AP Human Geography Review Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
EC
European Community
Anthropentric
Human-centered; in sustainable developement, anthropentric refers to ideas that focus soley on the needs of people without considering the creatures with whom we share the planet or the ecosystems upon which we depend.
inanimate power
power supplied by machines
expansion diffusion
diffusion based on movement
place
a specific point of Earth distinguished by a particular character
suburbanization
movement of upper and middle-class people from urban core areas to the surrounding outskirts to escape pollution as well as deteriorating social conditions (perceived and actual). In North America, the process began in the early nineteenth century and became a mass phenomenon by the second half of the twentieth century
greenhouse effect
anticipated increase in earth's temperature caused by carbon dioxide, trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface.
Centrifugal force
Tend to divide a country.
neighborhood
neighborhood
the area or region around or near some place or thing; vicinity
Fundamentalism
Literal interpretation and a strict and intense adherence to basic principles of a religion.
spatial distribution
Physical location of geographic phenomena across space
identifying against
constructing an identity by first defining the "other" and then by defining ourselves as "not the other"
mental map
an internal representation of a portion of Earth's surface
Geopolitics
State's power to control space or territory and shape the foreign policy of individual states and international political realtions.
Gerrymander
to divide (a geographic area) into voting districts so as to give unfair advantage to one party in elections
uneven development
the increasing gap in economic conditions between regions in the core and periphery that results from the globalization of the economy
Animate Power
Power supplied by people or animals
What is the counter force to supranationalism?
Devolution
Theocracy
A state whose government is either believed to be divinely guided or a state under the control of religious leaders.
Idiographic
Pertaining to the unique facts or characteristics of a particular place
Projection
The system used to transfer locations from the globe onto a map. Projections distort the shape, distance, relatice size, or direction of the Earth. Some projections minimize one or more types of distortion.
longitude
used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distances east and west of the prime meridian
spatial interaction
the flow of products, people, services, or information among places, in response to localized supply and demand.
caste system
System in India that gives every Indian a particular place in the social hierarchy from birth. Individuals may improve the position they inherit in the caste system in their next life through their actions, or karma. After many lives of good karma, they may be relieved from cycle of life and win their place in heaven.
Industrial Revolution
A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
crop rotation
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
Griffin- Ford model
developed by geographers Ernst Griffin and Larry Ford, a model of the Latin American city showing a blend of traditional elements of Latin American culture with the forces of globalization that are reshaping the urban scene
Race
identity with a group of people who share a biological ancestor
resource
a substance in the environment that is useful to people, in economically and technologically feasible to access and is socially acceptable to use.
What is the lingua franca of East Africa?
Swahili
Least-cost theory
A concept developed by Alfred Weber to describe the optimal location of a manufacturing establishment in relation to the costs of transportation and labor, and the relative advantages of agglomeration or deglomeration.
Overpopulation
A value judgement based on the notion that the resources of a particular area is not great enough to support the area's population
population geography
A subdivision of human geography that focuses on the spatial aspects of demography and the influences of demographic change on particular places.
the portion of the world land surface that is permanently settled by human beings
ecumense
Shifting cultivation
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
Threshold
the minimum number of people needed to support the service
Human Geography
One of the two major divisions of Geography; the spatial analysis of human population, its cultures, activities, and landscapes.
Greenwich Mean Time
The time in that time zone encompassing the prime meridian, or 0° longitude.
territorial integrity
the right of a state to defend soverign territory against incurrsion from other states
Reference map
A map type that shows information for a particular place, making it useful for finding landmarks and for navigating
Ethnicity
Refers to a group of people who share common identitiy
Internal Refugees
Refugees who have crossed one or more internal boundaries during their dislocation, searching for asylum
Redlining
a process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to loan money to purchase or improve property with the boundaries.
Sex Ratio
The number of males per 100 females in a population
Compact state
a state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly
Crude death rate
The number of deaths a year per 1,000
Physiological density
The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture. This is important because it relates to how much land is being used by how many people.
Legal definition of a city
An urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent, self-governing unit.
What is the baby boom?
A baby boom is any period of greatly increased birth rate during a certain period, and usually within certain geographical bounds and when the birth rate exceeds 2% of the population. (The term baby boom most often refers to the dramatic post-World War II baby boom).
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