classification:1.non-narcotic analgesic2.non-steroidal anti-inflammatory3.antipyretic4.anticoagulant
nothing by mouth
action of NSAIDS
short acting platlet aggregation
on lasts about 24 hrs
|Potassium Sparing Diuretics||
|DOC for Strongyloidiasis||
|SR stands for||
type 2 diabetes
wellbutrin/zybanwork on 2 neurotransmitters-norepi and serotoninzyban-for nicotine addictiondont use with patient with seizures or anorexia b/c lowers seizure thresholdcan cause priapism-erection longer than 2 hours
synthetic narcotic agonist
less potent than morphine
Para-aminophenol derivatives: acetaminophen[APAP] (tylenol)
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
inhibits protein synthesis
Xanthine BronchodilatorMonitor client for tachycardia, development of toxicity; avoid coffee, tea, cocoa, chocolate, and cola. Observe for CNS stimulation, diuresis, and changes in cardiac functioning or convulsive activity. Give loading dose of 5 mg/kg; followed by 2-4 mg/kg q6-8 hr. Used for bronchial asthma, bronchospasm of COPD, chronic bronchitis, emphysema. Side effects: anxiety, restlessness, insomnia, dizziness, Seizures, palpitations, sinus tachycardia, Dysrhythmias, N/V, anorexia. Monitor theophylline blood levels 5-15 mcg/ml; toxicity over 20 mcg/ml. Monitor I/O; signs of toxicity, resp. rate; allergic reactions.
High Cholesterol.Statin.Improve HDL, lower LDL, stabilize plaque.Inhibit a step in cholesterol synthesis.
total parental nutrition AKA Hyperalimentation (hyperal)
|Demerol/meperidine HCL action||
blocks opiate receptors
Nardil (MAOI)- monoamine oxidase inhibitorSE: hypertensive crisis (stiff neck, high BP, severe HA, low tyramine dietinteraction- do not mix with SSRI= confusion
action of benzodiazepines
specifically thalamic/hypothalamic systems
dont inhibit rem sleep
suppresses cough, same as morphine
used in treatment of mild-moderate pain
antitussive in low doses
most appropriate for pain in head (injury/post-op) because of less CNS depression
Has maximum analgesic effect regardless of dose
Tylenol#3 with gr 1/2 of codeine
Tylenol #4 with gr 3/4 of codeine
|AEs of pyrantel pamoate?||
relative therapeutic effectiveness of chemical equivalent drugs
indicated for orophyaryngeal candidiasis
adult dose: 1 lozenge (10 mg) 5 x day for 2 weeks disolve in the mouth to make direct contact w the thrush
lozenge contains glucose
adverse effects involve the GI tract
|a2 receptors are activated by...||
|Medical treatment for anaphylactic shock||
For Diabetes.Alpha glucosidase inhibitors.Inhibit enzyme that breaks dwon starch into simple sugars.Side effects: flatulence.
any injecition under the skin.
|What year was Dr. Taylor born?||
|Patients who are allergic to penicillin may also be hypersensitive to which of the following?||
degrades fibrin present in clots
short-term treatment of duodenal ulcers. Managment of GERD.
examples of inhaled agents are
|Side effects of neuroleptic drugs||
unwanted effects of a medication
|Mycobacterium diseases tend to occur in the _________________||
|sources of drug information||
>united states pharmacopeia(usp)>physician's desk reference>drug infromation>monthly prescribing reference>ama drug evaluation
fungicidal and fungistatic- alters fungal cell wall permeability allow loss of potassium and other constituents
adverse reactions are minor and infrequent (least toxic of all anti-funals)
available in aquas suspensions with 50% sucrose (can affect diabetics and cause tooth decay)
used for 2 weeks or until 48 hrs after culture comes back neg.
|Succinycholine side effects||
Malignant hyperthermia; postoperative muscle pain; hyperkalemia; prolonged apnea in patients with low pseudocholinesterase activity
|what are the SEs of beta-lactams?||
|what are 12 common therapies?||
aloeblack cohoshchamomileechinaceafeverfewgarlicgingkoginsenggolden sealsaw palmettost. johns wortvalerian
|The antidote for an overdose of acetaminophen is:||
|Each of the following physiological responses would be the result of activation of the SNS in a fight or flight type of reaction except:||
|D10LR-5% dextrose and LR||
osmolality: hypertonic (779 mOsm/L)uses: fluid replacement, provides 340 kcal/Lpotential complications: refer to 10% dextrose, refer to lactated ringers.
stimulates release of insulin from pancreas
Demerol (opioid)binds to pain receptor in brain, acts on CNSstrong pain postopbe careful in older patientsseizures caused by neurometabolite, morphine SEinteracts with other CNS depressantsantidote is naloxone (narcan)
tinnitus, hearing loss, dizziness, and N/V/D that progresses to hyperventilation from metabolic acidosis.
High doses may cause GI bleeding/hemorrhagic gastritis
kill/inhibit microbes, often given in combination (synergistically), treatment is long and complex(6mnths-2yrs)
interferes with the biosynthesis of the mycolic acid component of the cell wall of mycobacterium
|which drugs are considered second line agents in the treatment of TB?||
|Which drug is very similar to metronidazole, but has a longer half life and a pregnancy category C?||
test that determines the amount and purity of a given chemical in a preparation in the laboratory
|which anti-infective agents are NOT ok for pregnant pts?||
Commonly used to augment inhalation anesthesia as well as being primary agents in regional anesthesia.
Disorders of the eye; bradychardia; intestinal hypertoxicity and hypermotility; muscarinic poisoning; asthmal; biliary colic; PUD
A drug interaction in which the combined effect of drugs is greater than the sum of each individual agent acting independently
|what are the different kinds of aminopenicillins?||
|whats an example of oral medication absorbed by the stomach?||
|what is titrate?||
determining the smallest dosage that will produce a therapeutic effect.
|Which of the following classes of diuretics act to inhibit NA+ (sodium) and water absorption in the loop of Henle?||
|D60W- 60% dextrose in water||
Osmolality: hypertonic (3030 mOsm/L)Uses: base for total parenteral nutrition (TPN) 2040 kcal/LPotiental complications: fluid overload, must induse via Central venous access device, sepsis, incompatibilities:sme as D5W, high risk for line sepsis, hypergylcemia
|AtroPen/atropine sulfate use||
reduction of bronchial and oral secretions
what does silvadene do
broad anti-microbial activity for bacteria/yeast\
prevention & treatment of spesis in burns
|Major Side Effects of antihistamines||
Drowsiness, Urinary Retention, dizziness, headache, loss of appetite, stomach upset, vision changes, irritability, dry mouth and nose.
|Drug Enforcement Administration||
Us government agency responsible for enforcing drug control
|AEs of quinine||
hemolysis in pts with G6PD def.
drug that binds to a receptor and causes it to initiate the expected response
allergic reaction to penicillin is the greatest danger of using it.
anaphylactic reactions- Type 1 hypersensitivty begins within 1/2 hour of administration. Most commonly from IV doses but orrally as well. Required immediate administration of parenteral epinephrine or death will result.
rash-almost 90% of penicillin reactions. Usuallly mild and self limiting.
delayed serum sickness- type III- may take 6 hours to develop
oral lesions- furry tongue, black tongue, swollen tongue, cheilosis (fissures at corners of mouth)
testing should never be done in office since test could precipitate anaphylaxis.
The most common agents used to produce sedation. Midazolam HCI (Versed) Effects include sedative, hypnotic, antianxiety, muscle relaxation, and amnesic effects
|Treatment for opioid overdose||
Ventilatory support; opioid antagonist (Narcan)
Occurs when combined effect of two drugs produces a result that equals the sum of the individual effects of each drug.
|which drug should be reserved to only treat VRE and MRSA?||
|a bore is?||
inside diameter of a needle AKA gauge
|Which of the following mechanisms of action is most closely associated with antipsychotic drugs; These agents act primarily as||
Dopamine receptor antagonist
|Coumadin/warfin sodium ed||
call dr if bleedinglimit Vit. K foodsmedic alert braceletno alcoholgive same time each day
|methenamine is only useful for what?||
lower urinary tract infections
|MOA of Bronchodilators||
increasing the levels of the energy producing substance cAMP, cAMP causes the constricted airways of the lung to dilate, Relaxes the muscle of the respiratory tract, allowing greater airflow into and out of the lungs.
|How do you get giardiasis?||
contact with contaminated objects or
by drinking contaminated water
factors that influence adverse reactions of Local Anesthetics
**mentioned in test 2 review
Factors that influence toxicity aredrug's inherent toxicity and vasodilating effect
route of administration: IV has highest systemic affect, even topical can have systemic effect
rate of injection: rapid injection increasee systemic blood level
vascularity: inflamed or infected tissue = higher blood levels
pt weight: larger pts tolerate larger doses. Muscle is more vascular than fat, accounting for why pts of similar weight may have diff effects
metabolic rate and excretion: amides accumulate with liver disease. Both amides and esters may accumulate with renal disease.
|which opioids do you use for mild to moderate pain?||
Not an NSAID. A COX 3 inhibitor. Hepatotoxic. No significant anti inflammatory properties.
|The mechanism by which losartan (Cozaar) lowers blood presure is by:||
Blocking angiotensin at its receptors
|What are Barbiturates||
Medicines that act on the CNS and cause drowsiness and can control seizures
Increases the available amount of gamma-aminobutyric GABA in the CNS
GABA has a relaxing, anti-anxiety and anticonvulsive
Effect the amount of CNS sedatoin depends on dose
|MOA selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI's)||
block the re-uptake of one neurotransmitter associated with mood: seratonin
SSRIs only work after they have achieved stady state
Side effects include GI upset, anorexia, and impotence
|how is lice transmitted?||
by close body contact and shared item
|autonomic nervous system||
the part of the nervous system that controls involuntary actions
|Hypertonic fluid is used to||
to increase vascular volume and dehydrate the cells, causing them to shrink.
|what spectrum is each of the penicillin groups?||
natural - narrow spectrum
aminopenicillin - broad spectrum
penicillinase resistant - narrow
antipseudomonal - extended spectrum
|what are examples of schedule 2?||
opioid analgesics (morphine, codeine, meperidine), cocaine, amphetamines
|This agent is one of the drugs used to treat generalized anxiety but does not cause sedation, CNS depression, or have potential for abuse like benzodiazepines:||
|Maalox/aluminum (mag) hydroxide ed||
do not take within 1-2 hours of another med.
|Side Effects - Extrapyramidal Symptoms (EPS)||
Abnormal movement disorders due to imbalances in the neurotransmitters dopamine and acetylcholine.
Higher incidence of EPS is noted with traditional high potency antipsychotic
|Infusing antibiotics too rapidly will cause||
Pain, a complication of IV therapy.
|when are routine orders usually started?||
within 2 hrs of being ordered
|The best response for thrombolytic therapy will occur when it is:||
Started within 4-6 hours after onset of symptoms
|what are the 2 major groups of fungus infections?||
|Why would we use epinephrine with some local anesthetics||
Epinephrine is a vasconstrictor
|The action of benzodiazepines involve the interaction of these agents with||
GABA receptor sites in the brain to cause inhibition of neuronal excitation
|what is the route of infection for ancylostoma duodenale?||
larvae penetrate through skin (usually bottom of feet)
they attach to the walls of the small intestine
Anesthesia Cocaine was one of the first anesthetics to be discovered. These drugs prevent the generation and the conduction of the nerve impulse. Capable of causing CNS stimulation (restlessness, tremors, and clonic convulsions) followed by CNS depression, resp. depression, and death.
|Direct Observation Therapy (DOT) for TB||
used to ensure that a person with TB tkes all of the medications needed to cure their infection, provides support to individuals who are at risk for noncompliance to med regimine or have previously failed to adhere to med regimins, DOT worker delivers meds to participants 6 days a week. DOT also educates participants about the effects of their meds and the benefits of complying with their treatment regimens.
|Viruses are difficult to treat for 2 reasons:||
1. few drugs are selective enough to prevent viral replication without injuring the host
2. clinical sxs appear late in course of disease
dose of local anesthetic per 1.8 ml
2% = 36 mg
3% = 54 mg
4% = 72 mg
0.5% = 9 mg