Philosophy: Final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
metaphysic
metaphysics.
rajas
energy actvity dynamism
Parmenides
Being; change is impossible.
trial 2
equals trial 2
Disjunctive Syllogism
AvB, vB, therefore vA
What is Epistemology?
Theory of knowledge
Systems Reply...
Systems reply
– Rejoinder: Internalize the rules.
Bentham's hedonism



  Bentham thought that happiness or well-being 
was ultimately a matter of hedonic utility – 
pleasure and pain, and nothing else. This view is 
called hedonism about the good life. 
  On this view, how truly happy you are – how well 
your life is going for you – is a matter of how much 
pleasure and pain your life contains. 
Denying the Consequent
X>Y
Not Y
Therefore not X
theories
highly debatable belief or wild guess
Anthony Flew
prominent atheistic philosopher who now believes in God
Arguments FOR ethical subjectivism
Argument from Observation
being
that which has actuality either materially or in idea, absolute existence in a complete or perfect state, lacking no essential characteristic
vedanta
the chief Hindu philosophy, dealing mainly with the Upanishadic doctrine of the identity of Brahman and Atman, that reached its highest development a.d. c800 through the philosopher Shankara.
Syllogism
An argument consisting of three and only three standard form categorical propositions.It has three and onlythree terms each of which occurs exactly twice.
categorical imperatives
only 1
commands actions without an incentive
Moral Law
Staw man
the misrepresentation of a person's views so he or she can be more easily attacked or dismissed
 
example: Mr. G argues against prayer. Obviously Mr. G advocates atheism. But Ath.  lead to communist Russia. Atheism leads to suppression of all religious and the replacement of God. Clearly Mr. G's argument in nonsense.
The Ontological Argument-Objections
A-perfect Island Objection\"On Behalf of the Fool\"
source skepticism
questioning whether the sources for our beliefs concerning the past, present and future are ever reliable
Ontology
The branch of Metaphysics that deals with the branch of being and reality
Ad hoc
Literally, "to this"; pertaining to one case alone.
sabbatical
any extended period of leave from one's customary work, esp. for rest, to acquire new skills or training, etc.
subsistence
existence an independent entity or the quality of having timeless or abstract existence
Xunzi argues that filial piety is one of the highest virtues of human life.
True
Moral Objectivism
Position with respect to ethics and morals, built on convictions. Language can and usually does state objective facts. Argument: we cant prove moral fact.
Determinism
View that for every event that occurs, there are conditions prior to that event such that nothing else could have occured
Selfish Genes
On the gene-centric view, genes (the replicators) build organisms as vehicles for their “selfish purposes”
Psychological Egoism
a psychological thesis, not an ethical thesis. People are incapable of acting unselfishly, but it plausibly has ethical implications-You can only act on own desires, therefore, you act selfishly
What was Mill's ethical theory?
The Principle of Utility
Atheism
the doctine belief that there is no God
The Cogito
I think (Cogito ergo sum from Descartes meaning I think, therefore I am)
affect
to impress the mind or move the feelings of:
Bourgeoisie
in Marxist theory the class that, in contrast to the proletariat or wage-earning class, is primarily concerned with property values.
False alternatives fallacy
Arguer assumes there are fewer options then there actually are
262. MULTIPLE CHOICE: “No man is an island.” This is an example of an . . .a. A judgment b. E judgment c. I judgment d. O judgment
E judgment
Hegel- what is the philosophical method of history?
thoughtful contemplation of history.
Hypothetical-Deductivism Example
If its raining, car is getting wet.
It is raining
________
Car is getting wet.

Doesnt mean that it is raining. Could be sprinklers.
synthetic a priori
a statment that is universal that cna't be observed

Ex- Time and space
Stating a set of necessary and/or sufficient conditions for something to count as science.
Line of demarcation
Contrast Egoism and Altruism
Altruism - is the service toward others is our primary moral duty; love means feeling friendship for the enemy.
Egoism - morality is sham because humans always try to satisfy themselves.
functionalism
the view that a human is a machine and is equipped w/ "software" that gives it a set of instructions on how to respond to input
Peirce’s Methods3. Intuition
your feeling can be wrong, not giving into your desires
Common Christian Objections to Philosophy
-Bible teaches us to resist philosophy
-Faith and reason cannot be married
-the human mind is depraved
A general kind of thing that can be in more than one place at the same time or at the same place at different interrupted times.
Type
The Neo C's in the marketplace
Need for compliance for the rulesContributions made to societyConsequences of an employee's business activities.
Which of the following best characterizes God's role in Descartes's Meditations?
Benevolent and omnipotent being who insures the truth of whatever we believe after careful investigation.
What is the Ethics branch of Axiology?
Moral value, right and wrong
What are the teachings of Buddhism?
- Buddhism seeks to achieve enlightenment of the nature of all things.
- Buddhism teaches that enlightenment is achievable by accepting:
The Four Noble Truths:
1. Life is permeated by suffering.
2. The Origin of suffering lies with Desire.
3. The cessation of suffering is possible through the cessation of Desire.
4. The way to the latter is the Eightfold Noble Path:
To obtain:
1. Right views
2. Right aspiration
3. Right speech
4. Right conduct
5. Right effort
6. Right mindfulness
7. Right contemplation
8. Right livelihood
What is Plato's tripartite theory of the soul?  And how does he use this theory to explain the four cardinal values?
Plato's tripartite theory states that there are 3 parts of the soul: there is the logos (rational soul), the epithymos (appetitive soul), and the thymos (spirited soul) 
 
Logos seeks knowledge, understanding
thymos seeks honor and recognition (pride)
epithymos seeks bodily pleasures  (money, food)
 
The four cardinal virtues are wisdom, courage, temperance, and justice:
wisdom- controlled by reason (logo)
courage- controlled by spirit (thymos) occurs when thymos controlled by wisdom
temperance-  controlled by appetite (epithymos), when reason has control of apetite
Justice- belongs to all 3 parts of soul, occurs when all 3 parts are doing what they're supposed 2 be doing 
Who is Hegel criticizing in his discussion of the 3rd method of history?
anyone who believes philosophy has nothing to do with history.
What is the significance of the 'real' meaning of "Cogito, ergo sum"?
Pronouncing, or asserting the proposition is key because it is the asserting that guarantees its truth. If the proposition is being asserted, then someone must be doing the asserting, and if I am asserting it, then that someone must be me.
Why didnt he write anything down?
But in writing things down, Socrates probably also recognized that ideas have a tendency to become reified, taking on a meaning that may appear more certain and settled than really is the case. The dialectical method that Socrates practiced during his lif
A rational assessment of a moral argument involves examining it carefully to see whether it...
1. mis-applies the moral principles to which it appeals.
2. draws the wrong conclusions from the moral principle to which it appeals.
3. neglects to consider on or more other important moral principles that are relevant to the situation.
4. neglects to take all of the relevant facts or affected parties into consideration.
What does Berkeley say about knowledge and perceptions?
Thoughts and feelings, as well as facts about the external world, are perceptions, and are only known via perception
Explain the Analogy of the Sun.
- What is it that [Socrates] means by good? And how do we attain that knowledge?
- 3 things needed to see:
Sun/ light reflects off object
Provides life
nourishing
Object
Eye
Just as the sun makes physical objects visible to the eye so to the form of the good makes intelligible entities (the Form) comprehensible by the mind.
• he good allows the mind to comprehend the forms
What is an O judgment? Give an EXAMPLE.
 Some “x” is not “y”.  Some politicians are not honest.  There is at least one dog that is not angry.
What is the Problem of Evil? Present the problem as a set of inconsistent propositions.
God exists, God is omni..., Evil exists
G.E. Moore's Argument for an External World
1. Here is a hand \(o_o)2. Here is another hand \(o_o)/3. Therefore, since there is more than 2 objects separate of my mind, the world is real \(^_^)/
The Problem of Logic in Ethical Arguments

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 


1. If emotivism is true, then Argument A is just as illogical as Argument B2. It is not the case that Argument A is just as illogical as Argument B3. Therefore, emotivism is false.
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