Perception Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
 
Yes
Sine wave
Most rare deficiency
tritonope
Equal loudness curves
order of monocula input
CICIIC
responsible for beginning transposition studies and also did Umweg studies.
Kohler
Scalar Expectancy Theory (SET) explained as graph
horopter
plane of perceptually equidistant objcts (dt=dn)
proximity
We group nearby figures together
Perception
the selection, organization, and interpretation of sensory input
Color is primarily determined by
wavelength
The cultural influence on taste perception is so strong that some cultures abhor sweet and crave mainly bitter foods. True or false?
False
The term ‘mechanoreceptor’ refers to a cell that responds to what type of stimulation?
Mechanical Displacement
dt
object behind the horopter (uncrossed retinal disparity)
Psychophysics
The science of defining quantitative relationships between physical stimuli and psychological responses.
Cue conflicts
situations where different cues indicate different relationships
Stages of perception
1. sensory2. perceptual3. classification
non-Pictorial
monocular cues that cannot be represented on a static 2-D image.
Macular degeneration
- A clinical condition that causes degeneration of the macula, an area of the retina that includes the fovea and a small surrounding area.
According to Broadbent’s filter theory of attention, what information from the unattended channel gets processed in working memory?
None of it
The representation of the body in sensory cortex is called the _________________.
homunculus
rod monochromats
missing the gene that makes photoreceptors (therefore missing all 3 cones)= scotopic vision
What is the refractive index of water?
~1.3
convergence
involves the eye rotating inward to project the image of an object on each retina
similarity
We group figures together that are similar to one another
Emmert's Law
-retinal size of afterimage remains constant
- perceived size will change depending on distance of projection
- follows size-distance invarience equasion
Disparity
there is a difference between our visual field
the perception of an object as distinct from its surroundings.
Figure-Ground
Selective reflection
When and object reflects some wavelengths of the spectrum more than others.
Timber & complexity --effects of attack and decay
Simple cells
respond only to lines; diff cells/for each line orientation
Saturation/ purity
- Most saturated light is composed of a single wavelength (red out of a paint tube)- Most de-saturated light is white (made up of many wavelengths)
We are able to discriminate a given taste from pure (tasteless) water at a (higher, lower) threshold than we are able to identify the taste.
Lower
What does the Thompson dual-process model of orienting predict in the case of a decrement in stimulus intensity?
No orienting response
What wavelength results in a greater refractive index?
short wavelength
afference
signl outflow to the brain telling it how much the eyes changed
optical illusions are illusions of the _______ system. They are incorrect perceptions regarding _______, resulting from a misapplication of linear perspective depth cues
visual; distance
Give the equation for Steven’s Law:
S = a*I^b
texture gradient
gradual change from coarse-> fine = increasing distance
apparent motion
appearance of movement in a static image
Biological Motion
movement of person of other living organism
point=light walker stimulus
structure-form-motion takes place with point-light walkers
Size Constancy
Perception of an objects size remains relatively constant
 
effect remains even if the size of the object on the retina changes
 
changes in distance and retinal size balance each other
Bottom up process
In form perception, progression from individual elements to the whole
A tendency to see complete letters on a neon sign, even though some of the bulbs are burnt out, illustrates ?
closure
Convergence disparity
brain keeps track of the convergent state of both eyes to determine distance to the object.
wave height/ amplitude
o The higher the wave length, the brighter the coloro Amplitude positively correlates with brightness
Ablation
- Removal of an area of the brain. This is usually done in experiments on animals, to determine the function of a particular area. Also called lesioning.
The region of skin that causes a change in a receptor’s firing rate is called what?
Receptive Field
The reason is that when foreperiods are blocked, attention is based on ________, but when foreperiods are mixed, attention is also based on _______.
Timing Subjective Probability
images on the temporal retina are projected to the...
ipsilateral LGN/V1 hemisphere
the principle that says says that we organize stimulus elements in a way that gives us the simplest possible perception
simplicity principle
List 4 categorically different types of applications of psychophysics:
Threshold measurement, stimulus detection, magnitude estimation, multidimensional scaling
Oculomotor cues
based on sensing the position of the eye muscle and tension
Closure
a series of lines can be perceived as a circle
when you leave class after dark and all of the cars in the dimly lit parking lot are gray except yours, which is still yellow is an example of?
Color constancy
Ponzo Illusion
An illusion of size in which two objects of equal size that are positioned between two converging lines appear to be different in size. (railroad tack illusion)
Binocular disparity
occurs when the retinal images of an object fall on disparate points on the two retinas.
There are how many so-called primary tastes? What are they?
4
Sweet, salty, sour, bitter
Rule of physical density
the more dense the material the greater refraction it will cause
Disdvantage of more than 3 RF's to make color vision
lose spatial resolution
what is 2 dimensional location?
a computational approach suggests that your brain estimates the objects true location relative to your body, using an equation that takes information about where an image strikes the retina and adjusts it based on information about movement of your eyes and head. The brain uses the slight differences in the timing and intensity of a sound (btw. The 2 ears) as cues to locate its source.
What is Barlow’s psychophysical linking hypothesis?
Whenever two stimuli can be distinguished, in normal life or in a psychophysical experiment, then proper analysis of the impulses occurring in a single neuron would enable them to be distinguished with equal or greater reliability.
Mishkin, Ungerleider, and Macko (1983) argue that the large receptive fields of inferior temporal neurons provide a neural basis for a particular visual ability. What is that ability? (1 sentence)
Stimulus equivalence across retinal translation.
Perspective convergence (linear perspective)
parallel lines appear to converge as they get farther from you
 
-often combined with relative size (Ponzo Illusion)
A heurestic experiment is:
one that generates more research (also a rule of thumb?)
Visual angle
The angle of an object relative to an observer's eyes. This angle can be determined by extending two lines from the eye- one to one end of an object and the other to the other end of the object. Because an object's visual angle is always determined relative to an observer, its visual angle changes as the distance between the object and the observer changes.
Monocular cues to depth
depth cue, cush as overlap, relative size, relative height, familiar size, linear perspective, movement parallax, and accommodation, that works when we use only one eye.
There is evidence for both memory set size and attentional models of timing. How is the discrepancy between their predictions resolved?
Attentional models: prospective (participants are told beforehand that they will be judging duration)memory models: retrospective (participants are told afterwards that they will be judging duration)
Touch is the perception of what physical event? What kind of energy is being transduced?
Displacement of skin. Mechanical energy.
Where are color opponent neurons found?
In the P layer of LGN
why does stroboscopic motion occur?
because of our tendency to interpret continuous motion a series of still images flashed in rapid succession
Define the term “convergence” in terms of the ratio of photoreceptors to ganglion cells.
Convergence means more than one photoreceptor for every ganglion cell.
Functions of Movement Perception
"survival in the environment"
predators use movement of prey as a primary means to location in hunting
Binocular cues to depth:
cuing sources that the brain uses to "construct" the 3 dimension (depth)
Pacinian corpuscles respond to what kind of stimulation?
onsets and offsets of pressure, but not continuous pressure
Disadvantage of less PR to make color vision
worse your color vision gets
According to SDT, as signal strength increase, what should happen to d’, and why? What should happen to the criterion, c?
As signal strength increases, d’ should also increase, because it should be more distinguishable between stimuli present and stimuli absent. C should approach 0, towards no bias.
Livingstone and Hubel (1988) argue that the 2 visual pathways evolved at different points in evolutionary history. Briefly summarize their argument. (1-2 sentences)
The authors propose that the parvo pathway evolved from the magno by duplicating previously existing structures resulting in redundancy of shape recognition in the two patheways.
Four Ways to Perceive Movement
real movement - an objects is not physically moving
 
apparent movement - stationary stimuli
 
                            - basis of movement in movies
 
induces movement - movement of one object results in the perception of movement in another object
 
movement aftereffect - movement appears to occur in the opposite direction from the original movement
 
The human responses to visible light are:
intensity, wavelength, and purity are, in the same order, brightness, hue and saturation
What are the three stages of sensory integration, according to most models?
1.) Analysis 2.) Integration 3.) Decision
Where is phase(for Fourier Spectrum) detected?
the layout of the ganglion cells in the retina using the retinotopic map (recall: phase is position)
What is the refractive error associated with hyperopia?
The focus of light his behind the retina.
In an illusory contour figure you will see
contours that are not physically present
Two reasons the Mini PR system would not work?
1) biologically difficult to make such an infinite amount so sharply tuned. 2) lose spatial resolution bc the wavelength has to hit at a restricted spot on the retina in order to be seen
Goodale and Milner (1992) also argue that the 2 pathways may have evolved at different points in time. Summarize their argument. (1-2 sentences)
what vs how is a better distinction between the two pathways because the how is a more primitive perception that the what. to categorize you need language, less primitive what.
What does it mean to say that an ROC isosensitivity curve is regular?
A participant that displays a particular pair of hit rate and false alarm rates on an ROC curve should theoretically be able to sway their bias to produce any hit rate and false alarm rate on that curve.
According to the SDT criteria that a bias measure should 1) depend monotonically on H and F in the same direction, and 2) be independent of sensitivity, which measure(s) of bias is(are) best?
The measures of bias that are best are the ones that are independent of sensitivity. Since Beta and c’ both depend on d’ the best measure of bias is c.
What is the fundamental problem, or mystery, of depth perception in vision? (1 sentence)
you have a 2D image on the retina but we perceive a 3D world.
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