AP Human Geography 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
immigration
migration to a location
Terroir
contribution of a location's distinctive physical features to the way food tastes
G.P.S.
satellite-based system for determining the absolute location of places or geographic features
brain drain
large-scale emigration by talented people
Productivity
value of particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it
Habitat
repetitive act performed by specific individualex. wear jeans to class everyday
globalization
The expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact. The processes of globalization transcend state boundaries and have out comes that vary across places and scales.
spatial perspective
observing variations in geographic phenomena across space
contagious diffusion
the distance-controlled spreading of an idea, innovation, or some other item through a local population by contract from person to person-analogoes to the communication of a contagious illness
pattern
The design of a spacial distribution
mobility
general term covering all types of movements from one place to another
Tertiary Sector
portion of eco. concerned w/ transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods n services to ppl in exchange for payment
Fair Trade
alt. to internat'l trade emphasizes small business and worker owned and democratically run cooperatives. Req. fair wages, union organizing, minimum environmental and safety standards
Sahel
semi desert region at southern fringe of Sahara, n countries that fall w/i the region that extends from Senegal to Sudan. Large droughts in 1970s and 1980s caused widespread famine and dislocation of population.
Transhumance
movement of animals b/w wet-season and dry-season pasture
relocation diffusion
sequential diffusion process in which the items being diffused are transmitted by their carrier agents as they evacuate the old areas and relocate to new ones. The most common form of relocation diffusion involves the spreading of innovations by a migrating population
political ecology
an approach to studying nature-society relations that is concerned with the ways in which environmental issues both reflect, and are the result of, the political and socioeconomic contexts in which they are situated.
culture
the sum total of the knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by the members of a society. This is anthropologist Ralph Linton's definition: hundreds of others exist
location
the first theme of geography as defined by (Genip); the geographical situation of people and things.
chain migration
migrants from same country form groups and settle in the same place
Human Development Index
indicates level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, edu, and life expectancy
Literacy rate
percentage of country's people who can read and write
Clans
a social unit that is typically smaller than a tribe or ethnic group but larger than a family, based on supposed descent from a common ancestor.
Cultural landscapes
The visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape. The layers of buildings froms, and artifacts sequentially imprinted on the landscape by the activites of various human occupants
cartography
The art and science of making maps, including data compilation, layout, and design. Also concerned with the interpretation of mapped patterns.
geocoaching
a hunt for a cache, the (GPS) coordinates which are placed on the internet by other geocoachers
push factor
induces people to move out of their present location
Structural adjustment program
eco. policies imposed on LDCs by internatl agencies to create conditions encouraging international trade. Raise taxes, reduce govt spending, control inflation, sell publicly owned utilities private corps n charge citizens more for services
Refugee
A person who flees his or her own country because of a well-found fear of persecution based on race, ethnicity, religion, ideology, or political affiliation.
geographic information system
a collectin of computer hardware and software that permits spatial data to be collected, recorded, stored, retrieved, manipulated, analyzed, and displayed to the user
functional region
a region defined by the particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it.
formal region
a type of region marked by a certain degree of homogeneity in one o rmore phenomena; also called unifrom region or homgenous region.
Dispersed concentration
far apart
megalopolis
a very large city.
Balance of Power
equal opposing forces
sino-tibetan family
language branch concentrated primarily in southeast asia, and 2nd biggest language branch
subsistence agriculture
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
Census
A complete enumeration of a population.
Possibilisim
The theory that the physical environment can put a limit on human activity but humans can find a way around them "humans conquers land instead of land conquering humans"
Gerrymandering
The designation of voting districts so as to favor a particular party or candidate
Parallel
Two objects/things that never touch and point in the same diretion
Fragmented state
Includes several discontinuous pieces of territory.
Intraregional migration
permanent movement within a region
Sequent Occupance
The notion that succesive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape.
population explosion
rapid growth of worlds human population during the last century
Apartheid
a social policy or racial segregation involving political and economic and legal discrimination against non-whites
Language Branch
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or as old as with language families. Can be confirmed that they are derived from the same family.
judaism
religion with its roots in the teachings of abraham, who is credited with uniting his people to worship only one god
Geometric boundry
Political boundires that are defined and delimited to straight lines.
Industrialized countries
Britian, France, the US, Russia, Germany, and Japan, that were all at the forefront of industrial production and innovation during the 20th century.
Life expectantcy
The average age individuals are expected to live, which varies across space, between genders, and races
longitude
Imaginary line circling the Earth and running through the poles. Used to determine the location of things by measurement of the angular distance, in degrees eat or west, from the prime meridian.
Periodic Movements
For example, college attendance or military service that involves temporary, recurrent location.
Distance Decay
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin. Typically, the farther away one group is from another, the less likely the two groups are to interact.
Dispersed Rural Settlement
a rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages
Activity Space
The space within which daily activity occurs.
Hearth
The area where an idea or cultural trait originates.
sunni
one of the two main branches of orthodox Islam
the location of a place relative to other places
situation
stateless nations
nation that does not have a state.
17th and 18th century;Agriculture and Indsutrial Revolution;Understanding the spatial layout of agriculture(Von Thunen's rings);Boserup's Theory.
2nd Agricultural Revolution
Microstate
A state territory that is small in both population and area.
Zero population growth
Proposal to end population growth through a variety of official and nongovernmental family planning programs
chaff
husks of grain separated from the seed by threshing
Caste System
The strict segregation of people - specifically in India’s Hindu society – on the basis of ancestry and occupation.
Nonrenewable Energy
Forms so slowly it is considered nonrenewable.
a region differentiated by what occurs within it rather than by homogrniety of physical or cultural phenomenon
function region
Stimulus Diffusion
A cultural adaptation is created as a result of the introduction of a cultural trait from another place.
Domain
The area outside of the core of a culture region in which the culture is still dominant but less intense.
Map scale
Most maps are smaller than the reality they represent. Map scales tell us how much smaller.
Caste system
System in India that goves everyone a particular place in the social hierarchy from birth. They may raise in their next life with good deeds.
Pidgin language
May develop when two groups of people with different languages meet
Geothermal electricity
Energy derived from the heat of the earth.
culture complex
A related set of cultural traits, such as prevailing dress codes and cooking and eating utensils.
arithmetic population density
the population of a country or region expressed as an average per unit area
Map Projection
The way we fit earth's 3D surface onto flat paper or a screen
census tract
an area delineated by the US bureau of the census for which statistics are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods
expansion diffusion
The spread of an innovation or an idea through a population in an area in such a way that the number of those influenced grows continuously larger, resulting in an expanding area of dissemination.
Name the 4 types of New England home
-saltbox
-two chimney
-Cape Cod
-Front Gable and Wing
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Definition:
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