Perception 5 Flashcards

Depth perception
Terms Definitions
convivial
friendly; agreeable:
The Constancies (Read Book)
Shape
Size
Orientation
Color 
Brightness
gestalt
an organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasize our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes
consonant
most please, perfect four, octave
inscrutable
incapable of being investigated, analyzed, or scrutinized; impenetrable.
Interposition
The determination of an object's distance from the eye on the basis of the assumption that closer objects overlap or occlude objects that are farther away; a monocular cue.
grouping
tendency to organize stimuli into sets
Professor Ibanez wishes to scientifically study ESP. Which is the most preferred method for study?
Ganzfeld procedure
Sensation
the processing of basic information from the external world by the sensory receptors in the sense organs (eyes, ears, skin, etc.) ad brain
Parapsychology
the study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis
Perceptual Constancy
perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change
Selective Attention
Attention that can only focus conscious awareness on a small fraction of available stimuli.
similarity
the tendency to perceive things that look similar to each other as being part of the same group.
Telepathy
the ability to read another's thoughts or to communicate by thinking
At low stimulus intensities, it takes _____ changes in order to detect a JND between two stimuli.
small
Monocular cues from two parallel lines converging are called
linear perspective
The first awareness of some outside stimulus is called a(n):
sensation
Relative size
stimulus cue for depth perception. Objects look larger than are percieved as being nearer.
Perception
The extraction of meaning from memory output
Example: object/word perception
Wha Cha Doo Win
binding problem
the challenge of tying diff. attributes of visual stimuli (eg. color, orientation, motion) which are handled bu diff. brain circuits, the appropriate object so that we perceive unified objects (red, verticle, moving right)
first order motion
defined by changes in luminance
ghetto
any mode of living, working, etc., that results from stereotyping or biased treatment:
relative height
a monocular cue for perceiving depth; objects higher in our field of vision are perceived as farther away.
retinal disparity
a binocular cue for perceiving depth: By comparing images form the retinas in the two eyes, the brain computes distance--the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object.
Relative brightness
a monocular cue; objects up close appear brighter than objects farther away
binocular cues
depth cues, such as retinal disparity and convergence, that depend on the use of two eyes
What term describes our tendency to perceive sizes, shapes, and colors as remaining the same even though their physical characteristics keep changing?
perceptual constancy
Structuralism is to Gestalt as ______ is to _______.
addition; rules
Central Traits are?
More influential than others when forming impressions of personality
self-locomotion
the ability to move oneself around in the environment
optic array
the collection of light rays that interact with objects in the world in front of a viewer. What we see
Action Potential
All or Nothing process discovered by Hodgkin and Huxley (Nobel Prize winner who did the "giant squid axon")
Light and Shadow
The perception of depth from shaded objects on the basis of the assumption that a light source comes from above by default.
Stereoscopic movement
When presented with a rapid series of slightly varying images, the brain perceives continuous movement (e.g., film animation)
A famous painter used dust and clouds to created a depth cue in her paintings. She used _______ as a depth cue.
atmospheric perspective
depth perception
the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance
watering the garden with the adjustable spray nozzle on low
limited capacity parallel processing
espionage
the use of spies by a government to discover the military and political secrets of other nations.
Perceptual adaptation
in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field
Should you scrap the Study Guide and buy a subliminal message tape? Research suggest that any improvement you get with those tapes is probably due to:
a self-fulfilling prophecy
mirror neuron
is a neuron which fires both when an animal performs an action and when the animal observes the same action performed by another (especially conspecific) animal.
What is a T-scope useful for?
Presenting visual stimuli for precisely controlled periods of time.
Parallel distributed processing models
recognition of an object is based on the simultaneous operation of connected neural units that are activated when matched by features in the stimulus
What is a T-scope?
A device for looking at something very fast.
three ways that the responses of a cell could be changed by attention
enhancement, sharper tuning, altered tuning
Ohm's Law of Acoustics
Ohm knew we have the ability to pick out one particular sinusoid out of a set.

(Point of Agreement)
Essay: How does von Helmholtz say the auditory system does a Fourier analysis?
Frequency in sound is the critical physical dimension encoded in our physiology to account for pitch. Helmholtz says pillars of corti should act as resonators. The pillars will vibrate if the sinusoid is the same frequency as its natural frequency (resonating). We can identify frequency parameter of all sinusoids by place in which we receive vibration in the pillars of corti. Thought if you hit it hard, it will send a bigger packet of energy and place will be represented by qualitative difference in form. Frequency encoded by place, amplitude by amount of energy.
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