Pharmacology Final Exam 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Non-narcotic Analgesics
hyroxyzine hydrochloride
Anti-fungal therapy
Bretylium (Bretylol)
fomoterol fumerate
phenylephrine (pseudoephrine)
Hypolipidemics (fibrates -TG)MOA: Bind PPAR-α+ RXR → ↓apoC-III & apoB & ↑lipoprotein lipase → ↓VLDL→ ↓LDL & ↑apoAMET: Half-life: 1.5 hours Highly albumin boundSE: GI disturbances Rash, myopathy, arrhythmia FatigueTX: HyperTAG DysbetalipoproteinemiaFC hyperTAG
AntiinfectivesAntifungals - "Conofite"Imidazole antif., systemic can cause tachycardia, arrhythmia
mixed opioid agonists/antagonists

ultra-short acting anesthetic agent often used in sight hounds b/c it does not depend on redistribution to fat to reverse effect
toxicity of halothane
Androgen receptor inhibitor

nonsteroid used in prostatic carcinoma
Physicians Desk Reference
premetrxed disodium
folate mimetic
Mechanism: muscarinic antagonist, tertiary amine
Treatment: dilates pupil for ophtho exam (mydriatic)
Side effect:cycloplegia (loss of accomodation)
Common phosphodiestarase inhibitors
inamrinone (Incor)
milrinone (Primacor) - analog or inamrinone but 20x more potent
Parasympathetic post-ganglionic fibers release?
frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital
Wave of alert wakefulness
x tpa toxicity
aminocaproic acid
sched 1
highest research drugs

bacterial product; chelates iron very avidly, aluminum less so
Cyanocobalamine (Vit B12)
Antianemics: Other
novolin toronto
short acting insulin
(Imipenem) Is a bacteria.
A trade name for diphenhydramine.
nitrous oxide
inorganic nonflammable gas
NMDA antagonist, no GABA agonism
sympathomimetic (like ketamine)
inhibits vitamin B12 and B12 dependent enzymes (myelin and RBC production)
Cardiac Medication - Antiarrhythmic (or Antidysrhythmic)
Prazosine S/E
first dose syncope
orthostatic hypotension
urinary incontaince
lisinopril (Prinivil)
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors Lisinopril (Prinivil and Zestoric) is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor for the treatment of hypertension and heart failure.
Adminiters drug to Dermal layers
Name the major Cholinergic receptors
uses of amiloride
treats ca stones
Type of drug?
alpha-1 selective antagonist
Alteplase (rt−PA)

human recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. Used in acute MI to recanalize the occluded coronary. Occasionally used in pulmonary embolism, stroke.

cross placenta enter breast milk
antiDNAviral blocks base pairing inhibits viral polymerase
Blocks all muscarinic receptor types.(and not nicotinic)
is an antibiotic and antiprotozoal agent. It interacts with micro-organism DNA, causing loss of helical structure and breakage.
Gout MOA: Binds microtubule tubulin → ↓polymerization → ↓WBC migration & urate phagocytosis MET: Admin: oral Accumulates in WBCs Deacetylated in liver SE: GI Blood dyscrasias CNS depression, shock TX: 2nd line acute Gouty arthritis attacks Pseudogout Familial Med. fever
relax bronchial smooth muscle by increasing cAMP conc. through inhibition of phosphodiestrase, an enzyme that breaks down cAMP
other effects include: cardiac stim, vasodilation, diuresis, improved ciliary transport of mucus, and improved contractility of the diaphragm (excellent for COPD, not concerned in asthma)
chemically related to the natural metabolite xanthine, a precursor of uric acid (tea leaves, coffee leaves, cocoa leaves)
Potentiated Penicillin - Clavamox
AntiinfectivePenicillin - "Clavamox"Amoxicillin + clavulanate potassium, broad spec., penicillinase resistant
increase granulocytes used for bone marrow recovery
This alkylating agent can cause myelosuppression and hemorhagic cystitis
Movement of the drug: distribution, metabolism, and excretion.
this is one thousand base units
most commonly used analeptic

used to stimulate respiration during or after gen. anesthesia, in newborns, in cases of cardiopulm. arrest

stimulates carotid & aortic chemoreceptors --> reflux stimulation of medullary resp. centers

short duration: 5-10 m.
excessive doses --> hypertension, hyperventilation, seizures (rare)
Bronchodilation is mediated by what molecule
effects of statins on:
down A LOT
What drug causes:
Aplastic anemia
Chloramphenicol, Benzene, NSAID's
Edetate (EDTA)
Chelating agent

used in lead poisoning.

renal tubular necrosis
Normal maintenance dose of ASA
81 mg/day
Phenylephrine (and dosage)
Produces an alpha-mediated vasoconstriction and an increase in peripheral resistance and diastolic blood pressure with little direct effect on the heart (there are some alpha-1 receptors on the heart which may contribute in a small way to increasing cardi
DBS treats...
Parkinson's, chronic pain, dystonia, and recently for major depression.
is a potassium channel activator – it increases membrane permeability, which hyperpolarises cells and switches off voltage-dependent calcium channels. This causes relaxation of the vascular muscle.
LeprosyMOA: PABA analog that binds DHP synthetase → ↓ folic acidAdminister: oral or IVMET: acylation in the liverRES: Target site mutation, up-regulation, new genes, altered uptake/efflux (Plasmid/Chromosomal)SE: Allergy Not given to: G6P or folic acid deficiency, or pregnant; Drug-induced lupus erythematosus HIV: prophylaxis → neutropenia &exfoliative dermatitisTX: Leprosy in combo w/ rifampin and clofazimine
Hydromorphone (diladid)
works by binding to the opiate receptor in the CNS.
6 x more potent than Morphine with less GI distress and hypnotic effects.
antiemetic drugs:
phenothiazines/dopamine receptor antagonists 

prochlorperazine (Compazine) - tx of severe n/v

promethazine (Phenergan) - tx of motion sickness & drug of choice for n/v of gastroenteritis

trimethobenzamide (Tigan) - tx n/v of radiation therapy, in postoperative nausea, and gastroenteritis
m3 on urinary bladder
^ contractility
relaxation to sphinctor
What subdivision of pharm deals with the biochemical/physiologic effects of drugs, mechanisms of action and drug-receptor interactions?
Toxic effect
undesirable drug effect that implies drug poisoning, can be harmful or life threatening
Nicotinic M
Found in skeletal muscles. Causes muscles to contract.
These types of drug reduce the circulating blood volume by increasing amout of urine
Albumin bound drugs are generally this pH
drug overdose treatments
antagonists (antidotes), altering of environments, supportive measures
What abortifacient is a competitite inhibitor of preogestins at progesterone recpetor and may lead to heavy menstrual-like bleeding?
Mifepristone (RU486)
MOA topiramate
blocks na channels, incresaes GABA release
Type of drug?
Class Ib antiarrhythmic
Na channel blocker
Which receptors have an extracellular binding domain?
Tyrosine Kinase
define [ Pharamcology ] =
study of drugs
What is the brand name for Neostygmine?
Sodium Dantrolene
Produces muscle relaxation by blocking Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum.
Stage II of anesthesia
(Excitement/delirium) Loss of consciousness to beginning of rhythmical respiration. Most difficult to manage.
Tositumomab and Ibritumomab
Ytrium90 and Iodine 135 conjugated anti-CD20 antibody
Treatment: low grade (follicular) NHL resistant to Rituxumab
Where are the GABA reecptors that are not potentiated by BDZs located?
adverse effects of tetracyclines

GI: n/v are most common symptoms; these are very irritating to gastric mucosa
discolorations of both deciduous & permanent teeth

hepatotoxicity: high dose IV tetracycline that exceeds 2gm/day has been associated w/ liver failure & death

Phlebitis: tetracyclines are very irritating to veins
hypersensitivity: anaphylaxis, exfoliative dermatitis, exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus, serum sickness seen as fever, rash, arthralgia

deactivate MOA

allow build up of NT

allow build of of toxic substances such as tyramine
These neurons are located at the lumbar and thoracic portions of the spinal cord in the Sympathetic System.
Preganglionic neurons
epoetin alfa (Epogen, Procrit)
Hematopoietic growth factors Epoetin alfa (Epogen and Procrit) is a hematopoietic growth factor used to treat hematopoietic abnormalities in patients with neoplasms, AIDS, and chronic renal failure.
membrane pertubation theories
-anesthetics dissolve in the lipid bilyar changing the volume or fluidity which changes the neuron function
What's the most widely used diuretic and the first choice?
Thiazide diuretics
Nonarcotic Analgesics
Act by a peripheral mechanism that interferes with local mediators released when tissue is damaged. The mediators that cause pain.
What does the abbreviation stand for: qh or quaque hora
every hour
4 examples of thrombolytics include: ________, _________, _____________, and ___________
Streptokinase, urokinase, tPA(altepalse), APSAC (anistreplase)
Type of drug?
PGE1 analog; increases gastric mucous barrier & decreases acid production
Prevents NSAID ulcers, maintains PDA, Induces labor
what is the receptor preference of formoterol?
beta 2
appropriate pain medication for GI, long term
Cytotec (an NSAID)
Magnesium sulphate
osmotic agents absorb water to bulk faeces
Tertiary TCA that is more effective on the 5HT system than the NE. It is particularly anti-cholinergic. More on the sedative side.
What are the inducible inflammatory enzymes?
Phospholipase A2COX-IINO synthase II
What physiological response does release of DA from amphetamines have?
the "high" and addictive effect
pharmacodynamics of aminoglycosides
inhibit protein synthesis at the level of the 30S subunit of bacterial ribosome
Metabolic acidosis Causes/Treatment
Causes: Chronic renal failure Loss of bicarbonate during severe diarrhea, Metabolic disorders, Methanol and certain medication poisoning
Treatment: Correcting the underlying cause of acidosis Alkalinizing salt if severe
Does microsomal biotransformation make drugs (more/less) polar, (more/less) hydrophilic, and (more/less) likely to penetrate?
More polar, more hydrophilic, less likely to penetrate
alternate direct targets of drugs in CNS
-nuclear receptors-intracellular signal transduction systems-mitochondria-cell membrane bilayer components
Controlled Substance Act (1970)
Established the DEA. Defined drug dependency and addiction. Strict control. Helped with education and addiction. Helped to classify drugs as controlled substances. Created a schedule of drugs.
Define enteral route
Delivery of a medication through the gastrointestional tract.
antidote for digitalis =
1) stop digitalis
2) normalize K+
3) lidocaine
4) anti-dig Fab fragments
5) magnesium
adverse effets of minoxidil?
hypertrichosis (hair growth - think Rogaine with minoxidil!), pericardial effusion, reflex tachycardia, angina, salt retention
MOA tetracyclines
binds 30S and prevents attachment of aminoacyl RNA
What is a Chinese contraceptive method?
made not be reversible
potential anti-cancer drug
tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) toxicity s/s
CNS and cardio systems effected results in death due to seizures or dysrhythmias; lethal especially with alcohol
Inhibit both AChE and ChE. (Is a cholinomimetic)
Mixed function oxidase (microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS))
Enter your back text here.
What is the volume of the dose of a drug that reaches the systemic circulation?
site of action/mechanisms of action
4 categories 
inhibitors of bacterial cell wall synthesis
inhibitors of  bacterial protein synthesis
inhibitors of bacterial metabolism (nucleic acid synthesis, energy metabolism)
disruptors of cell membrane permeability 
What is the major difference in treatment between stage 1 & prehypertension?
Prehypertension: change lifestyle modification/secondary factors -> ↑ exercise, diet, ↓ salt (hard to regulate), ↓ stress, ↓ weight
Deamination: Is this reaction Phase I or Phase II? Is it Non or Microsomal? Is it Hydrolysis, Reduction, or Oxidation?
Phase I, Non-microsomal, Oxidation
Drug dependence
condition of reliance on the use of a particular drug characterized as physical and/or psychological dependence
Minimum effective level
Minimum level of drug needed to cause an effect
Giving someone NE will raise BP overall but causes a reflex ___.
bradycardia (recall: give hexamethonium to prevent this)
what is the action of amantadine in Parkinson's
enhances dopamine release
Which TCA has the least anticholinergic SE's?
Drug of choice in elderly to avoid confusion & hallucinations
medication for control of Status epilepticus
diazipam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), phenytoin (Dilantin)
Adverse vancomycin reactions
Rapid IV can cause red man syndrome which is a histamine mediated reation involving redness of the upper body. Can progress to anaphylaxis. Nephrotoxicity sometimes seen with aminoglycosides.
Clindamycin-type of drug, uses and precautions?
lincomycin antibiotic, used for dental prophylaxis for pts w/PCN allergy. Can cause severe psuedomembranous colitis. Decrease dose w/severe liver disease
Desirable characteristics of a vasopressor:
maintain effective circ. blood vol & renal blood flow
enhance cardiac contractility
no effect on HR
not induce or aggravate arrhythmias
not produce extreme variation in BP
4.) Clinical Studies
*PHASE 1- gather data on drug safety and pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers.*PHASE 2- Gather data on efficacy, safey, and proper dosage in a small group of pt's.*PHASE 3- Obtain statistical evidence of drug safety and efficacy.
Generally, ganglia for parasympathetics are (close to/far) from the spinal cord. Generally, ganglia for sympathetics are (close to/far) from the spinal cord.
Far from the spinal cord, IN the organ innervated!... Close to the spinal cord, still in the CNS
enhancing cholinergic transmission in alzheimers: AChE inhibitiors: tetrahydroaminoacridine (tacrine)
-first generation drug-a lot of PNS SE-liver damage occurs so monitor
What is the highly resistant form of bacteria called?
Endospore (resting, nonactive state)
what is the mechanism of atypical antipsychotics
block 5-HT2 and dopamine receptors
clinical uses for furosemide
to increase urine output in ARF (although it doesn't alter the course of ARF)
What are the causes of folate deficiency? (7)
low dietary intake
small intestine disease
liver disease
increased requirement (pregnancy, anemia)
methotrexate, phenytoin, trimethoprim
Histamine increases and decreases contractility how?
H2 receptors and H1 receptors on atrial muscle. Dont know how it works physiologically.
pharmacotherapeutics of thiazides
first line tx in HTN; take 1-3 wks to produce stable reduction in BP
used in tx of edema (extracellular fluid) in CHF & renal impairment
may be useful in tx of hypercalcuria (inhibit urinary Ca excretion, improve Ca metabolism) & tx of calcium oxalate stones in the urinary tract
Name the 4 Alpha-2 Adrenergic Stimulants.
1 Clonidine 2 Methyldopa 3 Guanabenz 4 Guanfacine
Explain why nicotinic acid can cause vasodilation and flushing.
This is attributed to histamine release.
This type of drug acts by inhibiting M1 and M3 receptors on ECL cells and Parietal cells, respectively.
muscarinic antagonists block M1 receptors in ECL cells and M3 receptors in parietal cells.
What is St. Johns wart used for?
Herbal agent used for mild/moderate depression
Co-trimoxazole (2 names, function, and it is a mixture of two things)
Septrin and Bactrim and is an antibiotic combination of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole, in the ratio of 1 to 5, used in the treatment of a variety of bacterial infections.
How can you minimize adverse interactions? (4)
- Take a thorough drug history- Advise the patient to avoid OTC drugs- monitor for adverse interactions KNOWN to occur- Be alert
Name the two special types of hyporeactivity, and what causes them.
1. Tolerance - previous exposure over time makes a subject less responsive to the same amount of drug 2. Tachyphylaxis - tolerance develops rapidly after a few doses
Mechanism of action of the anti-fungal therapy flucytosine.
Blocks the production of purines from the precurors.
What is the problem with open angle glaucoma?
Problem occurs at site of reabsorption
will there always be side effects to drugs?
yes, doctors and patients will always need to judge/balance the risks vs. benefits
what is the order of loss of sensation?
pain first, then temp, then touch, then pressure
What are nurse an integral part of emergency preparedness programs?
They have a unique body of knowledge and the ability to use critical thinking and make plans
what is the effect of muscarinic agonist on the eye?
name one agonist
Muscarinic agonist action is to produce miosis and it also favors drainage of fluid from the eyeball through the canal of Schlemm. This reduction in fluid can be useful to patients with
what is the effect of muscarinic agonist on the eye?
name one agonist
“red as a beet, dry as a bone, blind as a
bat, mad as a hatter”]
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