hypoxia?
vasorestrictive agents
ergot alkaloids drugs (treat migraines)
What enzymes are used in apoptosis to degrade proteins and DNA?
caspases
All ribs have costocartilage except which ones?
11th and 12th
Transudate
376. Specific gravity < 1.012 – low protein
human papilloma virus
causes benign squamous papillomas and may cause sq.cell carcinomas of the cervix(also anal, perianal, vulvar and penile cancers); related to products of viral genes E6 and E7
What is phobia?
persistent and exaggerated fears of particular objects or situations.
Chronic passive congestion of lungs in left sided heart failure --> intra-alveolar hemorrhage --> RBCs that are forced out of the vessels are taken up by macrophages --> brown hemosiderin granules in macrophages --> called "_____ ____ ce
"heart failure cells"
Causes of pancreatic insufficiency
cystic fibrosis, pancreatitis –> loss of pancreatic enzymes
expectorants
agents that aid the removal of mucus to help widen air passages
chronic reflux of gastric juices into the esophagus will produce esophagitis that may develope into
barrett's esophagus
tracheal froth
accumulation of foam with or without blood, filling airways, even the trachea. Often considered pathognomonic for pulmonary edema, it can be seen in any animal that dies slowly, allowing serum to leak from capillaries into the airways and then to be mixed to a froth as the lungs collapse after death.
Mural emboli
arterial emboli usually form LA (assoc w/ MS & a.fib); LV caused by MI... usually lodges into carotid (middle cerebral), branches of mesenteric a, or renal aa
Neural Tube Defects (NTD): Take a look at the figures in the book for good visualization of the NTDs.
0
secrete type I IFN (anti-viral) and present Ag
Dendritic cells
what is hermaphroditism
presence of both ovarian and testicular tissue
This nerve neoplasm is composed of 2 types of tissue designated "Antoni A" and "Antoni B"
neurilemoma
describe the histologic appearance of lung biopsy from 35-yo African-American women with several month hx of progressively worsening shortness of breath and cough
non-caseating granulomatous inflammation (no central necrosis) 2ndary to sarcoidosis. Note the conspicuous presence of macrophages and giant cells.
Paraneoplastic effect of Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastoma
-> erythropoietin -> polycythemia
Phase 2 of acute inflam.
cellular response (neutrophils are major effector cells in acute inflam)marginate and roll
margination- roll out of periphery of vessel
rolling- move along endothelial lining being drawn by chemoattractant stimulus

adhere to endothelial cell
transmigrate through endothelial cell gaps
move to site of injury along chemoattractant gradient
radiation carcinogens (most important kind and its types, the fate of those types)
UV radiation increases cutaneous cancer incidence
UVB (280-320) and UVC light (200-280) are mutagenic
UVC filtered by ozone
UVB cause pyrimidine dimers in DNA
dimers repaired by nucleotide excision, but excessive sun exposure overwhelms path (Xeroderma Pigmentosum)
Epidemiology
The study of the orgin (cause) of the disease
anything that enters or exits in a pt or depression?
hilus
3 pathways for metastasis
1) seeding-neoplasms invade a natural body cavity 2) lymphatic spread- usually carcinomas; lymph nodes and then blood 3)hematogenous- usually sarcomas; worst case; veins first; liver and and lungs most likely sites
Most common autosomal recessive diseases
sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, hereditary hemochromatosis
peripheral t cell lymphoma unspecified histological appearance
pleomorphic mix of small/medium/large mature T cellsEffaced nodal architectureAngiogenesisLoss of a surface markerCirculating cells: "clover leaf" appearance
List the major characteristics important to the recognition and function of plasm cells
Produce antibody directed either against persistent antigen in the inflammatory site or against altered tissue components.
pokilocytosis is an abnormal
variation in the shape of RBC's
Liquefactive necrosis is what?
Is usually associated with cellular destruction and pus formation (e.g. pneumonia). This is typical of bacterial or, sometimes, fungal infections because of their ability to stimulate an inflammatory reaction. Curiously, ischemia (re
Hodgkin's: Which HL type has the most RS cells?
Mixed cellular.
lumen of intestine has stringy exudate we can scrape off; diptheriitic membrane
infection with CPV-2
what is marasmus
type of malnutrition where the somatic compartment is consumed for energy maintenace, albumin levels decreased, emaciated apparence and immune deficient
what is an incomplete fracture that the break occurs on the convex surface of the bend of the bone
green stick fracture
describe the condition shown
Cushings Syndrome - tumor produces large amounts of ACTH --> incr levels of cortisol
Pellagra and its 3 Ds
Niacin deficiency and dementia, dermatitis, and diarrhea
Mechanism of high altitude illness (mountain sickness)
loss of oxygen tension
obtundation
confusion

increase vascular permeability
pulmonary edema
How do lab tests detect necrosis?
Increased serum levels of intracellular proteins
What is the presumed mechanism of FAS?
Inhibition of cell migration?
What is panic attack?
overwhelmed by anxiety and have a strong urge to escape or get help
juvenile polyps classification, complications
Type of hamartamatous polyps. If part of Juvenile Polyposis Syndrome can be associated with carcinoma, otheriwise no increased risk of malignancy. Most common in rectum
Desribe how metabolic status influences wound healing
Systemic effects. Can change wound healing. For example, diabetes mellitus is associated with delayed healing as a consequence of the microangiopathy that is a frequent feature of this disease
What is Buerger's?
Seen in young males who smoke too much. Intermittent claudication always an artery of the lower extremity
Deficiencies that cause hereditary thrombophilia
AT III, Protein C, Protein S
Fragile X syndrome: What genetic change is involved in Fragile X syndrome?
x-linked defect affecting the methylation and expression of the FMR1 gene.
Vitamin A def. and excess causes...
Deficiency induces squamous metaplasia in respiratory epithelium
-excess suppresses keratinization
how do secondary wounds heal
from the base to the surface
VEGF is from mutation of what 2 things?
Ras and Myc
cause of death: apoptosis vs. necrosis
apoptosis- active form of cell death
necrosis- death in response to injury
Endangerment site: Inferior to Ear
Location; Notch posterior to ramus of Mandible
Structures involved: External carotid artery; styloid process, facial nverve
Causes of cell injury & death
Trauma - force, heat, cold •Ischemia - inadequate circulation •Toxins & radiation •Infection •Inflammation •Genetic diseases •Nutritional problems (too much or little, vitamin deficiency) •Tumors
follicular B cell lymphoma cleaved cell histo appearance
small irregular lymphocytes w/ low cytoplasm
What does primary intention involve?
Involves the healing of a clean incised surgical wound
what is Burkitt's lymphoma?
translocation of the c-myc gene to a place where Ig heavy chain expression is controlled. This results in uncontrolled transcription of growth factor genes.
Autosomal trisomies: Name 7 findings in Patau's
(1) severe mental retardation (2) microphthamlia (3) microcephaly (4) cleft lip/palate (5) abnormal forebrain structures (6) polydactyly (7) congenital heart dz
Metaplasia is the result of
-reprogramming of stem cells that are known to exist in normal tissues
or
-undifferentiated mesenchymal cells present in connective tissue
Dysplasia (and 4 ways its possible)
Abnormality in maturation of cells within a tissue. Lack of maturation, loss of polarity, presence of mitoses, cellular pleomorphism
tumor stage (def, what it evaluates, usefullness)
def.- distribution and extent of cancer at time of dx
all staging systems evaluate:
size of primary lesion
extent of spread to regional lymph nodes
presence or absence of metastases

staging aids in selection of best therapy for the patient
Stage has greater clinical value than grade.
Name 3 common R-to-L shunts.
The 3 T's: Tetralogy of Fallot (most common cause of early cyanosis), Transposition of the great vessels, truncus arteriosus
List the factors associated with increased risk of thrombosis
Three major factors are associated w/ increased risk of thrombosis-the Virchow triad. Endothelial injury may occur over ulcerated plaques in atherosclerotic arteries, or at sites of traumatic or inflammatory vascular injury. Alterations in normal blood flow-turbulence and stasis-may be caused by ulcerated atherosclerotic plaques, abnormal aortic and arterial dilations (aneurysms), myocardial infarction, as well as sickle cell anemia. Hypercoagulability contributes less, but is important in some syndromes(ie- HIT &amp; APS).
Are the pathologic criterion for chronic bronchitis the relevant ones for making the Dx?

What are the units of &quot;productive cough&quot;?

Are X-rays specific in Chronic bronchitis?
No; it is a clinical Dx.

productive cough more than 3months at least two times a year. for more than 2 years.

Cups of mucin per day.

No.
What are psammoma bodies where are they seen?
1. They are laminated, concentric, calcific spherules.
2. They are seen in
1. Papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid
2. Serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma of ovary
3. Meningioma
4. Malignant mesothelioma
what is isochromosom
one arm is lost and the other one is duplicated 2p or2 q
Drug of choice to treat group A strep or S. pyogenes
Penicillin (cephalosporin...often for cellulitis).
renal cell carcinoma often invades
renal vein to inf. vena cava to right side of heart
what are the five basic steps in tumor metastasis?
1. clonal expansion and angiogenesis
2. intravasation
3. adhesion of a tumor cell embolus to the BV basement membrane
4. extravasation
5. repeat step 1
what are disorders related to mutant genes?
they are also known as medelian disorders because they follow mendelian inheritance
What gene is affected in neurofibromatosis type 2?
NF2 gene on chromosome 22; (type 2 = 22)
what are the two pathways of the coagulation system and what activates one or the other?
1. intrinsic pathway - surface contact with collagen, platelets, activates kinin components --&gt; Hageman factor (XII)

2. extrinsic pathway - activated by Tissue Factor, a cellular lipoprotein released from damaged monocytes/endothelial cells --&gt; Factor VII
Alpha fetal protein arises from what normal tissue and gives rise to 3 tumors
Yolk sac and fetal liver. Endodermal sinus tumor, teratoma with yolk sac parts, and hepatocellular carcinoma (well differentiated kind).
Why would you want to keep a PDA open?
To sustain life in conditions such as transposition of the great vessels.
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