Pharmacology Final Part 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
mg
milligram
g
gram
s
without
Rosuvastatin
Crestor
Ramipril
Altace
Prazosin
Minipress
Ezetimibe
Zetia
Ultram
Tramadolpain
vasopressors cause?
hypertension
PR
by rectum
Gantrisin/sulfisoxazole action
baceriostatic
OD
right eye
Streptase generic
streptokinase
Osmotic Diuretics
Mannitol/Osmitrol
Procrit
Epoetin alfaanemia
Synthroid
thyroid supplement
genericaspirinno brand
classification:1.non-narcotic analgesic2.non-steroidal anti-inflammatory3.antipyretic4.anticoagulant
Ventolin class
Respiratory agent
NPO
nothing by mouth
Pfizerpen generic
penicillin G
 
 
action of NSAIDS
analgesic
anti-pyretic
anti-inflammatory
short acting platlet aggregation
on lasts about 24 hrs
Potassium Sparing Diuretics
Aldactone/SpironolactoneDyrenium/Triamterene
DOC for Strongyloidiasis
Ivermectin
SR stands for
slow release
Diabinese/chlorpropamide use
type 2 diabetes
bupropion/wellbutrin/zyban
wellbutrin/zybanwork on 2 neurotransmitters-norepi and serotoninzyban-for nicotine addictiondont use with patient with seizures or anorexia b/c lowers seizure thresholdcan cause priapism-erection longer than 2 hours
 
 
Meperidine
Also demerol
synthetic narcotic agonist
less potent than morphine
Non-Narcotic Analgesics
Para-aminophenol derivatives: acetaminophen[APAP] (tylenol)
Salicylates: aspirin
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) 
Macrolide MOA
inhibits protein synthesis
Theophylline
Xanthine BronchodilatorMonitor client for tachycardia, development of toxicity; avoid coffee, tea, cocoa, chocolate, and cola. Observe for CNS stimulation, diuresis, and changes in cardiac functioning or convulsive activity. Give loading dose of 5 mg/kg; followed by 2-4 mg/kg q6-8 hr. Used for bronchial asthma, bronchospasm of COPD, chronic bronchitis, emphysema. Side effects: anxiety, restlessness, insomnia, dizziness, Seizures, palpitations, sinus tachycardia, Dysrhythmias, N/V, anorexia. Monitor theophylline blood levels 5-15 mcg/ml; toxicity over 20 mcg/ml. Monitor I/O; signs of toxicity, resp. rate; allergic reactions.
Lipitor
High Cholesterol.Statin.Improve HDL, lower LDL, stabilize plaque.Inhibit a step in cholesterol synthesis.
TPN
total parental nutrition AKA Hyperalimentation (hyperal)
Demerol/meperidine HCL action
blocks opiate receptors
phenelzine/nardil
Nardil (MAOI)- monoamine oxidase inhibitorSE: hypertensive crisis (stiff neck, high BP, severe HA, low tyramine dietinteraction- do not mix with SSRI= confusion
 
 
action of benzodiazepines
CNS depressent
specifically thalamic/hypothalamic systems
dont inhibit rem sleep
Codeine
suppresses cough, same as morphine
used in treatment of mild-moderate pain
antitussive in low doses
 
most appropriate for pain in head (injury/post-op)  because of less CNS depression
 
Has maximum analgesic effect regardless of dose
 
Tylenol#3 with gr 1/2 of codeine
Tylenol #4 with gr 3/4 of codeine 
AEs of pyrantel pamoate?
NVD
stomach cramps
bioequivalence
relative therapeutic effectiveness of chemical equivalent drugs
clotrimazole (Mycelex)
indicated for orophyaryngeal candidiasis
adult dose: 1 lozenge (10 mg) 5 x day for 2 weeks disolve in the mouth to make direct contact w the thrush 
lozenge contains glucose

adverse effects involve the GI tract
a2 receptors are activated by...
epi
ephedrine
NorEpi
Medical treatment for anaphylactic shock 
Epinephrine 
Acarbose/ Precarbose
For Diabetes.Alpha glucosidase inhibitors.Inhibit enzyme that breaks dwon starch into simple sugars.Side effects: flatulence.
hypodermic means?
any injecition under the skin.
What year was Dr. Taylor born?
1948
Patients who are allergic to penicillin may also be hypersensitive to which of the following?
Cephalosporins
Streptase/streptokinase action
degrades fibrin present in clots
Tagamet/cimetidine use
short-term treatment of duodenal ulcers. Managment of GERD.
 
 
examples of inhaled agents are
nitrous oxide
halothane
isoflurane
enflurane
Side effects of neuroleptic drugs
Sedation
Drowsiness
Postural hypotention
palpitation
tachycardia
side effects
unwanted effects of a medication
Mycobacterium diseases tend to occur in the _________________
immunocompromised
sources of drug information
>united states pharmacopeia(usp)>physician's desk reference>drug infromation>monthly prescribing reference>ama drug evaluation
nystatin (Mycostatin)
fungicidal and fungistatic- alters fungal cell wall permeability allow loss of potassium and other constituents
adverse reactions are minor and infrequent (least toxic of all anti-funals)
available in aquas suspensions with 50% sucrose (can affect diabetics and cause tooth decay)
used for 2 weeks or until 48 hrs after culture comes back neg.
Succinycholine side effects 
Malignant hyperthermia; postoperative muscle pain; hyperkalemia; prolonged apnea in patients with low pseudocholinesterase activity 
what are the SEs of beta-lactams?
diarrhea
fever
neutropenia
rash
seizures
thrombocytopenia
what are 12 common therapies?
aloeblack cohoshchamomileechinaceafeverfewgarlicgingkoginsenggolden sealsaw palmettost. johns wortvalerian
The antidote for an overdose of acetaminophen is:
Acetylcysteine
Each of the following physiological responses would be the result of activation of the SNS in a fight or flight type of reaction except:
Increased urination
D10LR-5% dextrose and LR
osmolality: hypertonic (779 mOsm/L)uses: fluid replacement, provides 340 kcal/Lpotential complications: refer to 10% dextrose, refer to lactated ringers.
Diabinese/chlorpropamide action
stimulates release of insulin from pancreas
Meperidine HCl/demerol
Demerol (opioid)binds to pain receptor in brain, acts on CNSstrong pain postopbe careful in older patientsseizures caused by neurometabolite, morphine SEinteracts with other CNS depressantsantidote is naloxone (narcan)
ASA toxicity
tinnitus, hearing loss, dizziness, and N/V/D that progresses to hyperventilation from metabolic acidosis.
 
High doses may cause GI bleeding/hemorrhagic gastritis 
Antitubercular agents
kill/inhibit microbes, often given in combination (synergistically), treatment is long and complex(6mnths-2yrs)
Isonazid MOA
interferes with the biosynthesis of the mycolic acid component of the cell wall of mycobacterium
which drugs are considered second line agents in the treatment of TB?
aminoglycosides
fluoroquinolones
macrolides
para-aminosalicylic acid
capreomycin
cycloserine
ethionamide
Which drug is very similar to metronidazole,  but has a longer half life and a pregnancy category C?
tinidazole
assay
test that determines the amount and purity of a given chemical in a preparation in the laboratory
which anti-infective agents are NOT ok for pregnant pts?
tetracycline
Opioid analgesics  
Commonly used to augment inhalation anesthesia as well as being primary agents in regional anesthesia.
Atropine uses 
Disorders of the eye; bradychardia; intestinal hypertoxicity and hypermotility; muscarinic poisoning; asthmal; biliary colic; PUD
Synergism
A drug interaction in which the combined effect of drugs is greater than the sum of each individual agent acting independently
what are the different kinds of aminopenicillins?
ampicillin
amoxicillin
whats an example of oral medication absorbed by the stomach?
anitibiotics
what is titrate?
determining the smallest dosage that will produce a therapeutic effect.
Which of the following classes of diuretics act to inhibit NA+ (sodium) and water absorption in the loop of Henle?
Loop diuretics
D60W- 60% dextrose in water
Osmolality: hypertonic (3030 mOsm/L)Uses: base for total parenteral nutrition (TPN) 2040 kcal/LPotiental complications: fluid overload, must induse via Central venous access device, sepsis, incompatibilities:sme as D5W, high risk for line sepsis, hypergylcemia
AtroPen/atropine sulfate use
reduction of bronchial and oral secretions
 
 
what does silvadene do
broad anti-microbial activity for bacteria/yeast\
prevention & treatment of spesis in burns
Major Side Effects of antihistamines
Drowsiness, Urinary Retention, dizziness, headache, loss of appetite, stomach upset, vision changes, irritability, dry mouth and nose.
Drug Enforcement Administration
Us government agency responsible for enforcing drug control
AEs of quinine
mild cinchonism
hemolysis in pts with G6PD def.
hypoglycemia
 
 
agonist
drug that binds to a receptor and causes it to initiate the expected response
Penicillin allergy
allergic reaction to penicillin is the greatest danger of using it.

anaphylactic reactions- Type 1 hypersensitivty begins within 1/2 hour of administration. Most commonly from IV doses but orrally as well.  Required immediate administration of parenteral epinephrine or death will result. 

rash-almost 90% of penicillin reactions. Usuallly mild and self limiting.

delayed serum sickness- type III- may take 6 hours to develop
oral lesions- furry tongue, black tongue, swollen tongue, cheilosis (fissures at corners of mouth)
testing should never be done in office since test could precipitate anaphylaxis.
Sedative-Hypnotics    
The most common agents used to produce sedation. Midazolam HCI (Versed) Effects include sedative, hypnotic, antianxiety, muscle relaxation, and amnesic effects
Treatment for opioid overdose
Ventilatory support; opioid antagonist (Narcan)
Summation (addition)
Occurs when combined effect of two drugs produces a result that equals the sum of the individual effects of each drug.
which drug should be reserved to only treat VRE and MRSA?
linezolid
a bore is?
inside diameter of a needle AKA gauge
Which of the following mechanisms of action is most closely associated with antipsychotic drugs; These agents act primarily as
Dopamine receptor antagonist
Coumadin/warfin sodium ed
call dr if bleedinglimit Vit. K foodsmedic alert braceletno alcoholgive same time each day
methenamine is only useful for what?
lower urinary tract infections
MOA of Bronchodilators
increasing the levels of the energy producing substance cAMP, cAMP causes the constricted airways of the lung to dilate, Relaxes the muscle of the respiratory tract, allowing greater airflow into and out of the lungs.
How do you get giardiasis?
contact with contaminated objects or
by drinking contaminated water
factors that influence adverse reactions of Local Anesthetics
(systemic)
 
**mentioned in test 2 review
Factors that influence toxicity aredrug's inherent toxicity and vasodilating effect
concentration
route of administration: IV has highest systemic affect, even topical can have systemic effect
rate of injection: rapid injection increasee systemic blood level
vascularity: inflamed or infected tissue = higher blood levels
pt weight: larger pts tolerate larger doses. Muscle is more vascular than fat, accounting for why pts of similar weight may have diff effects
metabolic rate and excretion: amides accumulate with liver disease. Both amides and esters may accumulate with renal disease.
which opioids do you use for mild to moderate pain?
codeine
propoxyphene
tramadol
Acetominophen (tylenol)
Not an NSAID. A COX 3 inhibitor. Hepatotoxic. No significant anti inflammatory properties.
The mechanism by which losartan (Cozaar) lowers blood presure is by:
Blocking angiotensin at its receptors
What are Barbiturates
Medicines that act on the CNS and cause drowsiness and can control seizures
 
Increases the available amount of gamma-aminobutyric GABA in the CNS
 
GABA has a relaxing, anti-anxiety and anticonvulsive
 
Effect the amount of CNS sedatoin depends on dose 
MOA selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's)
block the re-uptake of one neurotransmitter associated with mood: seratonin
SSRIs only work after they have achieved stady state
 
Side effects include GI upset, anorexia, and impotence 
how is lice transmitted?
by close body contact and shared item
autonomic nervous system
the part of the nervous system that controls involuntary actions
Hypertonic fluid is used to
to increase vascular volume and dehydrate the cells, causing them to shrink.
what spectrum is each of the penicillin groups?
natural - narrow spectrum
aminopenicillin - broad spectrum
penicillinase resistant - narrow
antipseudomonal - extended spectrum
what are examples of schedule 2?
opioid analgesics (morphine, codeine, meperidine), cocaine, amphetamines
This agent is one of the drugs used to treat generalized anxiety but does not cause sedation, CNS depression, or have potential for abuse like benzodiazepines:
Buspirone (Buspar)
Maalox/aluminum (mag) hydroxide ed
do not take within 1-2 hours of another med.
Side Effects - Extrapyramidal Symptoms (EPS)
Abnormal movement disorders due to imbalances in the neurotransmitters dopamine and acetylcholine.
 
Higher incidence of EPS is noted with traditional high potency antipsychotic 
Infusing antibiotics too rapidly will cause
Pain, a complication of IV therapy.
when are routine orders usually started?
within 2 hrs of being ordered
The best response for thrombolytic therapy will occur when it is:
Started within 4-6 hours after onset of symptoms
what are the 2 major groups of fungus infections?
systemic mycoses
and
superficial mycoses
Why would we use epinephrine with some local anesthetics 
Epinephrine is a vasconstrictor  
The action of benzodiazepines involve the interaction of these agents with
GABA receptor sites in the brain to cause inhibition of neuronal excitation
what is the route of infection for ancylostoma duodenale?
larvae penetrate through skin (usually bottom of feet)
 
they attach to the walls of the small intestine
Regional Anesthesia      
Anesthesia Cocaine was one of the first anesthetics to be discovered. These drugs prevent the generation and the conduction of the nerve impulse. Capable of causing CNS stimulation (restlessness, tremors, and clonic convulsions) followed by CNS depression, resp. depression, and death.
Direct Observation Therapy (DOT) for TB
used to ensure that a person with TB tkes all of the medications needed to cure their infection, provides support to individuals who are at risk for noncompliance to med regimine or have previously failed to adhere to med regimins, DOT worker delivers meds to participants 6 days a week. DOT also educates participants about the effects of their meds and the benefits of complying with their treatment regimens.
Viruses are difficult to treat for 2 reasons:
1. few drugs are selective enough to prevent viral replication without injuring the host
 
2. clinical sxs appear late in course of disease
dose of local anesthetic per 1.8 ml
for 
2%
3%
4%
0.5%
2% = 36 mg
 
3% = 54 mg
 
4% = 72 mg
 
0.5% = 9 mg
/ 118
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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