inhibits pancreatic/intestinal lipases; not absorbed, use long term; causes flatulence, steatorrhea, fecal leakage
MTX, azothioprine, cyclophosphamide
block recovery of everything
used to treat edema, pulm edema, CHF, hypercalcemia, HTN
ethacrynic acid- ototoxic
furosemide and bumetanide- sulfa sensitivity
hypokalemia, alkalosis, hypovolemia, hyperuricemia, hyperglycemia
-selective MAO-A inhibitor
Inhibits intestinal brush-border alpha-glucosidases, delayed sugar hydrolysis and glucose absorption leads to dcreased postprandial hyperglycemia
Opiod Analgesic; Opiate-like
Notes: Strong agonist @ u receptor, binds d & k as well
HL = 2 hours
*inhibitor of DNA synthesis
fibrinogen to fibrin
Vinca Alkaloid (Natural Antineoplastic)
Treatment: Hodgkin’s and non Hodgkin’s Lymphoma and Testis.
Mechanism: Both drugs bind to tubulin, and induce METAPHASE arrest.
Vinblastine is MYELOSUPPRESSIVE
Vincristine is highly NEUROTOXIC
Do not administer intra-thecally!
Remarkable lack of cross resistance between the two.
|Adrenergic Beta Blocking (4)||
Proton Pump Inhibitor, irreversibly inhibits H/K ATPase in stomach parietal cells
Broad spectrum (gram+, gram-, pseudomonas, Bacteroides); Resistance (E. faecium, MRSA, C. dificile); IV, can penetrate CNS; coadminister w/ Cilastatin to increase availability
more pronounced in patients w/pre-existing renal diseaseintersitial nephritis, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia & papillary necorsis have also been reported w/various NSAIDs
direct muscarinic ACh antagonist. oral, parenteral, opthalmmic, and transdermal. Use: motion sickness.
irreversible blocks COX1 and COX2
stops synthesis of thromboxane (platelet aggregation, release response, arterial constriction)
associated with the prevention of an MI
Mast cell stabilizer/ Histamine release inhibitors
indirect histamine antagonist
Poorly absorbed: only used topically as inhaler/nasal spray/eye drops or oral solution for GI allergies
Inhibit delayed chloride channel in cell membranes of some cell type: mast cells, nerves (airway), eosinophils
Clinical use: in past used for prevention of bronchoconstriction caused by allergen exposure, exercise, or aspirin but generally not as potent as inhaled steroids in the treatment for asthma; recent studies show questionable benefit
Prevents symptoms of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis
cause arterial and venous dilation
reduce pv resistance and BP
decrease resistance to urinary outflow & releiveing effects of BPH
HMG-Co-A REDUCTASE INHIBITOR for hypercholesterolemia
Blocks release of NE from vesicles.
homozygous delta 32 deletion delays HIV progression*, though promotor region mutation increases susceptibility
= Allegra. Antihistamine, H1 antag, 2nd generation. Allergy. Crosses into CNS the least of the second gen meds. Renal metabolism.
diffuse through porin channels and bind to the 30 S ribosomal subunit, interrupting protein synthesis, same as tetracyclines
|62. The effects of warfarin sodium (Coumadin) are monitored by the following lab test:||
seizures (rare), agitation, insomnia, dry mouth
|digitalis induced arrhythmias||
extrasystole or ventricular tachycardia with danger of AV node depression
Class 1B: lidocaine, tocainide, phenytoin, increase AV conduction
|Drug of choice for Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Histoplasma, Candida albicans, hypercortisolism||
postsynaptic effector cells; primarily the heart
atypical anti pysch, causes QTC changes but only weight neutral
Tx for cryptococcal meningitis in AIDS and candidal infections of all types
blocks mycolic acid synthesis; GI and neuro toxicity --> dont give to preggers
|NTG – Transdermal FYIDo not apply patch to skin areas with cuts or irritation or immediately after showering or bathing.If the patch becomes dislodged, discard it and put a new one on at a different skin site. Do not discharge cardioverter/defribrillato||
|Rheumatiod arthritis (RA)||
Chronic autoimmune disordermost common systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical joint involvement
|What's the trade name for xylazine?||
|Ciprofloxacin (0.2%), hydrocortisone (1%) suspension||
management of otitis externa
|TQ - what drug has cardiostimulatory effects?||
The movement of drugs throughout the body. Is determined by 3 factors.
NSAID. Well absorbed from GI tract, T1/2 2hrs. WELL-TOLERATED. Common side effects: epigastric discomfort, nausea, indigestion, blurred vision. Toxicities: GI, Renal and Hepatic, rash
Safer in older adults b/c shorter acting.
If taking adults, take Asp first b/c Ibu blocks Asp access to Cox1 in platelets (if need to be on Asp for long time, take Naproxen)
1. onset of action-time between admin of drug and onset of its therapuetic effect. 2. peak concentration occurs when drug reaches its highest blood or plasma concentration 3. duration-length of time drug produces its therapeutic effect
|What percent of children with mental retardation also have epilepsy?||
|Protease inhibitors (-navir)||
Inhibit HIV aspartic protease blocking processing of gag,pol*; Toxicity: GI problems, diabetes, lypodystrophy; p450 inhibitor
|Main action of Theophylline is ________. Other effects: (4)||
bronchodilationCNS stimulationmodest peripheral vasodilationimproved skeletal muscle contractilityand a thiazide-like diuresis
| Do not give under 18 years old||
|What type of AB is difloxacin - Dicural (R)?||
|what areas get increased blood flow with gases||
|Persistent or recurring pain that is often difficult to tx||
study of the actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms
|What type of agents block the excitatory actions of Ach in the striatum?||
D2 receptor antagonists in CTZ and VC; inhibit vagal nerve stimulation; prokinetic drug; Tx mild cancer regimens, irradiation, post-op nausea; Toxicity: sedation, diarrhea, EPS, orthostatic hypotension, seizures, if chronic admin
|Common major effects of Opioids||
Drowsiness, N&V, constipation (does NOT wane, remains constant), pruritis
|Type I hypersensitivity:triggersBoth immunological and non-immunologicalPTK to Phospholipase||
-PTK to Phospholipase gamma (PLC gamma) to IP3 to Calmodulin to PKC to myosin phosporylation for microfilaments and granule attachment to membrane.
|beclomethasone (QVAR), fluticasone (Flovent)MOA||
MOA: reduces symptoms by inhibiting release of inflammatory mediators, inflammatory cells, and edema of airway mucosa so bronchial hyperactivity and airway mucus production are reduced; beta 2 receptors more sensitvie to beta 2 agonists
|What is lithium induced DI treated with?||
desmopressin (not ADH)
|NSAID - Therapeutic Effects||
Decrease in swelling, pain, stiffness, and tenderness of a joint or muscle area
|What are the two etiologies of Parkinson's Disease?||
idiopathic & secondary
|Ipratropium bromide is only given as inhaled aerosol and has few side effects, even when swallowed because is ___ absorbed from ___ and does not cross _____ b/c it is a _____ amine = poor diffusion across membranes||
poorly GIblood brain barrierquaternary
|When would you use a cathartic?||
1.certain oral poisonings. 2.emptying the colon prior to x-ray or surgery. 3.remove fecal impactions. 4.certain cases of equine colic. 5.used with certain anthelmintics
|MAOi has serotonin syndrome with what drugs?||
The only type of Insulin that can be given intravenously!
How do you treat salicylate ingestions?
what do you anticipate?
activated charcoal 1 gm/kg if within one hour and no change MS
consider whole bowel irrigation: for enteric coated preps
ICU: for severe toxicity
first liter NSS, thereafter give D5 solution
alkalinize the urine
Hemodialysis for cases not responsive to fluid, AC and urinary alkalinization
|What do you use locally acting antiemetic used for?||
Vomiting caused by gastric irritation. It goes to the stomach to quiet it down.
|What are the 3 classes of drugs used to treat high cholesterol||
bile acid resins
|When treating Parkinson's Disease, the drug Levodopa is nearly always combined with carbidopa because the combination "boosts" the effectiveness of Levodopa. Why?||
carbidopa has no therapeutic effects of its own because it cannot cross the blood-brain barrier, however when combined it inhibits the breakdown of levodopa in the intestine and peripheral tissue, which allows the levadopa to reach the CNS. Without combin
|The usual adult dose of benadryl is 50mg. What would be a safe dose for a child weighing 27lbs?||
27lbs/150lbs x 50mg = 9.0mg
|what does a muscarnic antagonist do?||
inhibit the ciliary body and the pupilae constrictor - raises IOP
|What are 3 compounds activated by the rumen?||
Cyanide is released from cyanogenic glucosidesNitrate to nitrite (methemogobinemia, vasodilation)Tryptophan to 3-methylindole (acute pulm edema, emphysema)
|what drug is used a vasodilator and anti-platelet?||
Dipryridamole - also given in stress test.
|42. A client in your unit has a gunshot wound. His family is very concerned about him and questions why the dobutamine (Dobutrex) is being used. Your best reply is:||
a. We want to slow down Mr. G.s heart rate and increase his blood pressure, and this drug will do that.