Personalities Final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
undecided; unsettled:
inner psychological experiences
4 Types of conflict
o Approach-avoidanceo Avoidance-avoidanceo Approach-approacho Double Approach-avoidance
consistency across repeated measurements.
Construct validity: Convergent, divergent, discriminant.Predictive Validity
Openness to Experience
imaginative, variety, independentdown-to-earth, routine, conforming
touch self; males-fear castration, females-penis envy 3-6 yr
random influences incorporated in measurements.
•    Distancing oneself from anxious feelings, but turning them into more analytical and technical thoughts    Common in warfare, medicine    A mental gap or barrier    Psychology? Theories and abstractions
Inductive Approach
Observations are systematically collected and concepts are developed based on what the data reveal
Predictive Validity
Does it predict future behavior?
Kelly Therapy
Help people reconstrue their constructs
McRae and Costa
BIG 5-openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuriticism
major influences  - attention placed upon suppositions underlying therapy, rather than the development of a therapy system/set of techniques.
Activation of Schemas
Determined by Availability, Applicability, and Salience
person thinks that personality is fixed
Jung's Personal Conscious
-includes forgotten and suppressed
-clusters into complexes
      -complexes are organized constellation of thoughts, feelings perceptions, and memories, demonstrated in related interests i.e. father complex
Personality Process
Perception, thought motivation and emotion. Major topics of current research.
the political principle of centralized social and economic control, esp. of all means of production.
The Jungian dimension that focuses on inner experience- one's own thoughts and feelings-making the introvert less outgoing and sociable than the extravert.
Projective Techniques
A standard of ambiguous stimuli designed to elicit unique responses that reveal inner aspects of an individual's personality.
believing that one can organize and execute given courses of action required to deal with prospective situations
Abraham Maslow
  Self-actualization theory: the way you become a self-actualized person is by answering yes to more of the questions (self-actualization quiz)
Human motives in pyramid (hierarchy of needs)
Banduras ultimate goal
modify behaviors society considered undesirable/inappropriate
heritability of traits doesn’t tell the whole story about personalityknowing that genes influence personality and behavior doesn’t mean we can’t change or intervenevan den Boom’s intervention studyknowing that genes influence personality and behavior removes parental blamepossibility for gene-based treatment and interventionmany social, political and moral implications to behavioral genetics
according to Kelly, all humans are like what?
cognitive unconscious
automatic processes within the mind that allow people to do things without knowing why and to indicate knowledge of things they do not realize they know
• emotional lability / low distress tolerance• impulsivity and inappropriate anger• unstable self-image/identity• unstable interpersonal relationships• self-injurious behavior
animals were very similar to humans, but humans have souls, animals have souls of matter, DUALISM
What can evolution tell about YOUR personality?
Unique qualities of an individual that include such attributes as temperment, physique, and intelligence.
a realistic respect for or favorable impression of oneself; self-respect.
Neurotic Needs
Signs of neurosis in Horney's theory, these 10 needs are normal desires carried to a neurotic extreme.
Gordon's 5-year-old son has recently become very possessive of his mother, pushing Gordon away whenever he tries to hug his wife. Freud would probably suggest that the little boy's behaviors reflect:A)fixation at the oral stage of psychosexual developmen
C)the Oedipus complex.
Being Motivation
higher level of motivation in which the need for self actualization predominates
the male hormone which is released by both the adrenal gland and the testicles, promotes the development of male characteristics
peer groups
individuals in peers groups have no title authority or recognized expertise
must rely on personal power if they have any "responsibility" for the outcome of an interpersonal process.
this involves risk and enormous energy.
typically fail, lose confidence in themself, avoid future responsibilities, and develop negative self-concepts
existential theory
empahsizing the present and the future than than the past. (humans are free to choose their own destiny)Kelly's theory
incremental theories
in Dweck's theory of motivation, an individual's belief that abilities can increase with experience and practice
Predictability Hypothesis
SELIGMAN - safety signal, when signal reliably predicts danger, absence of signal reliably predicts safety (if non predicts danger, none safety). inadequate
working self concept
the view of continually changing slef
Carl Rogers
-more a system than theory of personality
-believed the core of man's nature is essentially positive
-theorized that a therapist who expresses unconditional positive regard and empathic understanding within a genuine relationship will catalyze psychotherapeutic change
Fifth stage of phychosexual development where the individual (adolescence and beyond) has a strong sexual interest in other people and derives psychosexual satisfaction from intercourse
Psychology of Science
The Empirical study of scientific thought and behavior (including theory construction) of the scientist.
Multitrait-Multimethod Perspective
Use of multiple assesment methods and various traits inorder to determine test validity
Theoretical Methodological Pluralism
accepting many theories as a whole without disregarding the potential efficacy of other theories
Effects of Low serotonin
More pessimistic, cant control anger, hypersensitive.
Parental investment theory
sex that invests more in offspring, should be far more choosy about potential mates than the sex that invests less in offspring (Trivers 1972).
experimental personality research
a study involving a personality factor and an experimental factor.
Problems with the Big 5
-not orthogonal
-too broad for conceptual understanding
approach avoidance conflict
the conflict induced by a stimulus that is both attractive and aversive
4 perspectives on personality
1) psychodynamic 2) behavioral and social cognitive 3) humanistic 4) trait
to divert the energy of (a sexual or other biological impulse) from its immediate goal to one of a more acceptable social, moral, or aesthetic nature or use.
Lake Woebegone effect
People tend to believe that they are higher on pisitive things & lower on negative things
monoamine oxidase (MAO)
an enzyme which, in the brain, breaks down certain neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine
what was Jungs focus on his theory?
the unconsciousbiologicalsimiarity of the individual
authentic existence
process by which we come to terms with existence in world. Not easy to do
David McClelland - Big Three
Three primary motivations drive human behavior:The need for achievementThe need for affiliation (or intimacy)The need for power
Strong relationship between locus of control and self-efficiacy
l.o.c = generalized over many situations s.e = situation-specificRotter's research provides considerable empirical support for findings
ego syntonic vs ego dystonic
syntonic- people dont know they have itdystonic- want to be cured
Adler Inferiority Complex leads to: compensation or overcompensation
Everyone must overcome feelings of weakness in comparison to competent adults/siblings
Limitations of the evolutionary perspective?
Lack of causal certainty Hard to do researchSelection pressures have changed
empirical approach (to scale development)
the use of data instead of theory to decide what should go into the measure.
What is the purpose of doing research on personality?
To contribute to the body of knowledgeTo help the human condition
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