|rectum begins at level||
-Causes bleeding between cycles
Benign prostatic hyperplasia- prostate is very enlarged- could lead to problems with urination because the prostate surrounds the urethra.
overlies sacrospinous lig, lateral coccyx and sacrum to ischial spine, N: coccygeus
The ilium is the superior,flattened fan-shaped part of the hip bone.
The ala ofthc ilium represents he spread of the fan and the body the handle.
The body of the ilium helps to form the acetabulum.
The iliac crest the rim of fan has a curve that follows the contour of the ala between the anterior and posterior superior iliac spines.
The nterior concave part of the ilium forms the iliac fossa.
Aka mesometrium-sheath of peritoneum over the uterus
|primitive urogenital sinus in males||
|Urogenital triangle is in what plane?||
Faces posteroinferiorly and is defined laterally by the medial margins of the sacrotuberous ligaments, anteriorly by a horizontal line between the two ischial tuberosities, and posteriorly by the coccyx. The ceiling of the anal triangle is the pelvic diaphragm, which is formed by the levator ani muscles
|What fills the Urogenital Triangle?||
Fasciae and Pouches
|parasympathetic innervations of the urinary bladder||
Pelvic Splanchnic n.
Contraction causes the scrotum to wrinkle when cold and prevents heat loss
More stability than mobility, synovial jt, supported by and terior and posterior sacroiliac ligs, and interosseous sacroiliac ligs(strongest)
fibrocartilaginous, sup and inf pubic ligs
|Superficial perineal fascia||
The subcutaneous tissue of the perineum includes a superficial fatty layer and a deeper membranous layer (Colles fascia), which are continuous with corresponding layers of the inferior anterior abdominal wall.
In females, the fatty layer is thick within the mons pubis and labia majora, but in males, it is replaced by smooth dartos muscle in the penis and scrotum.
The membranous layer is limited to the UG triangle, fusing with the deep fascia at the posterior border (base) of the triangle. In males, this layer extends into the penis and scrotum, where it is closely associated with the loose, mobile skin of those structures.
The levator ani consists of three parts, designated according to the attachment and course of its fiber:
Puborectalis: the thicker, narrower, medial part of the levator ani, consisting of muscle fibers that are continuous between the posterior aspects of the right and left pubic bodies. It forms a U-shaped muscular sling (puborectal sling) that passes posterior to the anorectal junction, bounding the urogenital hiatus. This part plays a major role in maintaining fecal continence
Pubococcygeus: the wider but thinner intermediate part of the levator ani, which arises lateral to the puborectalis from the posterior aspect of the body of the pubis and anterior tendinous arch.It passes posteriorly in a nearly horizontal plane; its lateral fibers attach to the coccyx and its medial fibers merge with those of the contralateral muscle to form a fibrous raphe or tendinous plate, part of the anococcygeal body or ligament between the anus and the coccyx (often referred to clinically as the levator plate).
Iliococcygeus: the posterolateral part of the levator ani, which arises from the posterior tendinous arch and ischial spine. It is thin and often poorly developed (aponeurotic) and also blends with the anococcygeal body posteriorly
originate from the abdominal aorta and then descend to cross the pelvic inlet and supply the ovaries. They anastomose with terminal parts of the uterine arteries. On each side, the vessels travel in the suspensory ligament of ovary (the infundibulopelvic ligament) as they cross the pelvic inlet to the ovary. Branches pass through the mesovarium to reach the ovary and through the broad ligament to anastomose with the uterine artery. The ovarian arteries enlarge significantly during pregnancy to augment uterine blood supply.
|Round (Teres) Ligament||
Anchors uterus between urinary bladder and rectum
branch from Japan that used to absorb water gradually in order to dilate the cervix
Portio part of uterus bulges out of vagina
|Where does the cremaster muscle originate from?||
Internal abdominal oblique
|Ureter blood supply||
renal, gonadal, common iliac, and vesicular aa.
Suspensory ligament of the ovary
Lateral or transverse cervical (cardinal or Mackenrodt's) ligaments of the uterus
Is a fibromuscular cord that extends from the ovary to the uterus below the uterine tube, running within the layers of the broad ligament
Is a band of peritoneum that extends upward from the ovary to the pelvic wall and transmits the ovarian vessels, nerves, and lymphatics.
Are fibromuscular condensations of pelvic fascia from the cervix and the vagina to the pelvic walls, extend laterally below the base of the broad ligament, and support the uterus.
Is the superior rim of the pelvic cavity;somewhat heart shaped and completely ringed by bone, is bounded posteriorly by the promontory of the sacrum (S1) and the anterior border of the ala of the sacrum (sacral part), laterally by the arcuate or iliopectineal line of the ilium (iliac part), and anteriorly by the pectineal line, the pubic crest, and the superior margin of the pubic symphysis (pubic part).
Is measured using transverse, oblique, and anteroposterior (conjugate) diameters.
Is crossed by the ureter, gonadal vessels, middle sacral vessels, iliolumbar vessels, lumbosacral trunk, obturator nerve, spermatic cord, round ligament of the uterus, sympathetic trunk, suspensory ligament of the ovary, etc
|volume of fluid in the bladder leads to the urge to urinate?||
|glands in the female are homologous to the prostate in males||
|Where does the external spermatic fascia originate from?||
External abdominal oblique muscle
|Functions of the pelvis||
support of viscera, protection of viscera, locomotion, parturition
|Deep Perineal Pouch||
The deep perineal pouch (space) is bounded inferiorly by the perineal membrane, superiorly by the inferior fascia of the pelvic diaphragm, and laterally by the inferior portion of the obturator fascia (covering the obturator internus muscle).It includes the fat-filled anterior recesses of the ischioanal fossa. The superior boundary in the region of the urogenital hiatus is indistinct.
|Components OF THE Male reproductive system?||
Testis, epididymis, ductus deferens, and ejaculatory duct on each side, and the urethra and penis in the midline. In addition, three types of accessory glands are associated with the system: a single prostate;
a pair of seminal vesicles; and
a pair of bulbourethral glands.
|Lateral Pelvic Walls||
The lateral pelvic walls are formed by the right and left hip bones, each of which includes an obturator foramen closed by an obturator membrane.
The fleshy attachments of the obturator internus muscles cover and thus pad most of the lateral pelvic walls . The fleshy fibers of each obturator internus converge posteriorly, become tendinous, and turn sharply laterally to pass from the lesser pelvis through the lesser sciatic foramen to attach to the greater trochanter of the femur.
The medial surfaces of these muscles are covered by obturator fascia, thickened centrally as a tendinous arch that provides attachment for the pelvic diaphragm . Because this diaphragm is the boundary between the pelvis and the perineum, forming the floor of the pelvic cavity and the roof of the perineum , this attachment divides the muscle into a superior pelvic portion and an inferior perineal portion .
Medial to the pelvic portions of these muscles are the obturator nerves and vessels and other branches of the internal iliac vessels.
|external female genital organs||
Labia major, labia minor, clitoris and vestibule of vaginaLocated in perineum
|External iliac lymph nodes||
lie above the pelvic brim, along the external iliac vessels. They receive lymph mainly from the inguinal lymph nodes; however, they receive lymph from pelvic viscera, especially the superior parts of the middle to anterior pelvic organs. Whereas most of the lymphatic drainage from the pelvis tends to parallel routes of venous drainage, the lymphatic drainage to the external iliac nodes does not. These nodes drain into the common iliac nodes.
|What are the major Joints of the Pelvis?||
|The internal female genital organs consist of _____, _____, _______, & ______, they are located in the ______ pelvis.||
Ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus and vagina. Lesser.
|Branches of post division of internal iliac||
iliolumbar(lumbar, iliac and spinal branches), lateral sacral, sup gluteal(between lumbosacral trunck and S1, exists through greater sciatic foramen)
|Gender differences in the Pelvis||
The pelvises of women and men differ in a number of ways, many of which have to do with the passing of a baby through a woman's pelvic cavity during childbirth: The pelvic inlet in women is circular in shape compared with the heart-shaped pelvic inlet in men. The more circular shape is partly caused by the less distinct promontory and broader alae in women.
The angle formed by the two arms of the pubic arch is larger in women (80-85°) than it is in men (50-60°).
The ischial spines generally do not project as far medially into the pelvic cavity in women as they do in men
|What organs in the pelvis is ensheathed by the peritoneum?||
Ovaries and uterine tubes
Only the superior and superolateral surfaces of plevic viscrea are covered.
Only the uterine tubes (except for their ostia, which are open) are intraperitoneal and suspended by a mesentery. The ovaries, although suspended in the peritoneal cavity by a mesentery, are not covered with glistening peritoneum; instead a special, relatively-dull epithelium of cuboidal cells covers them.
How many lymp nodes are are located in or adjacent to the pelvis
External iliac lymph nodes
Internal iliac lymph nodes
Sacral lymph nodes
Common iliac lymph nodes
|what form the greater sciatic notch||
superior to the iliac spine, formed by part of ilium
|What structues does the Deep Perineal pouch Contain||
In both sexes, the deep perineal pouch contains:
1. Part of the urethra, centrally.
2.The inferior part of the external urethral sphincter muscle, above the center of the perineal membrane, surrounding the urethra.
3.Anterior extensions of the ischioanal fat pads.
In males, the deep perineal pouch contains the:
1.Intermediate part of the urethra, the narrowest part of the male urethra.
2.Deep transverse perineal muscles, immediately superior to the perineal membrane (on its superior surface), running transversely along its posterior aspect.
3.Bulbourethral glands, embedded within the deep perineal musculature.
4.Dorsal neurovascular structures of the penis.
In females, the deep perineal pouch contains the:
Proximal part of the urethra.
What are the bones of the Pelvis?
What are the divisons of the Pelvis?
Consist of the right and left pelvic bones, the sacrum, and the coccyx. The sacrum articulates superiorly with vertebra L5 at the lumbosacral joint.
The pelvic bones articulate posteriorly with the sacrum at the sacro-iliac joints and with each other anteriorly at the pubic symphysis
Is divided by the pelvic brim or iliopectineal line into the pelvis major (false pelvis) above and the pelvis minor (true pelvis) below.