AP Human Geography Vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
tirtha
Hindu pilgrimmage
Recycling
Reuse of unwanted material.
federal
a political-territorial system wherein a central government represents the various entities within a nation-state where they have common interests - defense, foreign affairs, and the like - yet allows those various entities to retail their own identities and to have their own law, policies and customs in certain spheres.
Fundamentalism
Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principals of a religion (or religious branch, denomination, or sect)
language branch
collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. differences are not as extensive or as old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that the branches derived from the same family
Ethnonationalism
The identification and loyalty a person may feel for his or her nation.
gerrymandering
redistricting for advantage, or the practice of dividing areas into eletoral distric to give one political party an electoral majority in a large number of districts while concentrating the voting strength of the opposition in as few districts as possible.
Indo-European family
Language family including the Germanic and Romance languages that is spoken by about 50% of the worlds people
Population Structure
Graphic representation (profile)of a population according to age and sex.
Nationalism
Loyalty and devotion to a nationality.
Subsistence Agriculture
agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
military service
another common form of periodic movement involving as many as 10 million US citizens in a given year, including military personnel and their families, who are moved to new locations where they will spend tours of duty lasting up to several years
Agriculture
The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain.
Distance Decay
The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
Subsequent boundary
A political boundary that developed contemporaneously with the evolution of the major elements of the cultural landscape through which it passes.
commodification
The process through which something is given monetary value; occurs when a good or idea that previously was not regarded as an object to be bought and sold is turned into something that has a particular price and that can be traded in a market economy.
identifying against
constructing an identity by first defining "other" and then defining ourselves as "not the other".
The study of the interpplay between international political relations and the territorial/environmental context in which they occur. Combines geography with some aspects of political science.
Geopolitics.
Gravity model
A mathmatical formula that describes the level of interaction between 2 places based on the size of their populationand their distance from one another
North/south divide
The economic division between wealthy countries of Europe, North America, Japan, and Australia an the generally poorer countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
Cottage Industry
A usually small-scale industry carried on at home by family members using their own equipment.
Step Migration
Migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages, for example, from farm to nearby village and later to town and city.
spatial diffusion
the distribution of ideas products culture languages etc. across space
Combine
a machine the reaps, threshes, and cleans grain while moving over a field
ethnic religion
religion that is identfified with a particular ethnic or tibal group and that does not seek new converts. people are born into this religion
undocumented immigrants
those who are entering without proper documents
Commodity Chain
Series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution and resulting in a commodity that is on world market.
Uniform landscape
The spatial expression of a popular custom in one location being similar to another.
this house style became popular in the 1960s
neo--eclectic
Regions
An area with one or more shared characteristics.
System where the eldest son in a family-or, in exceptional cases, daughter-inherits all of a dying parents land.
Primogeniture
Sustainable development
The idea that people living today should be able ti meet their needs without prohibiting the ability of future generations to do the same.
Beaux arts
The movement within city planning and urban design that stressed marriage of older, classical forms with newer, industrial ones.
Balance of Power
In international relations, a balance of power exists when there is parity or stability between competing forces. As a term in international law for a 'just equilibrium' between the members of the family of nations, it expresses the doctrine intended to prevent any one nation from becoming sufficiently strong so as to enable it to enforce its will upon the rest.
Balkanization
Process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities.
Public Services
services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses
Pull factor
factor that cause people to immigrate to a place
pidgin language
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages.
centripetal force
an attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state
Scale
The ratio between the size of an area on a map and the sctual size of that same area on the earth's surface
Language family
A collection of many languages, all of which came from the same original tongue long ago
Folk Housing characteristics
-product of both natural and cultural conditions
-reflection of heritage, current fashion, functional needs, and the impact of environment
Chain Migration
The migration of people to a specific location, because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)
the time in that time zone encompassing the prime meridian, or 0 degrees longitude
Literary Tradition
A language that is written as well as spoken.
Culture
A total way of life held in common by a group of people (language, ideology, etc.)
Density Gradient
The change in density in an urban area from the center periphery.
What is a density gradient?
The variation in density over an area.
little wine is produced in Asia simply because...
It's simply not part of their cultural tradition
Untouchables
lowest on caste
Immigration
migration to a location.
ECSC
European Coal and Steel Company
marx
German economist, philosopher, and socialist.
language
system of communication through the use of speech, collection of sounds and understood by a group of people to have the same meaning
J-curve
the correlation between stability and openness
state
a politically organized territory that is administered by a sovereign government and is recognized by a significant portion of the international community. A state has a defined territory, a permanent population, a government and is recognized by other states.
Brick-and-mortar business
Traditional businesses with actual stores in which trade or retail occurs; it does not exist soley on the Internet.
Pagan
an offensive term that deliberately insults somebody's disbelief in religion, way of life, or degree of knowledge
Renewable Energy
Resource that is replaced continually.
Desertification
degradation of land, especially in semiarid zones, primarily because of human actions
Cereal Grain
A grass yielding grain for food.
Projection
The system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map.
political geography
A subdivision of human geography focused on the nature and implications of the evolving spatial organization of political governance and formal political practice on the Earth's surface. It is concerned with why political spaces emerge in the places that they do and with how the character of those spaces affects social, political, economic, and environmental understandings and practices.
queer theory
highlights the contextual nature of opposition to the heteronormative and focuses on the political engagement of "queers" with the heteronormative
A ranking of settlements (hamlet, village, town, city, metropolis) according to their size and economic function.
Urban Hierarchy
Imperialism
The perpetuation of a colonial empire even after it is no longer politically sovereign.
Population geography
A division of human geography concerned with spatial variations in distribution, composition, growth, and movements of population
Sahel
Region of Africa, a semiarid band south of the Sahara Desert stretching from Senegal to Egypt.

*semiarid - receiving between 10 and 20 inches of precipitation annually
Explorers
People examining a region that is unknown to them.
latitude
used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator
Seed Agriculture
reproduction of plants through annual introduction of seeds which result from sexual fertilization
pilgrimage
a journey to a place of religious importance
refugees
people who have been forced to migrate from their home and cannot return in fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion
Von Thunen
Created the concentric zone model that states that perishable goods are located near market area as well as heavy items, while crops that are able to be shipped long distances without spoiling were located farther away.
Culture hearth
A nuclear area within which an advanced and distinctive set of culture traits, ideas and technologies develops and from which there is diffusion of those characteristics and the cultural landscape features they imply.
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population
contagious diffusion
Location
The space that is occupied in the universe (absolute/relative)
System that divided land into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers, roads, or canals. It reflects a particular approaach to surveying that was common in French America.
Long-lot survey
Beaux arts
The movement within city planning and urban design that stressed marriage of older, classical forms with newer, industrial ones.
Relative distance
A measure of distance that includes the costs of overcoming the friction of absolute distance separating two places
Nomothetic
Concepts or rules that can be applied universally
Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOS)
Organizations not supported by the government.
Proven Reserve
Amount of energy remaining in deposits that have been discovered.
Central Place Theory
a theory that explains the distribution of services; larger settlements are few and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther
the absoloute location of a place or activity described by local relief landform and other physical characteristics
site
Sense of Place
State of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling a place with a certian character.
Lingua franca
a common language used by speakers of different languages
natural increase
the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate of a population
Elongated state
A state whose territory is a long elongated shape.
Absolute Location
The exact position of an object or place
anuual # of live births per 1000 live individuals within a given pop
CBR
Vernacular Region
An area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity.
hierarchical diffusion
the spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places
ethnic cleansing
to wipe out a ethnic group; like the jews
Baby boom
A cohort of individuals born in the US between 1946 and 1964, after WWII.
Expansion Diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process.
Gross National Product (GNP)
The total value of all goods and services produced by a country’s economy in a given year. It includes all goods and services produced by corporations and individuals of a country, whether or not they are located within the
Name 2 of the 3 special Lao customs for sleeping
-beds are perpendicular to the center ridgepole of the house
-beds are arranged to the feet of their neighbors to show respect
-Kids who have their house right next to their parents' house sleep with their heads at their parents' feet to show respect
E-commerce
Web-based economic activities
isoglosses
geographical boundary lines where different linguistic features meet.
Approximately how many language families exist in the world today?
20
denomination
A particular religious group, usually associated with differing Protestant belief systems.
Poseidonius
-theorized that the equatorial zone was livable & the highest temperatures are in the deserts inside the temperate zone
shiites compromise about what percent of Islamic people
16%
Biodiversity
The number of species within habitat
Regionalization
The process inwhich specific regions aquire characteristics that differentiate them form others in the same country.
External Economies
Foreign economies owned externally from another country.
cultural barrier
barriers preventing cultures from mixing wether tangible or untangible
the design or arrangement of phenomenona in eath space
pattern
Relocation Diffusion
Sequential ________ process in which the items being ________ are transmitted by their carrier agents as they evacuate the old areas and relocate new ones.
Alfred Wegener
-German scientist who lived from 1880-1930
-Theory of Pangaea (Earth was once a one super-continent that broke apart over time)- Continental Drift Theory
Transculturation
cultural change induced by a foreign country
Expansive Popluation Policies
Government policies that encourage large families and raise the rate of population growth.
minarets
tower attached to a muslim mosque, having one or more projecting balconies from which a crier calls muslims to prayer
Earth system science
Systematic approach to physical geography thats looks at the interaction between the earth's physical systems and the processes on a global scale
Geopolitics
The study of the interplay between political regions and the territorial context in which they occur
Lebensraum
Hitler's expansionist theory based n a drive to aquire "living space" for the german people
deindustrialization
to cause to lose industrial capability or strength; make less industrial in character or emphasis.
sect
a relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination
Pasture
Grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals, as well as land used for grazing.
City-state
a sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland
dependency theory
A structuralist theory that offers a critique of the modernization model of development. Based on the idea that certain types of political and economic relations (especially colonialism) between countries and regions of the world have created arrangements that both control and limit the extent to which regions can develop.
Global Positioning System (GPS)
Satellite-based system for determining the absolute location of places or geograpic features.
Informal Sector
the portion of an economy largely outside goverment control in which emoloyees work without contracts or benefits
Reincarnation
rebirth of a soul in a new body
Racist
a person who subscribes to the beliefs of racism
Guest workers
Workers who migrate to more developed country's to get jobs and work
what country is a founder of Benelux and the original EEC, plus a charter of the EU, but may not survive the century in one piece?
Belgium
Rust belt
The manufacturing region in the US that is currently debilitated because manufacturing firms have relocated to other countries offering cheap labor and relaxed environmental regulations.
Forced migration
Individuals are forced to migrate from their country against their will
contagious diffusion
the rapid, wide-spread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population
Spatial Justice
The fairness of the distribution of resources(natural and unnatural) geographically
Federal State
Allocates strong power to units of local government within a country.
Stimulus diffusion
The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.
Traditional religion
a religion that has originality and is not modernized
operational boundary disputes
involve neighbors who differ over the way their border should function
Ethnicity
Refers to a group of people who share common identitiy
arithmetic density
the total number of people divided by the total land area
physiological population density
population based on people divided by the amount of ariable land
perceptual region
A region that only exists as a conceptualization or an idea and not as a physically demarcated entity
Human Development Index (HDI)
measure used by the united nations that calculates development not in terms of money or productivity but in terms of human welfare. the HDI evaluates human welfare based on three parameters: life expectancy, education, and income
Base Line
a line used designate survey in the US in 1785 limiting the number townships
Hierarchial Diffusion
A form of _____ in which an idea or innovation spreads by passing first among the most connected places or peoples. An urban ________ is usually involved, encouraging the leapfrogging of innovations over wide areas, with geographic distance a less important influence.
formal/functional, & perceptual regions*
formal region-a type of region that is set
functional region- a type of region that is defined by daily activities
perceputal region- just a general area eg: The South
spanglish
combination of english and spanish
European Union
International organization comprised of Western European countries to promote free trade among members.
quotas
established limits by governments on the number of immigrants who can enter a country each year
Self-determination
concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves
Lagnuages of traditional, numerically smaller, and technologically less advanced peoples have been replaced, or greatly modified, by the languages of invaders.
Language replacement
Micropolitian Statistical Area
A smaller metropolitian area
multi-ethnic state
societies in which diferent ethnicities live together
map
a two dimensional representation of earths surface or a part of it
ghetto
a segregated ethnic area within a city. Jews primarily lived here during world war II
language convergence
when people with different languages have consistent spatial interaction and their languages collapse into one
Foward Capital
Symbolic relocation of capital for either economic or stragegic reasons.
high mass consumption
consumption of large quantities- Rostow's final stage in modernization theory.
Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in poorer countries and enabled more pe
medical revolution
Houses in which layout, contruction, and appearance have not been significantly altered by external influences over the past century. Such house may be modified over time WITHIN the culture, not borrowing from other cultures.
Unchanged-traditional dwellings
Deindustrialition
Loss of industrial activty in a region.
polytheism
The belief system in which multiple deities are revered as creators and arbiters of all that exists in the universe.
Cosmogony
A set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe.
Dispersed Rural Settlement
a rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages
Counter-urbanization
net migration from urban to rural areas in MDCs
migration
a change in residence intended to be permanent
concentration
the extent of a feature's spread over space
Remote Sensing
The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet of other long-distance methods
New World Order
A description of the international system resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union in which the balance of nuclear terror theoretically no longer determined the destinies of states.
environmental deterministm
the approach that human actions are scientifically caused by environmental conditions
Autonomous Religion
A religion with no central authority but informally shares ideas and cooperates
Electorial vote
The decision of a particular state elector that represents the dominent views of the elector's state.
Prime meridian
An imaginary line passing through the Royal Observatory in
Greenwich, England, which marks the 0 degree line of longitude
Death Rate
Expressed as the annual number of deaths per 1000 individuals within a given population.
Intervening Opportunity
The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.
isotherm
Line on a map connecting points of equal temperature values
cultural complex
The group of traits that define a particular culture.
restrictive population policies
government policies to reduce the rate of natural increase
Stationary Population Level
The level at which a national population ceases to grow.
Hierarchal diffusion
Spread starting from the "top of the chain" such as with a government official then slowly down to average people
Absolute Distance
The distance that can be measured with a standard unit of length, such as a mile or kilometer
What is a node?
A centering point of component parts.
diffusion
the process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time
Range (of a service)
the maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service
Space-Time Compression
The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems.
If it is possible to deduce a large part of the vocab of on excint language, it may feasible to go even further and re-create the language that preceded it.
Deep reconstruction
Areal interdependence occurs when
When one area produces certain goods or has certain raw materials or resources and another area has a different set of resources and produces different goods, their needs may be complementary; by exchanging raw materials and products, they can satisfy each other's requirements.
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
The number of live births yearly per thousand people in a population.
Rate of Natural Increase
difference of CDR and CBR in a given country in a year
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