PCAT Biology Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Apoptosis (importance)
development
G1 Stage
Growth
Nuclear Division
Cytoplasmic Division
Lipoproteins
Proteins bound to lipids
four types of tissues
epithelial
connective
nervous
muscle
Types of Mutations
Missense
Nonsense
Frame-Shift (insertion or deletion)
Gause's Law
Competitive exclusion principle
mucoproteins
proteins bound to carbohydrate
pumps
energy dependent carriers(require ATP) like the sodium potassium pump
Cerebrum
processing sensory information and memory
Molds
multicellular, composed of strands (HYPHAE) of cells all joined into one mass; EXAMPLES penicillin and mushrooms
Clostridium
tetanus, botulism, and gas gangrene
These cells excavates bone cavities
osteoclasts
Erythrocytes live for about
120 days
nucleoproteins
proteins containing histone or protamine (nuclear protein) bound to nucleic acids
cytoskeleton
supports the cell

maintains its shape

functions in cell motility

it is composed of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments
Carotenoids
fatty, acid-like carbon chains containing conjugated double bonds and carrying six-membered carbon rings at each end. These compounds are the pigments that produce red, yellow, orange, and brown colors in plants and animals.
Atom
The unit of an element.
chromoproteins
proteins bound to pigmented molecules
circulation
the transportation of material within cells and throughout the body of a multicellular organism
cyclosis
streaming the movement within the cell
basophils
contain granules full of HISTAMINE that cause inflammatin
nosocomial
pathogenic microbes that come from hospital infections
Ectoderm
differentiates to form the nervous system, and the epidermis
Achondroplasia
type of autosomal dominant genetic disorder that is a common cause of dwarfism.
zoonoses
pathogenic microbes that come from animals
Trypanisoma
protozoan disease known as sleeping sickness, transmitted by tse tse fly
Gymnosperms
leaves are needlelike and evergreen, and it produces cones

Their female sex germs reside in ovules, as in regular flowers, but the ovules themselves are not enclosed within the flower's ovaries, as they are among flowering plants.
Metaphase
All chromosomes line up at equator
The process of muscle contraction requires ______
Calcium
Parasympathetic Nervous System
usually slows things down
Cerebellum
receives information from muscles and sensory receptors - controls balance and coordinated movement
Which lipid derivative has this structure:

FA-like carbon chains containing conjugated double bonds containing 6-membered carbon rings at each end
Carotenoids
What contains the genetic instructions within the cell
chromosomes
These phagocytes attack and destroy invading infectious agents such as bacteria
macrophages
Homeostasis
Maintenance of the body's internal environment in a changing external environment.
Plants store energy in this form.
Starches
cytokinesis
near the endo of telophase, the cytoplasm divides into two daugter cells, each with a complete nucleus and its own set of organelles. in animals, a cleavage furrow forms and the cell memebrane indents along the equater of the cell and finally pinches through the cell, seperating the two nuclei
endoplasmic reticulum
network of membrane encolsed spaces involved in the transport of materials hroughout the cell, particularly those materials destined to be secreted by the cell
Ribosomes
Site of protein production and are made by the nucleolus. Free ribosomes are found in the cytoplasm Bound ribosomes line the outer membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum
Nucleus
Controls the activities of the cell. It is surrounded by a nuclear membrane. It contains the DNA which is complexed with structural proteins called histones to form chromosomes.
Pyloric Sphincter
separates the stomach from the duodenum (aka duodenal sphincter)
Amylase
enzyme in saliva that breaks down starch
Aneuploidy
an abnormal number of chromosomes, and is a type of chromosome abnormality (one copy of chromosome) Turner's Syndrome
decomposer
grow on, break down, and absorb nutrients from dead material
Robert Hooke
known as "the father of microscopy", and for coining the term "cell" to describe the basic unit of life.
IgD
found on the surface of B cells
Myopia
Nearsightedness is when the eyes focus incorrectly, making distant
objects appear blurred
Transduction
the process by which DNA is transferred from one bacterium to another by a virus; common tool used by molecular biologists to stably introduce a foreign gene into a host cell's genome.
Recombination
refers to the transfer of genetic information from one organism to another
Blood (function of)
transports wastes, nutrients, and oxygen
enzyme inhibition where the inhibitor competes with the enzyme for binding site
competitive inhibition
The stage in cell division where chromosomes condense, the nuclear membrane deteriorates, and the spindle microtubules attach to the chromosomes.
prophase
Retroviruses produce this to allow them to produce a strand of DNA from an RNA template
reverse transcriptase
steroids
have three fused cyclohexane rings and one fused cyclopentane ring

they include cholesterol, the sex hormones testosterone and estrogen, and corticosteroids.
antiporters
exchange one or more ions or molecules for another
Liviinig things kingdoms
monerans protista fungi plants and animals
summary of interphase
G1- initiates interphase. is described as the active growth phase and can vary in length. the cell increases in size and synthesizes proteins. The length of the G1 phase dethermines he length of the entire cell cycleS- The period of DNA synthesisG2- The cell prepares to divide. It grows and synthesis proteinsM- cell divison occurs ( mitosis), resulting intwo identical daughter cells
Commensalism
helps one and does not effect the other
Leukocytes
White blood cells - function in the immune system to protect the body against disease
2 non protein molecules incorporated into the enzyme to activate it
cofactors (metals)
coenzymes (organic)
cofactors that bind to enzyme by strong covalent bonds are called ____
prosthetic groups
The most common type of white blood cell found in humans
neutrophil
Vitamins A, D and E are ___ soluble
fat
This is not normally reabsorbed by the kidneys
creatinine
Secondary structure (PROTEIN)
Based on hydrogen bonding between adjacent amino acids and results in (Beta)-pleated sheets or (alpha) helices.
Inorganic Compounds
compounds that do not contain the element Carbon including salts and HCl.
Lipids
aka Fats and Oils

The chief means of food storage in animals.

Major component of fatty (adipose) tissue. [protection]

Consists of 3 fatty acid molecules bonded to a single glycerol backbone.

Have long carbon chains that give them their hydrophobic (fatty) character and carboxylic acid groups that make them acidic.
Ingestion
The acquisition of food and other raw materials.
Define mitochondria.
Mitochondria are the sites of aerobic respiration within the cell and hence the suppliers of energy. Each mitochondria is bounded by an outer and inner phospholipid bilayer.
Competitive exclusion principle
a proposition which states that two species competing for the same resources cannot stably coexist if other ecological factors are constant. One of the two competitors will always overcome the other, leading to either the extinction of this competitor or an evolutionary or behavioral shift towards a different ecological niche.
Inner Ear
made up of cochlea and 3 semicircular canals
Transcription
It is like DNA replication in that a DNA strand is used to synthesize a strand of mRNA.
Only one strand of DNA is copied.
A single gene may be transcribed thousands of times.
After transcription, the DNA strands rejoin.
non-substrates bind to inhibit enzymes in what 2 ways?
competitive and non competitive
4 types of organic compounds
Carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
Blood is delivered to the heart from the lungs by the
pulmonary veins
This part of the human eye does not have blood supply flowing to it
cornea
Cell Theory Summary
All living things are composed of cells.

The cells is the basic functional unit of life.

The chemical reaction of life takes place inside the cell.

Cells arise only from pre-existing cells.

Cells carry genetic information in the form of DNA. This genetic material is passed from parent cell to daughter cell.
scleroproteins
these are fibrous in nature and act as structural proteins

collagen is a scleroprotein
Nonsense
a single base is changed to that of a stop codon which terminates synthesis
Give an example of a wax that is found in skin, fur, leaves, exoskeletons?
lanolin
6 elements that compose living things?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Sulfur, Phosphorus
Damage to the cerebellum would most likely
impair
A. memory.
B. coordination and equilibrium.
C. sense perception.
D. breathing.
B. coordination and equilibrium.
Retroviruses use the enzyme reverse transcriptase to
make DNA from RNA template
define substrate
the molecule that is acted upon by the enzyme
Two basic activities carried out by the nervous system
(1) sensory functions
(2) controlling movement
what chem. Reaction is required to form large molecules? To break down large to small subunits?
Hydrolysis (break) – dehydration (form)
what is competitive inhibition?
an enzyme is inhibited by the inactive substrate or competitor at the active site
2ndary protein stucture results in (2)
3rtiary protein structure results in (2)
2: alpha helices and beta pleated sheets
3: fibrous and globular proteins
What is the function of hormones?
these are proteins that function as chemical messengers secreted into the circulation.

Insulin and ACTH are protein hormones.
What elements make up Proteins?
C, H, O, and N.

also P and S

They are polymers of amino acids.
Lipids are composed of 1 ___ and 3 ___
1 glycerol backbone and 3 Fatty Acids
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