Pathophysiology Quiz Flashcards

rheumatic heart disease
Terms Definitions
echocardiogram
超声波心动(描记)图
dominant
observable effects
Healing by Scar
...
Rheumatic Heart Disease
Causes:
Group A beta hemolytic streptococcus
Rheumatic Heart Disease
Symptoms/Manifestations:
Fever
Pharyngitis
Carditis
Arthritis
Scarlett fever (red rash on trunk)
Sydenham chorea
Atrophy
To decrease in size
are all mutations inherited
NO!
exacerbations
increased signs of disease
Congenital diseases are...
present at birth.
an increase in cell size
Hypertrophy
Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease:
Silent: ischemia in the absence of angina pain
Causes:
Autonomic dysfunction
Diabetes
Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease:
Silent: ischemia in the absence of angina pain
Symptoms/Manifestations:
No pain
Prokaryotes
Examples include bacteria and rickettsiae. They contain no organelles, nuclear material not incased by a membrane
exotoxins
protein enzymes release during bacterial growth. Damages the cell membrane, activates second messengers, and inhibits protein synthesis. Antitoxins: tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis.
Constrictive Pericarditis
chronic inflammation of pericardium, etiology unknown but associated with radiation, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis
Septic Shock
final stage of sepsis
hypotension (all veins=dilated), and unresponsive to fluid replacement
2 types CVD risk factors
uncontrollable controllable
immunologic tolerance _______ as we age
decreases
Scar tissue consists primarily of
Collagen fibers
Sympathetic nervous system aroused during stress causes adrenal medulla to release:CatecholaminesEpinephrineNorepinephrineDopamineSimutaneously hypothalamic CRF stimulates pituitary to release:ADH, prolactin, growth hormone, ACTHACTH stimulates adrenal co
neuroendocrine regulation
what are lymphocytes?
B and T cells
What type of cancer cell transformation is where the cell doesn't need a host cell once it is a cancer cell?
autonomy
Chopping Wounds
injuries produced by heavy, edged instruments with a combination of sharp and blunt force characteristics
Are water soluble vitamins stored in the body?
No
Pathology
The Study of changes in cell/tissue structure related to disease or death.
What can precipitate the manifestations of Choleystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder) and Cholelithiasis (gallstones)?
A fatty meal
Define hypoperfusion
Inadequate perfusion of body tissues. Also called shock.
what causes death in an individual with gas gangrene?
shock
Marfan Syndrome
autosomal dominant disorder - fully expressed in heterozygotes

1 in 10,000 persons
disfunction of gene encoding fibrilin
males or females
poor supporting conn. tissue
decreased life expectancy
tall, spidery fingers, loose joints, weak ligaments, valve malfunction, retinal detachment, etc.
Aneurysm
a localized dilation or ballooning of a blood vessel, usually found in the arteries at the base of the brain and in the aorta.
Three types - Designed for contractilitySkeletal-striatedMost abundant (40-45%) of body weight- does not undergo mitotic division – responsible for movementCardiac-striatedFound in heart designed to pump blood – does not undergo mitotic division
Nervous Tissue
Initially there is an increase in neutrophils (a type of WBC) in infection or inflammation. With prolonged infection the numbers of immature cells increase because the mature neutrophils and other granulocytes are being used up. The shift toward immature
Exudate
When someone is having bright red bleeding with every bowel movement it is called ______and likely from the________
hematochezia/rectum
What type of tumor is poorly differentiated?
Malignant
An immoble elderly patient comes in with swelling of the glans of the penis and is inable to push the foreskin back after was cleaned by a nursing student 2 days ago, he is diagnosed with
paraphimosis
Blow Back
severe tearing and disruption of the tissues giving a wound a large, gaping and jagged appearance
The movement of white cells into an area that is inflammed is called...
Chemotaxis
Polyploidy
1 or more extra sets of chromosome pairs====>IMCOMPATIBLE W/ LIFE==>FETUSES ARE MISCARRIED
What is ischemia?
poor blood flow w/o tissue death
Define perfusion
The constatnt and necessary passage of blood through the body's tissues.
are there skipped generations in autosomal dominant disorders?
no skipped generations
Interphase
Cells spend most of life in this phase, DNA replication (immed. before mitotic phase)
What is considered a systemic sign of disease?
fever
Cell Atrophy
Decrease is sizeDisuse atrophy (arm in cast)Denervation (cord injury)Loss of endocrine stimulation (estrogen)Inadequate nutritionIschemia or decreased blood flow Cells decrease their size and energy requirements as a means of survival
> serum glucose by gluconeogenesis: the breakdown of protein to amino acids and converted to glucose
increased glucose
What is the hallmark symptom that we see (occurs) with infection?
Fever
What is a swelling or a new growth?
Tumor
Chromosomal disorder- aneuploidy
Abonormal number. Monosomy- instead of 46 only have 45, one pair has only one chromosome (no secondary sex characteristics). Trisomy- one group there is three (failure of chromosome to separate during oogensis or spermatogenesis) (downs syndrome).
Pathologic Atrophy
occurs as a result of decreases in workload, use, pressure, blood supply, nutrition, hormonal stimulation and nervous stimulation
All the "C." bacteria are what... Aerobic or anaerobic?
Anaerobic
What is the most common type of chronic gastritis?
H. Pylori
What is hypertrophy?
increase in organ size due to increase in individual cell size
The spleen is capable of storing over ______ mL of blood, and can expel up to _______ mL in the venous circulation, increasing blood volume, preload, cardiac output, and BP in response to a sudden drop in BP.
300, 200
aneuploidy
condition in which a cell has a loss or gain of a chromosome
(ie 46 +1, 46 +2, 46 - 1, etc.)
When an allergen binds with IgE antibodies on mast cells, resulting in release of chemical mediators, this reaction is called
Typ I hypersensitvity
Genes that control cell growth
Proto-oncogenes – Growth promotingTumor suppressor genes – tumor suppressingGenes that control programmed cell death (apoptosis)
You enter the room reading the chart of an 10 year old boy, you look up and you are surprised by the boy in front of you, he has a full beard and mustache, this boy would be classified as having
precocious puberty
What type of tumor has a low mitotic index?
Benign
When a male has had the mumps, it affects the testes with this diagnosis
Orchitis
What results from Albuminism?
Albinism, or People with very little pigment. Higher incidence of skin cancer, glaucoma, and cataracts.
What causes posthepatic jaundice?
Obstruction of bile flow between liver & intestine.Cholelithiasis is a common cause of this type.
Synthesis of Vitamin D (continued)
25-hydroxy D is converted to 1,25-dihydroxy-D, the most potent metabolite of Vitamin D, by use of the mitochondrial P450 enzyme 1alpha-hydroxylase.
The 1alpha-hydroxylase enzyme is the point of regulation of D synthesis.
Feedback regulation by 1,25-dihydroxy D inhibits this enzyme.
PTH stimulates 1alpha-hydroxylase and increases 1,25-dihydroxy D. 
what is an example of dysplasia?
epithelial tissue of the cervis
What are the two patterns of chronic inflammation?
Nonspecific and Granulomatous
Immune thrombocytopenic purpura
a condition in which the number of platelets in the blood is reduced by the production of antibodies against platelets and that is characterized by ecchymosed and hemorrhages from mucous membranes, anemia, and extreme weakness.
What type of immune deficiency is a gentic anomaly?
Primary (congenital) immunodeficiency
Plasma protein system- clotting
forms a structure that stops bleeding, traps infectious organisms, prevents spread, keeps microorganisms and foreign bodies at site of greatest inflammatory cells activity and provides a framework for future healing and repair. Pathways converge at factor
Does the presence of antibodies to HCV indicate that the person is now immune to HCV?
No, that is false
Ways in which target tissue can be insensitive to testosterone
1  5alpha-Reductase Deficiency
2.  Testicular Feminization - Absence of androgen receptors 
What is appropriate treatment of a person in respiratory alkalosis?
Emotional support. Alkalosis occurs because the person is excessively eliminating CO2 because of the increase in respirations. With emotional support and coaching, the person is often able to reduce RR.
Explain the chronic asymptomatic of latent phase.
lasts ~10 years
no signs/symptoms of illness, decrease CD4 (800-200), lymphadenopathy
movement of immune cells to site of tissue injury
aldosterone is produced by
stages of wound healing- maturational phase
fibroblasts synthesize and lysis of collagen, scar strength increases. Scar tissue remodeled and capillaries disappear, leaves scar. Avascular. Secondary intention heal slower.
What are the manifestations of chronic cholecystitis? (inflammation of the gallbladder)
Intolerance of fatty foods, belching, colicy pain
Why can Estrogen act like a contraceptive?
It supresses FSH secretion and follicular maturation
stage 3 or C cancer
cancer that has spread to the regional structures such as lymph nodes
the charecterisitcs lesions of herpes zoster includes
painful vesicles along a dermatome or cranial nerve pathway
What are the two things that can go wrong with chromosomes?
Abnormal structure and abnormal number
What is hypothyroidism and how is it caused?
Hypocalcemia occurs when there is inadequate response of the Vitamin D - PTH axis to hypocalcemic stimuli.
Hypocalcemia is often multifactorial
Hypocalcemia is invariably associated with hypoparathyroidism
Bihormonal - concomitant decrease in 1,25-(OH)2-D 
Culture and sensitivity tests are used to
identify the cuasative microbe and the effective antimicrobial agen for it
Addison disease is a disease in which all layers of the _____________________ are destroyed.
adrenal cortex. So, Addison disease results in adrenal cortical insufficiency.
what is the recurrence risk of an x linked trait with an affected father and moral mother?
all sons mormal, all daughters carriers
what is the % breakdown of the make-up of the cell?
85% water 10%protein the rest are lipids, carbs and ions
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