Philosophy Final Exam Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Reason
Logos
Autonomy
independence or freedom
Categorical Imperative
Moral and Unselfish
Thomas S Kuan
Paradigm shift
Secondary Qualities
objective: taste, sound, color
mistake
believing something that is false
Socrates trial is in
Plato's apology
Strawman fallacy
Arguer misrepresents an opponents position to make his or hers seem stronger
Modernism (1600-1950)
democracy frist, and spirituality second
modern science, democracy,
argument
premise(s) + conclusionone or more premises intended to support a conclusion
generalization of the Pre-Socrates
-scientifically sophisticated
very modern
diverse theories
focused primarily on the external world
identified the basic elements
Ad infinitum
Carried on without end; forever
indeterminism
the doctrine that human actions, influenced by psychological conditions, are not entirely governed by them but retain certain freedom and spontaneity
intersubjective
comprehensible to, relating to, or used by a number of persons, as a concept or language
Compatibilism
View that natural laws may have exceptions and that some events in nature may be random. Hence some actions may be determined while others are freely chosen
axiology
the thing that makes a consequence good
dualism vs phsicalism
dual-soul is identityphysicalism- body and mind are one
The Five Ways from \"Summa Theologica\"-Author
Thomas Aquinas
Dependency Thesis
morally right actions depend on society; makes up part of ethical relativism
Idealism
Reality consists of ideas and the minds that house them
A posteriori
From experience, as opposed to priori
pundit
a learned person, expert, or authority who makes comments or judgments in an authoritative manner
metaphysics
the branch of philosophy that treats of first principles, includes ontology and cosmology, and is intimately connected with epistemology.
St. Francis of Assisi
Who established monks and monasteries?
Paradim Paralysis
the disease of certainty, cannot see beyond problem, one way of doing things and dont expand and miss opportunities.
relations
entities that can related two or more things and can be in more than one thing at a time
TRUE or FALSE: According to what we learned in class, Aristotle was the first philosopher to respect all the most general, basic truths of common sense.


TRUE or FALSE: To say that Aristotle is the first philosopher to respect all the most general, ba
-True
-False
intrinsic rights
natural rights granted to everyone - most important
only in action is their reality, no meaning prior to an act of the will, value-what you make of it, Annihilate what is irrelevant
Sartre
Freud 3 things
1. Id
2. Ego
3. Super ego
Consequentialism
the belief that moral value is a function of an act's consequences
coquetry
the behavior or arts of a coquette; flirtation.
buddhism
life is full of suffering caused by desire and that the way to end this suffering is through enlightenment
First Formulation
Act as if your actions were universal laws
What are the Evangelical Counsels?  How are they related to Consecrated Life?
(paragraph 915)
Christ proposes the evangelical counsels, in their great variety, to every disciple. The perfection of charity, to which all the faithful are called, entails for those who freely follow the call to consecrated life the obligation of practicing chastity in celibacy for the sake of the Kingdom, poverty and obedience. It is the profession of these counsels, within a permanent state of life recognized by the Church, that characterizes the life consecrated to God
What are the five external senses?
1. Touch--temperature, pressure, relationship of one’s body parts to each other, rough-smooth, hard-soft, etc.
2. Taste--flavors
3. Smell--odors
4. Hearing--sounds
5. Sight--colors
46. Which of the following is not a classification of intervertebral disc syndrome? Choose the incorrect response
d. neurovascular sciatica
Blanshard’s Rabbit TE
This thought experiment says that a rabbit was caught in a trap and struggled for says in pain and hunger and eventually died

Blanshard than argues that the pain is not nescessarialy bad it is just something that causes and emotion in us
What are the two characteristics of creation myths?
Anthropomorphism and ethnocentrism.
Who were the Presocratics?
the Presocratics were engaged in philosophical reflection at a time before Socrates made his mark on the world. , the label “Presocratic” probably is intended more as a tribute to the importance and pivotal nature of Socrates in the history of philosophy
deals with the nature of beauty and the arts
What is aesthetics?
categorical ability
if one freely does A, they could have refrained from doing A or they could have done or willed to have done B without any conditions whatever being different
"a sailor in a ship"
After Descartes establishes that his mind and body are distinct, he acknowledges that nature, through the sensations like pain and hunger, show sthat he is closely joined and intermingled witht his body. He and the body form a unit. But he is not merely present in his body as a sailor is present in a ship. If this were the case would not feel the sensation pain when his body is hurt. Instead he would perceive this damage purely by intellect just how the sailor percieves by sight that his ship is broken.
The Principle of Utility
Mill makes this principle to justify utilitarianism. It is an a tool to judge the actions, to ultimately promote general happiness.
What is the revision of Hume's fork?
Relation of Ideas
-Analytic
-A Prior
-Necessary
Matters of Fact
-Synthetic
-A Posteriori
-Contingent
Market Place KS Stage five
Looking out for other's interests with no motive except to help
A posteriori statement
Any claim the truth of which can only be determined via sense experience.
What is Psychological certainty?
A feeling of certitude about the truth of a belief, when the belief could possibly be mistaken
You could feel certain, but later find out that you are wrong
Holds that the Trinity is a mind that is composed of the minds of the three persons in the Godhead.
Group Mind Monotheism
the relation between CR and tolerance
According to CR, the local culture’s moral code determines the moral status of an action. So when it comes to being tolerant, what CR implies is this: if the moral code says “Be tolerant!”, then one should be tolerant; if the moral code says “Kill all the infidels!”, then one should be intolerant.
EXPLAIN and UNDERSTAND what is meant by the term ACCIDENT. (We learned both an informal way of describing it and a formal definition – know both.)
An informal definition of ACCIDENT is  an abstract idea of a characteristc that an object currently has. "Accident" The difference between a thing and the characteristic of a thing.
A formal definition of ACCIDENT is “a being whose nature it is to exist in something else”
What is Descartes' sixth meditation about?
The Study of Nature: everything we know is nothing compared to what we don't know, so learn and take risks - make decisions.
What facet of the Jewish people concerns Marx?
- as economic facet/force that represent capitalism
- money is only priority and force
-involved in exchange of goods for money -- only thing of value
Hierarchial Version of Compatibalism
An action if free if it is caused by the 1st order desire one wants to be effective
How was Jesus' response to the Sadducees Foundationalism?
He is responding to the Sadducees mistaken epistemology
If they had the right foundation they would not have these questions about the resurrection
He is saying that the foundation is God and then the Scriptures
♣ What is a moral Cognitivist?
• Believe one either has or can come to possess moral knowledge
• Believe charity and justice are necessary
The word “hylomorphism” comes from two Greek words. What does HYLE mean?
What does MORPHE mean?

Who was the first hylomorphist?


TRUE or FALSE: Aristotle was a hylomorphist.


TRUE or FALSE: Plato was a hylomorphist.
- It is greek for matter
- It means form
-Aristotle
-True
-False
What is the problem of evil?
How can evil be explained if god is omnibenevolent, omnipotent, and omniscient?
Why does Hegel reject the idea that the subjective will of the individual attains its gratification through the common will?
Such a concept is negative freedom; real positive freedom is satisfied only in morality, law, and the state.
What does Kant mean by a holy will?
The holy will is a personal will that is in accordance with the moral law. The moral law is for the will of a perfect being, a law of holiness.
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