AP Human Geography 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
multi-ethnic state
A vast metropolitan area
Megacity
ethnicity
ethnic traits, background, alliance, or association
Inanimate Power
Power generated by machines
location
the position that something occupies on Earth's surface
city
conglomeration of people and buildings clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics
hydroelectric power
power generated from moving water
Confederation
A form kf an international organization that brings several autonomous states together for a common purpose.
gender
refers to the social differences between men and women. Notions of gender differences (what is considered "feminine" or "masculine", for example)vary greatly over time and space.
Hierarchical religion
Well-defined geographic structure and organizes territory into local administrative units.
pattern
the design of a spatial distribution
race
a categorization of humans based on skin color and other physical characteristics. Racial categories are social and political constructions because they are based on ideas that some biologiacal differences (especially skin color) are more important than others (e.g., height, etc.), even thought the latter miht have more significance in therms of human activity. With its roots in sixteenth-century England, the term is closely associated with European colonialism because of the impact of the development on global understandings of racial differences
principal meridians
some of the north-south lines separating townships
Nation
Group of people often sharing common elements of culture, such as religion or language, or a history or political identity.
Globalization
growth to a global or worldwide scale
parallel
a circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians
Expansion Diffusion
Movement in a "snowball" effect. growing in numbers
The study of the political organization of the planet
Political geography
Site
The absolute location of a place, described by local relief, landforms, and other cultural or physical characteristics
Parrallel
An east-west line of latitude thats runs parallel to the equator and that marks distance north or south of the equator
combine
a machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans grain while moving over a field
Gross Migration
Gross migration records the migration of people migrating into and out of a country.
infectious diseases
diseases that spread through bacteria, viruses, and parastites
landscape
the overall appearance of an area, usually composed of natural and human-induced influences
pilgrimage
a journey to a place of religious importance
Overpopulation
The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.
shifting cultivation
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
Sunbelt phenomenon
the movement of millions of Americans from northern and northeastern States to the South and Southwest regions(Sunbelt) of the United States
Dot Map
Maps where one dot represents a certain number of phenomenon, such as population.
fission
the splitting of an atomic nucleus to release energy
A related influence on patterns of settlement and land use.
Cadastral system
Coordinate System
A standard grid, composed of lines latitude and longitude, used to determin the absolute location of any object, place, or feature on the earth's surface
Contagious diffusion
The spread of disease, innovationm or cultural traits through direct contact with another person or another place
Cultural geography
The subfield of human geography that looks at how culture varies over space
define marchland
district consisting of the area on either side of a border or boundary of a country or an area
the study of patterns rate of pop change
demography
Swidden
a patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning.
Public Services
services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses
Medical Geography
the study of health and disease within a geographic context and from a geographical perspective. Among other things, _______ _______ looks at sources, diffusion routes, and distributions of diseases.
Toponym
The name given to a portion of Earth's surface.
relocation diffusion
the spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another
The companies that provide jobs in a given community or geographic location.
Economic base
Speciality goods
Good that are not massproduced but are assembled individually in smaller quantities.
International Refugees
Refugees who have crossed one or more international boundaries during their dislocation, searching for asylum in a different country.
Rush (or peak) hour
the four consecutive 15 minutes periods in the morning and eveing with the heaviest volumes of traffic.
Formal Region
A type of _______ in which the housing stock predominantly reflects styles of building that are particular to the culture of the people who have inhabited the area.
Greenwich Mean Time
The time in that time zone ecompassing the Prime Meridian, or 0 degrees longitude
Intervening opportunities
The idea that one place has a demand for some good or service and two places have a supply of equal price and quality, then the closer of the two suppliers to the buyer, will represent and intervening opportunity, thereby blocking the 3rd from being able to share its supply of goods and services. They are frequently utilized because transportation costs decrease with proximity
Hierarchical diffusion
The spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places (Ex- hip-hop/rap music)
Law of retail gravitation
Law that states thats people will be drawn to larger cities to conduct their business because larger cities have a wider influence on the hinterlands that surround them
United Nations Conference on the Human Environment
Conference that is directed on the human environment.
cultural trait
attributes to culture
subfamilies
divisions within a language family
Remote sensing
Observation and mathmatical measurement of the earth's surface using aircraft and satellites. The sensors include both photographic images, thermal images, multispectral scanners, and radar images
quaternary sector
Service sector industries concerned with the collection, processing, and manipulation of information and capital. Examples include finance, administration, insurance, and legal services.
Fair Trade
promoting sustainability. The movement advocates the payment of a fair price as well as social and environmental standards in areas related to the production of a wide variety of goods.
what is the world's largest universalizing religion
Christianity
racism
an ideology of difference that ascribes significance and meaning to culturally, socially, and politically constructed ideas based on phenotypical features
Export-processing zone
Areas where governments create favorable investment and tading conditions to attract export-oriented industries.
Rural Density
Such as rural population density?

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boundary
something that indicates bounds or limits; a limiting or bounding line.
Population Pyramid
A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.
Ancillary Activities
Economic activities that surround and support large-scale industries such as shipping and food service.
Material culture
The physical manifestations of human activities; includes tools ,campsites, art, and structures. The most durable aspects of culture
Genocide
systematic killing of a racial or cultural group
density
the amount of people per unit area
Demographic Transition
multistage model of changes in population growth exhibited by countries undergoing industrialization
Action space
The geographical area that contains the space an individual interacts with on a daily basis.
Ethnic island
A small, usually rural enclave, generally consisting of the same ethnicity, situated within a larger and more diverse cultural context.
popular (pop) culture
found in large, heterogeneous societies that share certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics
Seed agriculture
reproduction of plants through annual introduction of seeds, which result from sexual fertilization.
Net migration
the difference between number of immigrants and emigrants
residential segregation
defined by Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton as "the degree to which two or more groups live separately from one another, in different parts of the urban environment."
Location Theory
A logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of the economic activity and the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated.
Centripetal Forces
Forces that strengthen and unify the state.
Boundary demarcation
The actual placing of a political boundary on the landscape by means of barriers, fences, walls, or other markers.
Nationality
identity with a group of people that share legal attachment and personal allegiance to particular place as a result of being born there
Sex ratio
number of males to every 100 females
Work that produces goods for export and generates an inflow of money.
Basic sector
Cultural imperialism
The dominance of one culture over another
Prime meridian
An imaginary line passing through the royal observatory in greenwich, england, which marks 0 degrees line of longitude
Cartography
The science of making maps. In the past most were made largely by hand but, with computers and software, they are now mostly created electronically.
longevity map
The difference in the average length of life between males and females.
Accessibility
how easy a place is to get to
remote sensing
A method of collecting data or information through the use of instruments (e.g., satellites) that are physically distant from the area or object of study
culture
the quality in a person or society that arises from a concern for what is regarded as excellent in arts, letters, manners, scholarly pursuits, etc.
slash and burn agriculture
Another name for shifring cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris.
Carrying Capacity
the largest number of people that the environment of a particular area can support
Cotton belt
The term by which the American South used to be known as.
Mercator Projection
It is computed so all meridians and parallels intersecting at right angles distorting land areas in polar regions while maintaining direction.
meridian
an arc drawn on a map between the north and south poles
Ridge Tillage
system of planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conversion
self determinism
the right of a group w/ a distinct politico-territorial identity to determine its own destiny, at least in part, through the control of its own territory
eastern orthodox church
one of the three major branches of christianity, arose out of the division of the roman empire
what is migration?
a change in residence intended to be permanent
Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)
a measure of how many units of currency are needed in one country to buy the amount of goods and services that one unit of currency will buy in another country
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
The total number of deaths in a year among infants under one year old for every 1000 live births in a society.
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