AP Human Geography 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
emigration
migration from a location
intraregional migration
chicago to hoffman estates
epidemic
regional outbreak of a disease
migration
permanent move to a new location
international migration
Europe to the United States
Taboo
restriction on behavior imposed by social custom
Great Rift
Geological fault system which stretches from South West Asia to East Africa, extends from Jordan River to Mozambique. Forms series of complex upland area lakes, volcanoes, and deep valleys.
possibilism
geographic viewpoint- a response to determinism- that holds that human decesion making, not the environment, is the crucial factor in cultural development. nonetheless, possibilists view the envrionment as providing a set of broad constraints that limits the possibilites of human choice
spatial interaction
see complementarity and intervening opportunity
cultural barrier
pervailing cultural attitude rendering certain innovations, ideas or practices unacceptable or unadoptable in the particular culture.
intervening obstacle
factor preventing migrants to reach desired destination
Developed Country
has progressed further along the development continuum
Less developed country
country relatively early stage economic development
Folk Culture
culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groupsex. wearing sarong in malaysia
Pastoralists
Nomadic and sedentary peoples who rely upon livestock (cattle, camels, sheep,and goats)for sustenance and livelihood.
Tribalism
Allegiance to a particular tribe or ethnic group rather than to the nation-state. Tribalism is often blamed for internal conflict within Sub-Saharan states.
connectivity
The degree of direct linkage between one particular location and other locations in aa transport network.
generalized map
the process of selecting and representing information on a map in a way that adapts to the scale of the display medium of the map.
thematic maps
Maps that tell stories, typically showing the degree of some attribute or the movement of a geographic phenomenon.
Pandemic
An outbreak of disease that spreads worldwide
human-environment
The second theme of heography as defined by (Genip); peciprocal relationship between humans and environmnet
Custom
frequent repetition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group of people performing the actex. American Univ students wear jeans class everyday
Primary Sector
portion of eco. concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry
Desertification
expansion of desert like land due to human activities like poor agricultural practices and overgrazing
time-distance decay
the declining degree of acceptance of an idea or innovation with increasing time and distance from its place or origing to a wider area.
pull factor
induces people to move into a new location
Gender-Related Development Index
compares the level of development of women with that of both sexes
Internally displaced Person
Groups and individuals who flee an area due to conflict or famine but still remain in their country of origin. These populations often live in refugee-like conditions but are harder to assist because they technically do not qualify as refugees.
sense of place
state of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling a place with a certain character
Human Geography
One of the two major divisions of geography; the spatial analysis of human population, its cultures, actvities, and landscapes
culture complex
a related set of cultural traits, such as prevailing dress codes and cooking and eating utensils.
Gender Empowerment Measure
compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making
mental map
Image or picture of the way space is orgnaized as determined by an individual's perception, impression, and knowledge of that space.
Globalized Agriculture
?
Postmondernity
Present/economic cultural conditions of society.
Ptolemy
100-170 AD Guide to Geography
connections
relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space
Sociofacts
The institutions and links between individuals and groups that unite a culture, including family structure and political, educational and religious institutions.
semi-periphery
places where core and periphery processes are both occurring. Places that are exploited by the core, but in turn exploit the periphery.
Dialect
Geographically distinct versions of a single language
Quinary Industry
Heath, education, culture, research, police, fire service, and other government industries not intended to make a profit.
Animism
Believes that inanimate objects are sacred and have a spirit and consciousness.
cultural ecology
The multiple interactions and relationships between a culture and the natural environment.
asylum
shelter and protection in one state for refugees from another country
resources
substances that are useful to people, economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use
Hearth
The region from which innovative ideas originate.
Political geography
The spatial analysis of political phenomena and processes.
territoriality
In political geography, a country's or more local community's sense of propertyand attachment toward its territory, as expressed by its determination to keep it inviolable and strongly defended
Bulk-Gaining Industries
the final manufactured product weighs more than the inputs
When were the devolutionary events that broke apart the former Soviet Union set in motion?
Late 1980s
Heartland theory
Halford Mackiner stated that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could eventually gain enough stregnth to take over the world.
Cohort
A population group unified by specific common characteristics, such as age, and treated as a statistical unit
demarcation
the actual placing of a political boundary on the landscape by means of borders, fences, walls, or other markers.
Over Population
organism's numbers exceed the carrying capacity of its habitat. In common parlance, the term usually refers to the relationship between the human population and its environment, the earth.
distance decay
the diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin
Green Revolution
rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers
buddhism
System of belief that seeks to explain ultimate realities for all people-such as the nature of suffering and the path toward self-realization.
language families
closely related languages; at a global scale they can be clasified as...
population pyramids
visual representation of age and sex composition of a population
social stratification
one of two components, together with agricultural surplus, which enables the formation of cities; the differentiation of society into classes based on wealth, power, production, and prestige
Blockbusting
a process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families will soon move into the neighborhood
radioactive waster
particles from a nuclear reaction that emit radiation contact with such particles maybe harmful or lethal to people therefore the particles must be safely stored for thousands of years.
1 room, log cabin,stone chimney, fire place at one end. Porch and 2nd floor added later.
Mid-Atlantic homes
Language family
A collection of many languages, all of which came from the same original tongue long ago
Geoid
The actual shape of the earth, which is rough and oblate, or slightly squashed; the earth's circumference is slightly larger around the equator then it is along the meridians, from north to south
ecosystem
a linkage of plants or animals to their environment in an open system as far as energy is concerned
Ethnic Religion
Appeals primarily to one group of people living in one place.
Site factors
Location factors related to the costs of factors of production inside the plant, such as land, labor, and capital.
Missionary
an individual who helps to diffuse a universalizing religion
creole language
a pidgin language that has developed a more complex structure and vocabulary and has become the native language of a group of people
doubling time
the time required for a population to double in size
Isolated Language
A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.
Spatially fixed cost
An imput cost in manufacturing tat remains constant wherever production is located.
Meridian
A line of longitude that runs north to south. All lines of longitude are equal legnth ad intersect at the poles.
polytheist
belief that there are many gods to be worshipped
Annexation
Legally adding land area to a city in the United States.
Natural Increase Rate (NIR)
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.
hierarchical diffusion
the spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places
Inner city decay
Those parts of large urban areas that lose a significant portion of the populations as a result of change in industry or migration to the suburbs. As a result it loses tax base and becomes a center of poverty
Multiple Nuclei Model
A model of internal structure of cites in which social groups are arranged around a collection of notes of activities.
What is a derelict landscape?
Land that has been damaged by industrial or other development activity.
Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)
in the U.S, a central city of at least 50,000 population, the country within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city.
base lines
some east-west lines
Quaternary Sector
process and distributes information
Segregation
Results from suburbanization, affluent members leave the city center to homogenous neighborhoods. Leaving those who cannot afford to relocate remain in pocets in the center of the city.
Globalization
the expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact. The process of _______ transcend state boundaries and have outcomes that vary across places and states.
Gerrymandering
practice of redistricting for partisan purposes
culture
the body of customary beliefs, material traits, and social forms that together constitute the distinct tradition of a group of people
Proccess describing the convergence of two or more languages, forming a separate, new language
creolization
Eratosthenes
The head librarian at Alexandria during the 3rd century B.C. he was one of the first cartogrophers. Performed a remarkably accurate computation of the earths circumference. He is also credited with coining the term "geography"
Colonization
Physical process whereby the colonizer takes over another place, putting its own government in charge and either moving its own people into this place or bringing in indentured outsiders to gain control of the people and the land.
hinduism(DUMB)
a cohesive and unique society most prevalent in india that integrates spiritual beliefes with daily practices and official institutions such as the caste system. is the world's 3rd largest religion
language
set of sounds, combinations of sounds, and symbols that are used for communication
Prorupted
An otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension.
informal economy
economic activity that is neither taxed nor monitored by a government; and is not included in that government's Gross National Product; as opposed to a formal economy
the holy book for Christian people is
Bible
ferrous
metals that are utilized in the production of iron and steel. Ex: Iron ore
What language family is Esperanto a member of?
Indo-European
Geopolitics
The study of the interplay between political regions and the territorial context in which they occur
Generation X
Douglas Coupland coined to describe people born in the US between 1965 and 1980
Manufacturing region
A region in which manufacturing activities have clustered together In the US areas around the Great Lakes, southeastern Brazil, central England, and Tokyo.
Palimpsest
a manuscript written over a partly erased older manuscript in such a way that the old words can be read beneath the new
Sharecropper
Works fields rented form a landowner and pays the rent by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops.
Urban Renewal
program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhood, acquire the property from private owners, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn land over to private developers.
a region distinguished by uniformity of one or more characteristics
formal region
guest workers
legal immigrant who has work visa, usually short term
toponym
the name given to a place on Earth
Stimulus Diffusion
The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.
Supranationalism
Refers to efforts by three or more states to forge associations for mutual benefit and in pursuit of shared goals.
Agricultural Revolution
The domestication of the first plants and animals
Gender equity
A measure of the oppertunities given to women compared to men within a given country.
Cartography
The art and science of making maps, including data compilation, layout, and design. Also concerned with the interpretation of mapped patterns.
Remittances
Money migrants send back to family and friends in their home countries, often is cash, forming an important part of the economy in many poorer countries.
contagious diffusion
the rapid widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population
perception of place
Belief or "understanding" about a place developed through books, stories, movies, or pictures.
cultural complex
The group of traits that define a particular culture.
Aristotle's contributions to Geo.
-Demonstrated that the Earth was spherical by observing eclipses/shadow of Earth & moon
-Believed the closer you got to the Equator the warmer the temperature ( based on people's skin coloring)
-Looked at natural processes
Relative location
The position of a place relative to places around it
Personal Services
a service based on the intellectual or manual efforts of an individual (as for salary or wages) rather than a salable product of his or her skills
geographic information system (GIS)
a computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data
Denomination
A division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body
infant mortality rate
the death rate during the first year of life
What do many former African colonies choose as their official language?
English, French, or Portuguese
Branch (of a religion)
Small differences in belief branch of of a religion such as Lutheranism is a branch of Christianinty.
What is the difference between arithmetic population density and physiologic population density?
Arithmetic population density is the amount of people per unit area of all land, while physiologic is the amout of people per unit are of agriculturally productive land.
Land Ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
Deforestation
The removal of trees.
Mesoamerica
chronologically the fifth urban hearth, dating to 200 bce
circulation
short-term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis
Cultural Hearth
Heartland, source area, innovation center; place of origin of a major culture.
reapportionment
the process of allocating electoral seats to geographical areas
A politically organized territory that is administered by a sovereign government and is recognized by a significant portion of the international community. Must also contain a permanent resident population, an organized economy, and a functioning internal
state
State
A politically organized territory that is administered by a sovereign government and is reconized by the international community.
Situation factors
involve transportating materials to and from a factory
-seeks a location that minimizes the cost of transporting to and from the factory
-location near inputs
-location near markets
-mode of transportation
Sustainable agriculture
Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soul-restoring crop with cash crops and reducing inputs of fertilizer and pesticides.
muslim
a follower of a monotheistic religion that believes in the religion with the god allah.
counterurbanization
net migration from urban to rural areas
Cultural landscape
A combonation of cultural features such as language and religion, economic features such as agriculture and inudstry and physical features such as climate and vegetation
Robinson pfojection
Frequently usedDistorts both size and shape (minimal)Oceans uninterrupted.
Caused long-isolated languages to make contact.
Language convergence
Rimland theory
Nickolas Spykman's theory that the domination of costal fringes of Eurasia would provide a base ofr world conquest
Resolution
A map's smallest disernable unit. For exmple and object has to be one kilometer long in order to show up on a map.
Voluntary migration
Movement of an individual who conciously and voluntarily decides to relocate to a new area-oposite of forced migration
Gondwana
The southern portion or the primeval supercontinent, Pangaea.
Hydroelectric Power
Using moving water to generate electricity.
the shortest path between to destinations measured by unit of length
absolute distance
section
a square normally 1 mile on a side
Linguistic diversity
the more different the language the more diferent the people that speak them
Population Projection
the estimated population in a certain time in the future
situation
the location of a place relative to other places
sharia law
the system of islamic law, sometimes called qu'ranic law and are based on varying degrees of interpretation of the qu'ran
European cities
Cities in Europe that mere mostly developed during the Medieval Period and retain some of the characteristics such as extreme density of developement with narrow buildings and winding streets, a main church in the center and high walls surrounding it.
Subsequent boundries
Established after and area has been settled considers social and cultural diferences in the area
buffer zone
a country or zone that separtes ideological or political adversaries.
Reaper
a machine that cuts grain standing in the field
subsistence economy
a type of economy in which human groups live off the land with little or no surplus
Gravity Model
A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.
the number of years needed to double the population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase
doubling time
Stationary Population Level
the level at which a national population ceases to grow
World Cities
A group of cities that form an interconnected, internationally dominant system of global control of finance and commerce.
Satellite State
A political term that refers to a country which is formally independent, but under heavy influence or control by another country.
Natural Landscape
the features of the landscape that are not man-made (ex
Chain migration
Migration of a people to a specific location because relatives have moved there
world city
dominant city in terms of its role in the global political economy. Not the world's biggest city in terms of population or industrial output, but rather centers of strategic control of the world economy
The part of an urban area that lies within the outer ring of residential suburbs.
Central city
The Four Noble Truths
1. All living beings must endure suffering
2. Suffering, which is caused by a desire to live, leads to reincarnation
3. the goal of all existence is to escape from suffering and the endless cycle of reincarnation, which is achievable through mental and moral self-purification
4. Nirvana is attained through the Eightfold Path, which includes righness of belief, resolve, speech, action, livelihood, effort, thought, and meditation
Small scale
Depicts a large area with not a lot of detail
What are the social differences between urban and rural settlements?
Large size, high density, and social heterogeniety
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