Philosophy Flashcards

Terms Definitions
57. According to egalitarianism, justice requires the following sort of distribution of social goods:A. economic goods and other social benefits should be distributed according to the merit of individual citizens. B. economic goods and other social benefi
78. According to Clarke’s Cosmological argument, an independent being isA. one who doesn’t care about anything or anyone except himself. B. one whose existence doesn’t depend upon anything or anyone except itself. C. one whose existence does depend
80. According to Clarke’s Cosmological argument, reality cannot consist merely of a series of dependent beingsA. because such a supposition is contradictory, suggesting both that there is an explanation and that there is not one for the whole series. B.
58. Nozick’s entitlement theoryA. emphasizes liberty and is suspicious of governmental power. B. emphasizes equality and the importance of the equal distribution of resources. C. rejects any appeal to property rights as relevant to the distribution of r
91. According to the distinction between moral and physical evil, A. but moral evil is irrelevant to the existence of God, since no evil is moral. B. but God is at most responsible for physical evil, since there is no other source of responsibility for it
40. Sextus Empricus argues for skepticism on the basis ofA. the claim that our knowledge of our mental states is no more or less secure than our knowledge of common-sense objects.B. the claim that objects appear differently depending on the circumstances.
59. According to Nozick’s view, whether some particular distribution of holdings is just dependsA. on whether the distribution satisfies a pattern. B. only on the justice of the transactions that produced that particular distribution. C. on whether the
67. According to the Rawlsian interpretation of the priority of liberty,A. liberty has an absolute priority and thus can never be compromised, even for a short time. B. once the basic liberties have been established, one cannot trade one of those libertie
Which of the following best captures what Wolf means by “active engagement”?A. being gripped by something; being passionate about something; being excited and involved with something. B. being bored and alienated by something; apathetic. C. being a po
65. According to the second principle of justice (the difference principle),A. no social inequality is just, since equality requires that everyone is treated equally. B. any social inequality is just as long as they result in benefits for everyone, especi
Which of the following best captures Wolf’s response to the objection that she has failed to defend the distinction between objectively worthwhile and objectively worthless activities?A. since her view doesn’t depend on any particular view about what
54. According to Locke, once citizens have consented to the creation of a government,A. that government can never legitimately be dissolved. B. the only way to dissolve the government is by illegitimate force. C. that government can be legitimately dissol
64. Which of the following best captures Rawls’s idea of the original position?A. It corresponds to an actual state of nature, probably in Africa. B. It corresponds to the state of nature in the traditional theory of the social contract. C. It is unders
76. The cosmological argument for the existence of GodA. starts with an appeal to the many complicated cases of order and purpose in the world. B. starts with an appeal to the simple fact that something exists. C. concludes that God does not exist, given
98. According to Mackie, a logically adequate solution to the problem of evil requires:A. a world that contains persons who act freely, even though that produces some evil,becaue that is a better world than one that contains only unfree persons. B. giving
105. According to the Introduction to Chapter 8,A. what makes a life a good life depends solely and completely on the ratio of pleasurable to painful sensations of the person living the life. B. what makes a life a good life depends solely and completely
96. When Mackie says, “It is sometimes suggested that evil is necessary as a counterpart to good, . . . ”A. he is endorsing the view as an adequate solution to the problem of evil. B. he is endorsing the view in spite of it being an inadequate solutio
93. According to Mackie, the attempt to resolve the problem of evil that explicitly denies the very existence of evilA. is what he calls a fallacious solution. B. is what he calls a logically adequate solution, but is one that most theists will reject bec
22. According to the clearest interpretation of Locke’s distinction between ideas and qualities,A. neither ideas nor qualities exist at all.B. ideas exist in minds, and qualities exist in bodies.C. qualities cause ideas.D. both B and C.E. none of t
39. Sextus Empricus argues for skepticism on the basis ofA. the claim that nothing can be like an idea but another ideaB. the assumption that the world consists entirely of ideasC. the claim that objects appear differently depending on the circumstance
42. Sextus Empiricus isA. a skepticB. an idealistC. a defender of common senseD. both B and C.E. none of the above.
10. In Meditation I, Descartes proposes toA. withhold assent from beliefs which are not plainly certain and indubitable.B. recognize that all of his beliefs are plainly false.C. attempt to secure a foundation for his beliefs.D. both A and C.E. none o
14. According to the standard or traditional conception of knowledge, A. knowledge is impossible. B. knowledge is justified, true, belief. C. knowledge requires abilities that approximate the diety. D. knowledge is the kind of thing th
92. According to Hume, the problem of evilA. applies only to physical evil, but not to moral evil. B. provides an excellent objection to the argument from design. C. is easily answered by any serious theist. D. is a problem, but only for those who have no
100. In response to the problem of evil, Hick defends the view thatA. the free will theodicy can explain moral evil and the soul-making theodicy can explain physical evil. B. the free will theodicy can explain physical evil and the soul-making theodicy ca
23. According to Locke, examples of secondary qualities includeA. extension.B. motion.C. number.D. smells.E. none of the above.
99. In response to the problem of evil, Hick defends the view thatA. there really is no evil. B. God is not fully omnipotent. C. God is not wholly good. D. there is no genuine distinction between physical and moral evil. E. none of the above.
53. According to Locke, in the state of natureA. one is still obligated to keep one’s promises. B. the law of nature requires that you respect the property rights of others. C. the law of nature obligates man to refrain from harming others. D. all of th
49. According to Hobbes, in the state of nature A. there is no law of nature. B. the law of nature requires that you respect the property rights of others. C. the law of nature obligates man to seek peace. D. all of the above. E. none of the above.
83. Hume argues that since some order has to be intrinsic,A. it makes most sense to think that only God is intrinsically orderly. B. no order is intrinsic. C. it makes at least as much sense to think that the material world is intrinsically orderly as to
77. According to what our text calls the standard idea of God,A. he is omniscient, which means that he is all powerful B. he is perfectly good, benevolent, merciful and just. C. he is omnipotent, which means that he is all powerful. D. both B and C E. bot
7. Socrates is on his way to respond to the indictment thatA. he has murdered his father.B. he has corrupted the youth of Athens.C. he has murdered his uncle.D. his father murdered a farm worker.E. none of the above.
37. Which of the following counts as a first principle, according to Reid?A. Any claim made on the basis of a distinct perception can be accepted as knowledge.B. There are cherry trees in the quad.C. A golden mountain must be square.D. both B and C.E.
35. According to Reid, a first principle is a claim that A. is easily argued forB. cannot be argued forC. is very hard, but not impossible, to argue for.D. both B and C.E. none of the above.
27. According to Berkeley, the only way to answer the skeptic A. is to reject the idea that knowledge requires truth.B. is to reject the idea that the common sense world is a mind-independent external world.C. is to accept the idea that God controls
25. Which of the following is not a premise in Locke’s arguments the conclusion that our perceptions are caused by external qualities?A. our senses confirm each other.B. one who lacks a sense organ will lack the ideas associated with that organ.C. cer
phaecian princess
Who was Aristotle's Teacher?
Social systems, political arrangements, and moral codes are typical concerns of the philosophical realm surveyed by the _________.
Levi-Strauss said that societies organize their world views into _ oppositions.
The Ontological Argument-Proslogium
Anselm of Canterbury
sebatious gland
found around hair follicals.
The discipline of evaluating and discerning the meaning of the principles guiding human conduct
Evaluative statement
morally loaded statement
"you should do x"
(should, ought, x is evil/selfish, etc)
Alienation of work from worker, bourgeois, proletariat, unequal distribution of profit, revolt when numbers sufficiently disproportionate between classes
"Purity of Heart", Stages on Life's way (to God), Aesthetic, ethical, religious-leap of faith
Properties that present themselves directly to the subject, they are psychological attributes, they are directly present to a subject because that subject simply has them immediately in his field of consciousness.
Self-Presenting properties
pertaining to or having myopia; nearsighted.
communication of thought by words; talk; conversation:
Moral principles
public standards and public perception of right and wrong - usually laws
297. (a) TRUE or FALSE: Vegetative powers are abilities that plants and animals have, but that humans lack.
descriptive definition
Descriptions of how words are conventionally used, as are typically found in dictionaries, are descriptive definitions.
Peirce’s Methods4. Science
strongest method, testable and fallible, explore everything like a scientist, they don’t prove anything
solipsism, epistemological
theory that one's consciousness cannot know anything other than its own content
Tacit consent
Agreement offered silently by not refusing.
Is the concept of an intelligent designer identical to the traditional, Western
conception of God?
the doctrine that universals have a real objective existence.
the totality of the cognitions given by perception; all that is perceived, understood, and remembered
source and fundemental order of the universe
The view that while God created the universe, he is not immanent in it.
An argument is a set of statements where at least one of those statements is claimed to be supported in a rational way by the others.
"If I considered the soul I imagined that it was something very rarefied and subtle,such as a wind, a flame, or a very much expanded air which was infused throughout my grosser components."
Cold Reading
1. Fishing for more details2. Vauge details3. Selective memory
What is philosophy
20. Philosophy is critical analysis of assumptions and beliefs that are to be used in pursuit of wisdom and morals. The analysis is by means of logical reasoning
Cartesian Circle
a circle argument
such as the ontological argument?? (CHECK)

-descartes finds a distinct perfect being within him - proving god's existence - all good god of course guarantees his clear & distinct ideas
One state or event causes another event to occur. It involves a state of one thing existing as an efficient cause that is prior to an effect, which is the production of a state in another thing.
Event-event causation
Benthams Hedonic Calculus
1.) Intensity 2.) Duration 3.) Certainty or Uncertainty 4.) Propinquity or Remoteness 5.) Fecundity 6.) Purity 7.) Extent
the rising of Christ after His death and burial.
trying to capture a scene in a moment by using optical mixing
The philosopher _ said a theater is a metaphor describing the mind.
What was Cebes’ criticism?
Socrates' analogy is inadequate. The existence of a weaver after the weaver's cloak has disintegrated is not a convincing analogy that the soul persists after the death of the body. The weaver may have worn-out numerous cloaks during his life and died before his last cloak wore out.
The Argument from Design-Objections
(by Humes) Paley references a disanalogy... we've only experienced one universe and many watches
This is the idea that morals are valid based on the individual.
A family of arguments that seek to demonstrate the existence of a Sufficient Reason or First Cause of the existence of the cosmos.
Cosmological argument
The ethymology of deontology is
the study of binding duties.
subjective idealism
a doctrine that the world has no existence independent of sensations or ideas
cash value
The _ of something being true is the difference it will make in someone's actual life.
The argument of universal doubt
Meditation 1-A. The dream argument:1. I often have perceptions very much like the ones I usually have in sensation while I am dreaming.2. There are no definite signs to distinguish dream experience from waking experience.therefore,3. It is possible that I am dreaming right now and that all of my perceptions are false
(Golden) Mean (Aristotle)
The mean is the midpoint between two other points. Aristotle characterized virtue as a mean between too little and too much (deficiency and excess)


Cowardice --- Courage --- Foolhardiness
Anorexia --- Moderation --- Gluttony
Stinginess --- Generosity --- Profligacy
Standoffishness --- Friendliness --- Obsequiousness
Shyness --- Pride --- Vanity
Pessimism --- Realism --- Optimism
Celibacy --- Monogamy --- Promiscuity
Dullness --- Well-roundedness --- Wildness
What is Socratic ignorance?
A self-description by Socrates that he didn't know anything.
knowledge, understanding, wisdom (understanding what we know)
What are the three basic "goods" of the mind?
Violations the Fourth Canon
1. Refusal to accept the conclusion of a good arguments
2. Refusal to identify a flaw in a rejected argument
The Five Ways from \"Summa Theologica\"-Gradation observed in things
Aristotle fire example: \"when many things possess some property in common, the one most fully possessing it causes it in others: fire, the hottest of all things, causes all other things to be hot\", there must be one thing that causes this... God
biggest criticism of the teleological argument?
so much evil in the world
metaphysics epistemology logic ethics aesthetics
What are the five main branches of philosophy?
The words subjective and objective have almost exactly changed meanings in the last two hundred years. Which of the following quotations uses objective in the earlier sense?
Natural objects are as we perceive them; their real and objective natures are the same.
What is true if you want your beliefs to match reality?
You must have evidence
What are the claims of Jehovah's Witnesses?
-the only true religion
-Jehovah (God the Father) is God Almighty
-deny deity of Christ and His physical resurrection
-the church age is past and we are now in the kingdom age
-era of human govt. is over and will not pledge allegiance to flags, govts. or nations
-deny existence of hell and only 144,000 will go to heaven
-only Jehovah's Witnesses will survive Armageddon and 2nd coming of Christ
227. DESCRIBE what is meant by SIMPLE APPREHENSION and give EXAMPLES.
understanding the definition of an individual AIex: fish, angry, purple, triangle
Emergent properties... all we know is that we are thinking beings, we do not know if God exists
The Casual Theory of Perception from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding-Author
According to Caner, what do cults want to do to Christianity?
either correct it or replace it
What kind of person fears death?
Those who are not lovers of wisdom but who are lovers of the body and its pursuits
Name the reasons that Baxter believes you should follow a human centered ethic.
1. It is a theory that follows people's real actions and thoughts.
2. It doesn't hurt the environment. Humans would just use it as it is needed.
3. Humans and other living things need the same thing to survive.
4. Including nature in a thought process they can not participate in, doesn't make sense.
5. There is no one that can easily calculate the value of each being.
6. Nature is amoral. It can't make decisions.
Why did Socrates spend his time in prison composing poetry?
to find out the meaning of certain dreams and to satisfy his conscience in the case that this art of poetry was the actual art his dreams commanded him to practice
What is the conception of the soul assumed in the beginning of the argument? (This is a Pythagorean doctrine.)
That the souls which come here do so from the underworld and that souls which die return to the underworld; in other words, the living come from the dead and the dead come from the living
greek "wisdom"
Roughly a hypothesis.
Who are the Empiricists?
"No Exit", "Nausea", existence precedes essence-you exist and then choose to become something
moral evaluative statements describe the world rather than merely expressing feelings
open to doubt; doubtful; uncertain.
Hegel's best-known idea is his revision of _.
an categorical sentence is universal if the main determiner is universal. and particular if its main determiner is existential.
Does our definition of knowledge require apodictic certainty?
What is metaphysics?
"Beyond the physical." Branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of reality, dealing with first principles, includes ontology and cosmology.
(in metaphysics) any of various theories holding that there is only one basic substance or principle as the ground of reality, or that reality consists of a single element.
the view that fundamental principles are validated by definition, agreement, or convention
(Chapter 10)
Area of study within metaphysics forcused primarily upon the nature of being and existence
Derrida said the most important thing about deconstruction is its lack of absolute truths, or _.
W.D. Rose
British philospher. Morality can be boiled down to a few simple rules
True by definition - ex. Bachelors are unmarried, dasies are flowers
What does Soundness apply to?
The entire argument
Sam Harris needs to _____ the Authonomy of Ethics if he wants to defend his claim
What is  the meta-ethical view that ethical sentences do not express propositions and thus cannot be true or false (they are not truth-apt). A noncognitivist denies the cognitivist claim that "moral judgments are capable of being objectively true,
derived from or guided by experience or experiment.
an extreme form of skepticism: the denial of all real existence or the possibility of an objective basis for truth; nothingness or nonexistence
wisdom in determining ends and the means of attaining them
Agent Causation
Libertarian idea that we are agents who cause things to happen. That event can only go back to us and not to our past unlike event causation.
What does the term “theophanies” mean? Provide some examples of theophanies in the Old and New Testaments. (paragraph 707)
Theophanies (manifestations of God) 

Exodus 20:2-17 Giving of the Ten Commandment 
rhetorical comparisons
used to express or influence attitudes via comparisons.
Facts but no God-God but no facts=facts +God"Varieties of Religious experience"
William James
private harms
(1) Violations of Basic Interests- ex. interests in life, liberty, security, property, etc .
(2) Offenses to Sensibility- acts that cause annoyance, discomfort, embarrassment. Ex. making loud noises or public nudity laws.
view that determinism is, or might be, true but that it is compatible with free agency.
what are nonarguments
warnings, pieces of advice, statements of belief, statements of opinion, lossely associated statements, reports, expository passages, illustrations, explanations, conditional statements
dualist view that the two substances mind and body are connected in some way and can influence one another
interaction ism
the function or work of a teacher; teaching.
What does Logic mean?
- Means due proportion, fire, account
- the rational principle that governs and develops the universe
- all arguments are based on logic
- must include premises leading to a conclusion
- forms a deductive argument
- Relies on inference
What are the two arguments against free will.
Theological and scientific
Valid argument
one whoses conclusion has to be true if its premises are true
[anti reductionistic]: you can't have a complete understanding by understanding parts[taylor]:you can't understand who a person is by a listing of personality traits, its their interconnection.
2 Main theories of truth
Correspondence - “common sense knowledge” the view that a statement is true if what it refers to exists. Coherence - “web of belief” or what you have come to know over the years
What is polemics?
The task of criticizing and refuting alternative views of the world.
39. Where in the spine did B.J. later assert was the only possible subluxation site?
of, pertaining to, or of the nature of logical argumentation.
Hume's thesis and argument:
Thesis: We have no rational grounds for believing one event causes another (or for believing our ‘best’ predictions). We believe such things out of habit/custom only.1. Objects of inquiry can be divided into two types, matters of fact and relations of ideas.2. Matters of fact cannot be known without sense experience.3. Our beliefs regarding matters of fact beyond present and past data are based on the identification of causal connections.4. We cannot identify causal connections without sense experience, ie., by pure reason.5. Nor, however, does our sense experience give us access to causal connections. We may have access to the sensory properties of various events, but nowhere do we have access to some extra property we can call a causal connection.
uwilling addicts
has a 1st order desire to take the drug…also has a 1st order desire to refrain from taking the drug. —his 2nd order volition is that he wants his 1st order desire to refrain from taking the drug to be effective
What is a Red Herring?
Introducing some extraneous issue into a discussion to distract from the real issue
What are undercutting defeaters?
Defeaters that do not directly attack the thing believed.
a set of forms all of which contain a particular element, esp. the set of all inflected forms based on a single stem or theme.
. Is it voluntary? Explain
why it is more voluntary than cowardice. It is more voluntary than courage because it is motivated by pleasure while cowardice is motivated by pain.
Nagel on Epicurus' questionable assumption
Nagel’s Natural View – Life is worth living even when the bad elements of experience are plentiful and the good ones are too meager to outweigh the bad ones on their own, because additional positive weight is supplied by experience itself. People might argue that there is no one to suffer the death and why should this be any worse than the state you were in before you were born? Nagel responds by saying that you have to know the history to tell if it’s a misfortune.
deductive arguments must contain:
true premises and be both formally and informally valid (avoiding any fallacies or defects that mislead the mind either in terms of structure or content)
Epistemological Question
How do you know God is a part of reality?
249. Not all speech is lying. But: “A lie is speech contrary to one’s own thought.”ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS PROPOSED DEFINITION OF LYING:(a) In this proposed definition of lying, what is the genus?(b) What is the species?(c) What is
genus: speechspecies: lieSD: contrary to one's own thought.
What is Begging (beggaring) the Question?
The proof presumes the very thing being proved!
Circular Reasoning
Turns the question into a beggar by relying on answers to prove the proof
Assume the truth about what you are trying to prove
the idea that distribution doesnt matter
- utilitarians do not consider the distribution of something
- an outcome is good in proportion to the total amount of happiness it creates
- DOES NOT consider loyal obligations or equal distribution
- not "how is" but "HOW MUCH"
Scotus claims that the will by definition has no underlying cause. Why is this claim weak?
It’s an assumption. it’s not even an argument. It doesn’t explain why the Will doesn’t have a natural cause, it’s just an assumption.
what makes a sound argument?
If all the premises are true and the argument is valid
1. What does Darwin believe?
2. What idea was born of Darwin's studies?
1. Darwin advocates the gradual and evolutionary development of Man over an untold number of years.
2. Theistic Evolution was born subsequent Darwin's contribution and from the opposition between Evolution and Creation which it created.
- Theistic Evolution: The view of Evolution as being the instrument by which God brought about (and continues to bring about) his purpose in the Cosmos.
b) UNDERSTAND each category. Give an EXAMPLE of each category.
1. being thrown, was kicked, has been arrested2. kick, sleep, loves, has hated, (subhect is the one doing the action)3. up, fatter, left, right, parent, offspring4. 3:13pm PST, 2010 ad, today5. in MN, at the kitchen window, in the milky way galaxy6. sitting, kneeling, upside down, crouching.7. hatted, shod, wearing a jacket, carrying a knife8. angry,sad, purple, sweet, scented, "screech," hot, cold, virtuous, knowledge about geometry9. 7, 15,136 geometry (triangles, squares)
What is an example of Lazy induction?
If you say some students have hair, but evidence shows that all have hair
Was Jesus created, or did he always exist with the Father?
(Paragraph 444)
The Gospels report that at two solemn moments, the Baptism and the Transfiguration of Christ, the voice of the Father designates Jesus his "beloved Son."53 Jesus calls himself the "only Son of God," and by this title affirms his eternal preexistence
Why does it follow according to sarte, that including what I will do, I choose for all
Why does it follow according to sarte, that including what I will do, I choose for all
Why is the man of good moral character the measure of moral goodness? What in particular is he able to discern in particular questions of morality, and why is this the case?
? He is able to see the truth because he is the standard and measure for each question
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