AP Human Geography 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
transculturation
acculturation.
space
social relations stretched out
reapportionment
process by which representative districts are switched according to population shifts, so that each district encompasses approximately the same number of people
Buddha
the awakened or enlightened one
Contagious Diffusion
The distance-controlled spreading of an idea, innovation, or some other item through a local population by contact from person to person.
agricultural village
relatively small, egalitarian village, where most of the population was involved in agriculture. Starting over 10,000 years ago, people began to cluster in agricultural villages as they stayed in one place to tend their crops
Cultural Realm
Distinct traditions, beliefs, and social life brought or controlled by a dominion of a monarchy of a certain region
Core
National or global regions where economic power, terms of wealth, innovation, and advanced technology, is concentrated.
Settlement
a state of stability or permanence
same as age sex pyramid
pop pyramid
Possibilism
The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.
productivity
(economics) the ratio of the quantity and quality of units produced to the labor per unit of time
map
a two-dimensional or flat scale model of Earth's surface, or a portion of it
sovereignty
Exercise of state power over people and territroy, recognized by other states and codified by international law.
Dowry deaths
daughters dying because their fathers could not fullfill the marrige agreement
longitude
a numbering system to identify the location of each meridian on Earth's surface
Scale
The relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size it is on the earth's surface
Cultivation of crops in tropical forest clearings in which the forest vegetation has been removed by cutting and burning. These clearing are usually abandoned after a few years in favor of newly cleared forestland. Also known as shash-an-burn agricultur
Shifting cultivation
Quantitative revolution
A period in human geography associated with the widespread adoption of mathmatical models and statistical techniques
Nation-state
A country whose population posseses a substantial degree of homegeneity and unity.
counterurbanization
net migration from urban to rural areas in MDCs
Corridor
A thickly populated strip of land connecting two or more urban areas: the Boston-Washington corridor.
Frontier
Zone where no state exercises complete political control.
movement
the fifth theme of geography; the mobility of people, goods, and ideas across the surface of the planet
centrifugal
moving or directed outward from the center (
Global Positioning System (GPS)
Satellite-based system for determining the absolute location of places or geograpic features.
winter wheat
Wheat planted in the fall and harvested in the summer.
zone
area of a city with a relatively uniform land use
Life Expectancy
A figure indicating how long, on average, a person may be expected to live.
stationary population level
a population containing a basically even distribution of age groups
Hunting for your food in nature
Hunting and gathering
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
An international economic organization whose member countries all produce and export oil
Ecumene
The portion of the earth inhabited by humans
Cultural complex
The group traits that define a particular culture.
more-developed country
countries with low CBR's and low CDR's. Are highly urbanized and inhabitants have long life expectancies
5 reasons for taboo
-concern for health
-concern for natural environment
-use in agriculture
-concern for religious reasons
Thresh
to beat out grain from stalks by trampling it.
Industrial Revolution
a series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods
Absolute Location
The position of place of a certian item on the surface of the Earth as expresed in degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude, 0° to 90° north or south of the equator, and longitude, 0° to 180° east or west of the Prime Meridian passing through Greenwich, England.
Unitary State
A form of government in which powere in concentrated in the central government.
physiological density
number of persons per unit of area suitable for agriculture
A term that relates the structure of towns within an area.
Urban Hierarchy
Dot maps
Thematic maps thats use points to show the precise locations od specific observations or occurances, such as crimes, car accidents, or births
An apartheid is...?
The Afrikaan term given to the policies of racial seperation once practiced in South Africa and to the the higly segregated sociogeographical patterns they produced.
Central Place
a market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area
islands of development
Place built up by a government or corporation to attract foreign investment and which has relatively high concentrations of paying jobs and infrastructure
The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a a snowballing process
expansion diffusion
Gross Domestic Product
The total value of goods and services produced within the borders of a country during a specific time period.
expansion diffusion
the spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process
Crude birth rate
The number of live births a year per 1,000 people
What is the difference between linear and exponential growth?
Linear growth rates when shown on graphs are straight lines and exponential rates curve.
autonomous religions
self-sufficient religions
isoglosses
geographical boundary lines where different linguistic features meet.
Restricted neighborhoods or subdivisions, often literally fenced in, where entry is limited to residents and their guests. Although predominantly high-income based, in North America they are increasingly a middle class phenomenon.
Gated Communities
Dialect(YADAYADAYADA)
geographically distinct versions of a single language that vary somewhat from the parent form. ex. the south.
Transhumance
The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures.
branches of Islam are
sunni and shiite
Apartheid
Laws that physically separated races in south Africa (no longer in effect)
Centrifugal force
Tend to divide a country.
monoglot
people that only speak one language
chronic or degenerative diseases
long lasting afflictions
the arrangement and intergrated peration of phenomenona produced by or respnding to spatial processes on earths surface
spatial system
Place
The fourth theme of Geography as defined by the GENIP; uniqueness of a location.
George Perkins Marsh
-American inventor, politician & scholar
-Lived 1801-1882
-Wrote Man & Nature or Physical Geo. As Modified by Human Action
-Provided 1 of the first descriptions of how a natural system can be effected by human actions
-Warned that human destruction of environment could have disastrous consequences (Ex. was Fertile Crescent which was once an agricultural & urban society that transformed into desert arid area that we know today)
-Seen as 1st modern day environmentalist
hearth
The region from which innovative ideas originate.
Ethnic Neighborhood
a neighborhood which retains some cultural distinction from a larger, surrounding area
blockbusting
the prosses of which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell there houses at lower prices because of the fear of people of color will move into the neighborhood
intrafaith boundaries
boundaries within a single major faith
Buddhism
System of belief that seeks to explain ultimate realities for all people-such as nature of suffering and the path toward self-realization
Hazards
Anything in the landscape, real or percieved, that is potentially threatening (usually avoided in spatial behavior)
monotheism
belief that there is only one God
Agriculture
The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth’s surface through the cultivation of crop and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain.
Sect
A relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination
raw material orientation
The location of the manufacturing plant in relation to the source of raw materials. While most industries would prefer to locate near their markers in order to save the recurring costs of transportation, some industries - especially those that involve a loss of weight, bulk, or perishability in the process of manufacturing - might prefer to locate near their source of raw materials since their material index is much greater than 1.0.
Remote Sensing
A method of collecting data or information through the use of instruments that are physically distant from the area or object of study.
Primary Sector
the portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry
Enfranchisement
the act of certifying or bestowing a franchise on
Balkanization
process by which a state brakes down through conflicts among its ethnicities
Pull factor
a reason/factor that pulls people into a area
During the 1990s, which of the United Kingdom four geographic entities called for independence?
Scotland
Official language
Language in which all government and business occurs in a country
Sun belt
US region mostly comprised of the southeastern and southwester states, which has grown dramatically since WWII
cultural landscape
things that humans leave behind like road or a building
imperialism
the policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies.
GPS (global positioning system)
a system that determines accurately the precise position of something on Earth
Microstate
A state or territory that is small in both size and population.
multinational state
state with more than one nation within its borders.
Urbanized area
The central city (term given to cities in the U.S. surrounded by suburbs) and surrounding built-up suburbs
bulk-reducing industry
an industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs
arithmatic population density
population based on people divided by the amount of land
sense of place
State of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in n that place or by labeling that place with a certain character
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
measure of the United States economy adopted in 1991
British Received Pronunciation (BRP)
Dialect of english spoken by upper class brits now considered british standards
Define "aquaculture".
The use of a river segment or an artifical body of water for the raising and harvesting of food products, such as fish, shellfish, and even seaweed. Japan is among the world's leaders in aquaculture.
International Date Line
an arc that for the most part follows 180 degrees longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas
New international division of labor
Transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid, less-skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries.
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